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Author: Kirchner, EmmaLeigh E.
Resulting in 4 citations.
1. Higgins, George E.
Bush, Michael D.
Marcum, Catherine D.
Ricketts, Melissa L.
Kirchner, EmmaLeigh E.
Ensnared into Crime: A Preliminary Test of Moffitt's Snares Hypothesis in a National Sample of African Americans
Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice 8,3 (July-September 2010): 181-200.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15377938.2010.502827
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Black Studies; Black Youth; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity

The purpose of the present study was to examine the relation between alcohol use and individual differences in the desistance process from criminal behavior during young adulthood. This study used Moffitt's (1993) �snares� hypothesis to posit that alcohol use would slow the desistance process of criminal behavior among African Americans. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of the Youth 1997, we conducted dual semiparametric group-based trajectory analysis of criminal behavior and alcohol use among African Americans from ages 16 through 22 (N = 283) using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of the Youth 1997. Results indicate that 3 trajectory groups provided the best representation for the patterns of crime over this period of life. In addition, 4 trajectory groups provided the best representation for the patterns of alcohol use. From our dual-trajectory analysis, we found that African Americans that were desisting slower from crime were using alcohol more often, thus supporting Moffitt's snares hypothesis. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

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Bibliography Citation
Higgins, George E., Michael D. Bush, Catherine D. Marcum, Melissa L. Ricketts and EmmaLeigh E. Kirchner. "Ensnared into Crime: A Preliminary Test of Moffitt's Snares Hypothesis in a National Sample of African Americans." Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice 8,3 (July-September 2010): 181-200.
2. Kirchner, EmmaLeigh E.
Do Gender Stereotypes Keep Girls away from Crime? A Structural Equation Modeling Approach to Power-Control Theory
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, 2016
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Gender Differences; Modeling, Structural Equation; Parental Influences; Parenting Skills/Styles; Risk-Taking

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study utilizes multiple waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979) to examine Hagan's original Power-Control Theory (1985) employing structural equation modeling. The research sought to examine gender differences in offending, as well as other concepts contained within Power-Control Theory, such as parenting. Results of the study showed mixed support for the theory. Power-Control Theory does produce convincing evidence of the importance of maternal control, particularly for daughters. Key findings also included gender differences in patriarchal attitudes as well as risk preferences. These findings suggest the role of females in changing, although it may not be becoming similar to the role of males. Policy implications include the importance of parenting programs to decrease delinquency and later criminal activity. More programs such incorporate gender differences in the impact of parenting, particularly by mothers. The study concludes with further discussion of the implications of this research and the policy implications.
Bibliography Citation
Kirchner, EmmaLeigh E. Do Gender Stereotypes Keep Girls away from Crime? A Structural Equation Modeling Approach to Power-Control Theory. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, 2016.
3. Kirchner, EmmaLeigh E.
Higgins, George E.
Self-Control and Racial Disparities in Delinquency: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach
American Journal of Criminal Justice 39,3 (September 2014): 436-449.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12103-013-9205-7
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Discipline; Expectations/Intentions; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Modeling, Structural Equation; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Punishment, Corporal; Racial Differences; Self-Control/Self-Regulation

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The purpose of the present study is to examine the racial disparities of offending within the context of self-control theory. The study utilized data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), to examine this effect. All concepts within self-control theory are examined: parental management, low self-control, and delinquency. Results from the study show partial support for Gottfredson and Hirschi�s (1990) self-control theory. The structure of the theory remained stable when controlling for both race, as well as peer pressure. Both theoretical and policy implications are given.
Bibliography Citation
Kirchner, EmmaLeigh E. and George E. Higgins. "Self-Control and Racial Disparities in Delinquency: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach." American Journal of Criminal Justice 39,3 (September 2014): 436-449.
4. Smith, Anthony
Kirchner, EmmaLeigh E.
Higgins, George E.
Khey, Dave
Trajectories of Parenting Styles and Delinquency: An Examination Using a Sample of African-Americans
Open Family Studies Journal 4,S1-M5 (2011): 46-53
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Bentham Open
Keyword(s): Black Studies; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Parental Influences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The development of parenting style typologies has led to a number of studies that have linked them to delinquency. Although a number of studies have shown that parenting style typologies have a link with delinquency, studies have not shown whether there were distinct trajectories of parenting styles and delinquency. These studies have not considered this in a sample of only African-Americans. Using data from the NLSY97 that only contains 725 African- Americans, our results show that three distinct trajectory groups of parenting styles are present for residential mothers and for residential fathers. In addition, we show that three distinct trajectory groups of delinquency are present. Our results show that a joint analysis of the intersection of these trajectories does not clarify the links between parenting styles and delinquency over time. Implications and directions for future research are highlighted.
Bibliography Citation
Smith, Anthony, EmmaLeigh E. Kirchner, George E. Higgins and Dave Khey. "Trajectories of Parenting Styles and Delinquency: An Examination Using a Sample of African-Americans." Open Family Studies Journal 4,S1-M5 (2011): 46-53.