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Author: Hong, Jun Sung
Resulting in 6 citations.
1. Eamon, Mary Keegan
Hong, Jun Sung
Youths' Perceptions of Unsafe Schools: An Ecological Systems Analysis
Presented: San Francisco, CA, Society for Social Work and Research 14th Annual Conference, January 2010.
Also: http://sswr.confex.com/sswr/2010/webprogram/Paper11708.html
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Society for Social Work and Research (SSWR)
Keyword(s): Children, Well-Being; Handguns, carrying or using; Neighborhood Effects; Parenting Skills/Styles; School Characteristics/Rating/Safety

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Purpose: Although schools were once perceived as one of the safest places for children and youths, students today are more concerned about their school safety than ever. Unsafe schools have been linked to poorer educational outcomes, such as school dropout, and measures of well-being, such as increased stress. Developing and implementing effective school safety interventions and policies require an examination of the ecological factors that influence how youths perceive school safety. Despite this need, few studies have examined factors at multiple levels of the environment. The main purpose of this study is to use Urie Bronfenbrenner's ecological model as a framework to examine multiple factors that predict students' perceptions of their schools as unsafe.

Method: The study used a sample of 10- to 15-year-old youths (N=953) from the 2004 and 2006 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youths and the Mother-Child datasets. Four possible responses to the question "I don't feel safe at this school," were dichotomized to reflect some degree of feeling unsafe in school versus "not at all true." Groups of variables included youth characteristics (age, race/ethnicity, gender, behavior problems), maternal/family characteristics (marital status, mothers' education, poverty), school environment (ease of making friends, teacher's involvement, school rule enforcement, weapon carrying), neighborhood environment (neighborhood safety, area of residence), and parenting practices (discussions with youths, school involvement). Weighted descriptive statistics were computed, and models were estimated using multivariate logistic regression.

Results: Approximately 30% of the youths felt that their schools were unsafe to some degree. Of the youth characteristics, only age was statistically significantly related to feeling unsafe in school (OR=1.15), and none of the maternal/family characteristics were significant. Within the school environment, youths repor ting higher levels of ease in making friends at school (OR=.65), teachers being more involved in their school life (OR=.75), and the school enforces rules (OR=.67) were less likely to perceive their schools as unsafe. Youths observing someone carrying a weapon in school were 1.68 times more likely to perceive an unsafe school. Within the neighborhood environment, youths perceiving their neighborhoods as safe were less likely to feel unsafe in school (OR=.62), and those residing in a metropolitan area not in a central city, compared with youths living in a central city, were .68 times as likely to perceive their schools as unsafe. Finally, youths whose parents were more involved in their schools were less likely to feel unsafe in their schools (OR=.90).

Implications: These findings support the importance of examining interactions within multiple system levels and indicate that school and community environments and parents' involvement in the school have important influences on students' perceptions of an unsafe school. These results suggest that practitioners who assist schools in creating environments that are supportive, yet enforce rules, free of weapons, and involve parents will increase students' perceptions of a safe school. Advocating for community interventions, such as neighborhood watches, and social policies to decrease violence in communities also might increase youths' perceptions that their schools are safe.

Bibliography Citation
Eamon, Mary Keegan and Jun Sung Hong. "Youths' Perceptions of Unsafe Schools: An Ecological Systems Analysis." Presented: San Francisco, CA, Society for Social Work and Research 14th Annual Conference, January 2010.
2. Hong, Jun Sung
Peer and School Externalizing Behaviors Among Early Adolescents: An Ecological Systems Analysis
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2013
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Behavioral Problems; Neighborhood Effects; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Poverty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The purpose of this study was to examine ecological level correlates of peer and school externalizing behaviors among early adolescents (ages 12-14). The current research addressed the following hypotheses for the direct effects: learning problems, poverty, and peer and school externalizing behaviors at Time 1 (socio-demographics); negative peer influence (microsystem); living in a central city, compared with other urban and rural residence (exosystem); and lack of school rules (macrosystem) will be associated with an increase in peer and school externalizing behaviors at Time 2. Cognitive stimulation and emotional support, teacher involvement, and ease of making friends (microsystem), neighborhood safety (exosystem), and religious involvement (macrosystem) will be associated with a later decrease in peer and school externalizing behaviors. This study also tested several moderators. Positive teacher-student relationships will be associated with a decrease in peer and school externalizing behaviors more for Black and Hispanic youth than for white youth. Additionally, positive parenting (cognitive stimulation and emotional support) will be associated with a decrease in peer and school externalizing behaviors more for Black and Hispanic youth than for white youth. Moreover teacher involvement and ease of making friends will buffer the effects of having learning problems on exhibiting peer and school externalizing behaviors. Finally, I hypothesized that negative peer influence and neighborhood safety will mediate the effects of poverty status on peer and school externalizing behaviors.

To address these hypotheses, secondary data analysis was conducted, using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The sample was drawn from the mother-child dataset, which included youth who in the first of two years, 2002 or 2004 (Time 1), were living with their mothers, enrolled in regular school, responded to at least one of the 13 items from the self-administered survey, and the mothers responded to at least one of the four items measuring peer and school externalizing behaviors in Time 1 and Time 2 (in 2004 for those entering the sample in 2002; in 2006 for those entering the sample for 2004). Multivariate hierarchical logistic regression model were estimated to address the hypotheses.

Findings from the study indicate that youth's learning problems and peer externalizing behavior at Time 1 were significantly associated with peer externalizing behavior at Time 2. When the microsystem variables were included in Model 2, ease of making friends was statistically significant. When the exosystem variables were added in Model 3, the neighborhood environment variables were all statistically significant, but none of the macrosystem variables were significant when added to Model 4. Concerning school externalizing behavior at Time 2, male gender and school externalizing behavior at Time 1 were statistically significant, and two microsystem variables--cognitive stimulation and negative peer influence--were significantly associated with school externalizing behavior at Time 2. None of the exosystem and macrosystem variables were associated with school externalizing behavior at Time 2. With regards to the moderators, I found that for Hispanics, higher levels of cognitive stimulation was associated with an increased risk of exhibiting school externalizing behavior, although the odds ratio indicated little practical significance. I also found that ease of making friends also moderated the effects of learning problems on school externalizing behavior at Time 2. With regards to the mediators, since no direct relationship between poverty and peer and school externalizing behaviors at Time 2 was found, no further tests for mediation were conducted.

Bibliography Citation
Hong, Jun Sung. Peer and School Externalizing Behaviors Among Early Adolescents: An Ecological Systems Analysis. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2013.
3. Hong, Jun Sung
Eamon, Mary Keegan
Students’ Perceptions of Unsafe Schools: An Ecological Systems Analysis
Journal of Child and Family Studies 21,3 (June 2012): 428-438.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/w1703k12un5043g3/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Children, Well-Being; Handguns, carrying or using; Neighborhood Effects; Parenting Skills/Styles; School Characteristics/Rating/Safety

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In the aftermath of several school shooting incidents in recent years, students’ perceptions of unsafe schools has been a major concern for parents, teachers, school officials, school practitioners, and policy-makers. Using Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems framework, we examined the micro-, meso-, and exosystem level factors associated with perceptions of unsafe school environments in a nationally representative sample of 10- to 15-year-old youth in the United States. We found that for the socio-demographic characteristics, students who were older, male, and poor had increased risks of perceiving higher levels of unsafe school environments. Within the microsystem of the family, our results indicate that parent-youth discussions of school activities/events decreased the risk of students perceiving unsafe schools. All of the school environment variables—ease of making friends, teachers’ involvement, observed weapon carrying, and school rule enforcement—were related in the expected direction to students’ perceiving their schools as unsafe. At the mesosystem level, findings from our study demonstrate that variables measuring parental school involvement were unrelated to perceptions of school safety. Finally, at the exosystem level, we found that students’ perceptions of residing in a safer neighborhood and residence in a non-central city metropolitan area, compared with a central city, decreased the odds of perceiving school environments as unsafe. School policy and practice implications are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Hong, Jun Sung and Mary Keegan Eamon. "Students’ Perceptions of Unsafe Schools: An Ecological Systems Analysis ." Journal of Child and Family Studies 21,3 (June 2012): 428-438.
4. Hong, Jun Sung
Espelage, Dorothy L.
Kim, Johnny S.
Social-Ecological Antecedents of Oppositional-Defiant Behavior in U.S. Schools: Findings from a Nationally Representative Sample of Early Adolescents
Child Indicators Research 11,1 (February 2018): 307-327.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12187-016-9434-7
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Gender Differences; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Neighborhood Effects; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; School Performance

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines social-ecological antecedents of oppositional-defiant school behavior among early adolescents in the U.S. (ages 12-14; n = 733). Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the sample was drawn from the mother-child dataset, which included youth who, in the first of two years in the study (2002 or 2004), were living with their mothers and were enrolled in school. Participants had to have responded to at least one of the 13 items from a self-administered survey and their mothers had to have responded to at least one of the two items measuring oppositional-defiant school behavior in Time 1 (2002 or 2004; age 10 or 12) and Time 2 (2004 or 2006; age 12 or 14). Male sex, oppositional-defiant school behavior in Time 1, lack of cognitive stimulation, and negative peer influence were associated with oppositional-defiant school behavior in Time 2. The implications for practice from this study are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Hong, Jun Sung, Dorothy L. Espelage and Johnny S. Kim. "Social-Ecological Antecedents of Oppositional-Defiant Behavior in U.S. Schools: Findings from a Nationally Representative Sample of Early Adolescents." Child Indicators Research 11,1 (February 2018): 307-327.
5. Hong, Jun Sung
Espelage, Dorothy L.
Sterzing, Paul R.
Understanding the Antecedents of Adverse Peer Relationships Among Early Adolescents in the United States: An Ecological Systems Analysis
Youth and Society 49,8 (November 2017): 999-1022.
Also: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0044118X15569215
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Health, Limiting Condition(s); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Children, Poverty; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Neighborhood Effects; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; School Quality

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines ecological level correlates of adverse peer relationships among early adolescents (ages 12-14). Data analysis was conducted using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). The sample was drawn from the mother-child data set, which included youth who in 2002 or 2004 were living with their mothers and enrolled in school. Eligible participants responded to at least 1 of the 13 items from the survey and their mothers responded to at least 1 of the 2 items measuring adverse peer relationships at Times 1 (2002/2004) and 2 (2004/2006). Multivariate hierarchical logistic regression was estimated. The presence of a learning disorder and adverse peer relationships at Time 1 (socio-demographics), perceptions of school environment (microsystem), and area of residence and perceptions of safety (exosystem) were all significantly associated with adverse peer relationships at Time 2. Assessing and targeting these ecological levels hold the potential to decrease adverse peer relationships among early adolescents.
Bibliography Citation
Hong, Jun Sung, Dorothy L. Espelage and Paul R. Sterzing. "Understanding the Antecedents of Adverse Peer Relationships Among Early Adolescents in the United States: An Ecological Systems Analysis." Youth and Society 49,8 (November 2017): 999-1022.
6. Lee, Na Youn
Hong, Jun Sung
Grinnell-Davis, Claudette L.
The Impact of Child, Mother, and Neighborhood Factors On the Use of Corporal Punishment: A Longitudinal Repeated Measures Analysis
Presented: Washington DC, Society for Social Work and Research Meeting, January 2012.
Also: http://sswr.confex.com/sswr/2012/webprogram/Paper17093.html
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Society for Social Work and Research (SSWR)
Keyword(s): Behavior, Antisocial; Behavioral Problems; Body Parts Recognition; Discipline; Family Income; Neighborhood Effects; Punishment, Corporal

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Purpose: Corporal punishment is a widespread form of child discipline. However, there is a fine line between corporal punishment and child maltreatment, and modern societies are becoming aware of this line as reports of child abuse increase rapidly. Surprisingly, in comparison to cross-sectional studies, there are few longitudinal studies on the predictors of corporal punishment. Thus, this study aims to describe the child, mother, and community factors that increase the use of corporal punishment over time, by conducting a longitudinal repeated measures analysis.

Method: The study used a sample of 4,287 children and youth, ages 0 to 14, from the five waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, and 2008). Dependent variable is the number of times mothers spanked their children in the past week. Independent variables in the model include the following: Children's scores from the Behavior Problems Index; family poverty; mother's health and marital status; community resources (afterschool daycare, recreational centers); and maternal perceptions of neighborhood safety. Covariates include child and mother demographics. Models were estimated using hierarchal linear modeling (HLM) in STATA 11SE to trace the patterns nested inside individual children over time.

Results: Child's age, race, and BPI scores were significantly associated with corporal punishment over time. Younger children, African American, and Hispanic children, and those with behavior problems received more spankings (p<0.001). Poor mothers also appeared to spank their children more (p<0.001); this was the only maternal factor to achieve significance in the model. As for neighborhood variables, the use of community resources did not significantly decrease the number of spankings children received over time. However, mothers who reported their neighborhood is safe for raising children spanked their children less (p<0.05). Lastly, the likelihood-ratio tests indicate that HLM adds more explanatory power to the model compared to OLS (p<0.001). This lends support for accounting for the random variations in the intercept by the individual child, capturing the story that each child starts from a different point

Bibliography Citation
Lee, Na Youn, Jun Sung Hong and Claudette L. Grinnell-Davis. "The Impact of Child, Mother, and Neighborhood Factors On the Use of Corporal Punishment: A Longitudinal Repeated Measures Analysis." Presented: Washington DC, Society for Social Work and Research Meeting, January 2012.