Search Results

Author: Eamon, Mary Keegan
Resulting in 15 citations.
1. Anderson, Steven G.
Eamon, Mary Keegan
Health Coverage Instability for Mothers in Working Families
Social Work 49,3 (July 2004): 395-406.
Also: http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=13824343&db=aph
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Association of Social Workers (NASW)
Keyword(s): Education; Family Studies; Health Care; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Income; Insurance, Health; Marital Status

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the authors examined the health insurance coverage stability of 1,667 women in working families over a three-year period (1995-1997). Findings revealed that coverage instability is common. Nearly one-half of low-income women experienced health coverage instability over the three-year study period, and low-income women with poor education, single marital status, low work hours, and frequent job changes were at even greater risk of coverage instability. The findings also imply that women affected by recent welfare reforms are likely to experience widespread health coverage problems. The implications for health care policy development, social work administration, and social work practice are discussed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Anderson, Steven G. and Mary Keegan Eamon. "Health Coverage Instability for Mothers in Working Families." Social Work 49,3 (July 2004): 395-406.
2. Anderson, Steven G.
Eamon, Mary Keegan
Stability of Health Care Coverage Among Low-Income Working Women
Health and Social Work 30,1 (February 2005): 7-18
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Association of Social Workers (NASW)
Keyword(s): Benefits, Insurance; Health Care; Hispanics; Insurance, Health; Medicaid/Medicare; Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF); Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article examines health insurance stability patterns and the factors associated with stable coverage in a sample of 453 low-income working women. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), the authors found that only 51 percent of these women had stable coverage during 1995-1997. Logistic regression results indicate that, controlling for other factors, health insurance stability is significantly higher for those who have higher levels of welfare receipt, have more work hours, have fewer job changes, have higher education levels, are African American or Hispanic, and who live outside central cities. The findings suggest that point-in-time health coverage estimates substantially underestimate the health coverage problems of low-income working women. Health policies need to be more sensitive to transitional problems resulting from job changes, marital disruptions, and other changes in circumstances. Recommendations for revising health care policies and for improving existing health care programs are presented. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Anderson, Steven G. and Mary Keegan Eamon. "Stability of Health Care Coverage Among Low-Income Working Women." Health and Social Work 30,1 (February 2005): 7-18.
3. Eamon, Mary Keegan
A Structural Model of the Effects of Poverty on the Socio-Emotional Development of Children
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1998
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Behavioral Development; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Modeling; Parental Influences; Poverty; Social Emotional Development

The mother-child data of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth were used to identify the parenting practices that mediate relations between three measures of family poverty--persistent, recent, and multiple transitions--and the socio-emotional development of children 4-5 and 6-9 years old. Poverty and other exogenous variables were hypothesized to influence children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors indirectly by increasing emotional unresponsiveness, physical discipline, fewer stimulating experiences, not encouraging maturity, and a lower quality physical environment. Although model fit comparisons supported a mediation model, the revised structural models provided better fit than the hypothesized and alternative theoretical specifications. Significant effects of poverty were supported in the cross-validation samples. For 4-5 year old children, the effects of persistent poverty on both outcomes were mediated by a lower quality physical environment. The effect of recent poverty on externalizing behaviors was mediated by a lower quality physical environment and by fewer stimulating experiences. In addition to these two constructs, emotional unresponsiveness mediated the effect of recent poverty on internalizing behaviors. Contrary to the hypothesized relations, the indirect and total effects of multiple poverty transitions on both outcomes were beneficial. Effects were mediated by a lower quality physical environment and fewer stimulating experiences. For 6-9 year old children, persistent poverty influenced externalizing behaviors indirectly, with a lower quality physical environment and fewer stimulating experiences significantly contributing to this effect. The effects of persistent and recent poverty on internalizing behaviors were direct. Recent poverty had no effect on externalizing behaviors, and multiple poverty transitions had no effect on either outcome. Theoretical, intervention, and social policy implications are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Eamon, Mary Keegan. A Structural Model of the Effects of Poverty on the Socio-Emotional Development of Children. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1998.
4. Eamon, Mary Keegan
Antecedents and Socioemotional Consequences of Physical Punishment on Children in Two-Parent Families
Child Abuse and Neglect 25, 6 (June 2001): 787-802
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); CESD (Depression Scale); Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Marital Conflict; Poverty; Punishment, Corporal; Welfare

Objective: The main objective of this study was to test a structural model of the antecedents and socioemotional consequences of mothers' use of physical punishment on children in two-parent families.

Results: The revised model fit the data well and was supported by cross-validation. Poverty, maternal birth age, parents' education, maternal depression, and marital conflict were directly or indirectly related to mothers' frequent use of physical punishment. Frequent use of physical punishment was directly related to children's socioemotional problems, as were maternal depression and marital conflict. Few subgroup differences were found.

Conclusions: Main findings indicate that the effect of poverty on mothers' use of physical punishment is indirect, and is mediated by maternal depression and marital conflict. Depressed mothers spank their children more frequently and experience higher levels of marital conflict, which, in turn, is directly related to their use of physical punishment. Younger, more educated mothers spank their children less often. Children who are spanked more frequently exhibit more socioemotional problems.

Bibliography Citation
Eamon, Mary Keegan. "Antecedents and Socioemotional Consequences of Physical Punishment on Children in Two-Parent Families." Child Abuse and Neglect 25, 6 (June 2001): 787-802.
5. Eamon, Mary Keegan
Digital Divide in Computer Access and Use Between Poor and Non-Poor Youth
Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare 31,2 (June 2004): 91-112.
Also: http://imet.csus.edu/imet8/leu/251/articles/Article_Eamon_PoorYouth.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Western Michigan University School of Social Work
Keyword(s): Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Computer Ownership; Computer Use; Digital Divide; Home Environment; Poverty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The main objectives of this study were to examine the "digital divide" in home computer ownership and to evaluate differences in academic and non-academic computer use between poor and non-poor youth. Data from a national sample of 1,029, 10- through 14-year-old young adolescents were analyzed. Results show that poor youth were .36 times as likely to own a home computer, but equally as likely to use their home computer for academic purposes as were non-poor youth. Poor youth did not differ from non-poor youth in how often they used any computer for academic purposes, but were less likely to use any computer for non-academic purposes. Government initiatives to close the digital divide and foster computer use among poor youth are suggested.
Bibliography Citation
Eamon, Mary Keegan. "Digital Divide in Computer Access and Use Between Poor and Non-Poor Youth." Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare 31,2 (June 2004): 91-112.
6. Eamon, Mary Keegan
Effects of Poverty on Mathematics and Reading Achievement of Young Adolescents
Journal of Early Adolescence 22,1 (February 2002): 49-74.
Also: http://jea.sagepub.com/content/22/1/49.abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Cognitive Ability; Cognitive Development; Family Structure; Gender Differences; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Composition; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Poverty; Racial Differences; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The mother/child data set of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth was used to test a mediation model of the effects of poverty on the mathematics and reading achievement of 1,324 young adolescents 12 through 14 years of age. A revised model provided a better fit than the hypothesized model and generally was supported by cross-validation on a split-half sample. Poverty was related to lower mathematics and reading achievement indirectly through its associations with less cognitively stimulating and emotionally supportive home environments, which in turn were related to adolescents' school behavior problems. Poverty was related also to lower mathematics and reading achievement indirectly through a direct link with school behavior problems. Poverty was related to lower reading, but not mathematics, achievement through its association with less stimulating cognitive home environments. The model was estimated separately for female, male, Black, Hispanic, and White young adolescents; group differences are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Eamon, Mary Keegan. "Effects of Poverty on Mathematics and Reading Achievement of Young Adolescents." Journal of Early Adolescence 22,1 (February 2002): 49-74.
7. Eamon, Mary Keegan
Influences and Mediators of the Effect of Poverty on Young Adolescent Depressive Symptoms
Journal of Youth and Adolescence 31,3 (June 2002): 231-242.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/f0kc22b3dbwbxrfl/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Plenum Publishing Corporation
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Depression (see also CESD); Disadvantaged, Economically; Health, Mental; Mothers, Health; Neighborhood Effects; Parenting Skills/Styles; Poverty; Punishment, Corporal

Data from a sample of young adolescents between the ages of 10 and 12 years (N = 898) from the mother-child data set of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth were analyzed in a study of influences that explain the relation between poverty and depressive symptoms measured 2 years later. Other variables that predicted youth depressive symptoms were also identified. Results indicated that neighborhood problems, nonparticipation in outside school and neighborhood activities, residing with mothers who exhibited depressive symptoms, and mother's use of physical punishment were partial mediators of the effect of poverty on depressive symptoms 2 years later. Youth health status, lower levels of school satisfaction, marital-partner conflict, and father's emotional support also predicted depressive symptoms. The findings indicate that youth depressive symptoms are multiply determined and that poverty can adversely affect young adolescents in many ways.
Bibliography Citation
Eamon, Mary Keegan. "Influences and Mediators of the Effect of Poverty on Young Adolescent Depressive Symptoms." Journal of Youth and Adolescence 31,3 (June 2002): 231-242.
8. Eamon, Mary Keegan
Poverty, Parenting, Peer, and Neighborhood Influences on Young Adolescent Antisocial Behavior
Journal of Social Service Research 28, 1 (2002): 1-23
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Haworth Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Poverty; Depression (see also CESD); Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Parenting Skills/Styles; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Poverty; Punishment, Corporal

Data from a sample of young adolescents between the ages of 10 through 12 years of age (N = 898) from the mother-child data set of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth were analyzed in a study of influences that explain the relation between poverty and depressive symptoms measured two years later. Other variables that predicted youth depressive symptoms also were identified. Results indicated that neighborhood problems, nonparticipation in outside school and neighborhood activities, residing with mothers who exhibited depressive symptoms, and mother's use of physical punishment were partial mediators of the effect of poverty on depressive symptoms two years later. Youth health status, lower levels of school satisfaction, marital-partner conflict, and father's emotional support also predicted depressive symptoms. The findings indicate that youth depressive symptoms are multiply determined and that poverty can adversely affect young adolescents in many ways.
Bibliography Citation
Eamon, Mary Keegan. "Poverty, Parenting, Peer, and Neighborhood Influences on Young Adolescent Antisocial Behavior." Journal of Social Service Research 28, 1 (2002): 1-23.
9. Eamon, Mary Keegan
Social-Demographic, School, Neighborhood, and Parenting Influences on the Academic Achievement of Latino Young Adolescents
Journal of Youth and Adolescence 34,2 (April 2005): 163-174.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/vx1g53u4h8770300/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Keyword(s): Academic Development; Age at First Birth; Childbearing; Educational Attainment; Hispanic Youth; Hispanics; Neighborhood Effects; Parenting Skills/Styles; Poverty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from a national sample of 388 Latino young adolescents, this study identified the social-demographic characteristics, influences in the broader social environment, and parenting practices that predict youth academic achievement. Youths who were Mexican-American, older, and had an English language problem had lower levels of reading and mathematics achievement. Youths of mothers who began childbearing at older agesr, had higher levels of intellectual abilities, and reported no English language problem scored better on both types of achievement tests, but poverty was related only to reading achievement. Attendance in higher-rated schools was associated with higher reading and mathematics scores, but residence in better quality neighborhoods was related only to reading achievement. Three parenting practices "providing cognitive stimulation, parent-youth conflict, and academic involvement" predicted both types of achievement. The effect of poverty on reading achievement was explained by residence in lower quality neighborhoods, lower levels of cognitive stimulation, and parent-youth conflict.
Bibliography Citation
Eamon, Mary Keegan. "Social-Demographic, School, Neighborhood, and Parenting Influences on the Academic Achievement of Latino Young Adolescents." Journal of Youth and Adolescence 34,2 (April 2005): 163-174.
10. Eamon, Mary Keegan
Structural Model of The Effects of Poverty on Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors of Four- to Five-Year-Old Children
Social Work Research 24,3 (September 2000): 143-154.
Also: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/nasw/swr/2000/00000024/00000003/art00003
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Association of Social Workers (NASW)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Development; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parenthood; Parenting Skills/Styles; Parents, Behavior; Poverty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Mother-child data of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth were used to identify the parenting practices that mediate relations between persistent, recent and transitional poverty and the externalizing and internalizing behaviors of children four to five years old. Contrary to hypothesized relations, transitional poverty predicts fewer externalizing and internalizing behaviors.
Bibliography Citation
Eamon, Mary Keegan. "Structural Model of The Effects of Poverty on Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors of Four- to Five-Year-Old Children." Social Work Research 24,3 (September 2000): 143-154.
11. Eamon, Mary Keegan
Altshuler, Sandra J.
Can We Predict Disruptive School Behavior?
Children and Schools 26,1 (January 2004): 23-37
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Association of Social Workers (NASW)
Keyword(s): Ethnic Differences; Gender Differences; Grade Retention/Repeat Grade; Neighborhood Effects; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Parenting Skills/Styles; Parents, Single; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Punishment, Corporal; Racial Differences; Schooling; Social Environment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examined whether child, parental, and socio-environmental factors predict disruptive school behavior two years later. Data from a sample of 10- to 12-year-old youth, including 289 African American, 183 Hispanic/Latino, and 335 non-Hispanic, white youth from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) were analyzed. Findings indicated that youth who are older, African American, male, and living in single-mother families exhibit higher levels of disruptive school behavior. Within the home, lower levels of parental emotional support and supervision, low educational expectations, and physical discipline predict disruptive school behavior. Youth's assessment of the school, grade retention, and exposure to deviant peer pressure and associations also predict school behavior problems; but of the parenting, school, peer, and neighborhood influences, deviant peer pressure and associations have the strongest relation to disruptive school behavior. The final model explained 23% of the variance in disruptive school behavior. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Eamon, Mary Keegan and Sandra J. Altshuler. "Can We Predict Disruptive School Behavior?" Children and Schools 26,1 (January 2004): 23-37.
12. Eamon, Mary Keegan
Hong, Jun Sung
Youths' Perceptions of Unsafe Schools: An Ecological Systems Analysis
Presented: San Francisco, CA, Society for Social Work and Research 14th Annual Conference, January 2010.
Also: http://sswr.confex.com/sswr/2010/webprogram/Paper11708.html
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Society for Social Work and Research (SSWR)
Keyword(s): Children, Well-Being; Handguns, carrying or using; Neighborhood Effects; Parenting Skills/Styles; School Characteristics/Rating/Safety

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Purpose: Although schools were once perceived as one of the safest places for children and youths, students today are more concerned about their school safety than ever. Unsafe schools have been linked to poorer educational outcomes, such as school dropout, and measures of well-being, such as increased stress. Developing and implementing effective school safety interventions and policies require an examination of the ecological factors that influence how youths perceive school safety. Despite this need, few studies have examined factors at multiple levels of the environment. The main purpose of this study is to use Urie Bronfenbrenner's ecological model as a framework to examine multiple factors that predict students' perceptions of their schools as unsafe.

Method: The study used a sample of 10- to 15-year-old youths (N=953) from the 2004 and 2006 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youths and the Mother-Child datasets. Four possible responses to the question "I don't feel safe at this school," were dichotomized to reflect some degree of feeling unsafe in school versus "not at all true." Groups of variables included youth characteristics (age, race/ethnicity, gender, behavior problems), maternal/family characteristics (marital status, mothers' education, poverty), school environment (ease of making friends, teacher's involvement, school rule enforcement, weapon carrying), neighborhood environment (neighborhood safety, area of residence), and parenting practices (discussions with youths, school involvement). Weighted descriptive statistics were computed, and models were estimated using multivariate logistic regression.

Results: Approximately 30% of the youths felt that their schools were unsafe to some degree. Of the youth characteristics, only age was statistically significantly related to feeling unsafe in school (OR=1.15), and none of the maternal/family characteristics were significant. Within the school environment, youths repor ting higher levels of ease in making friends at school (OR=.65), teachers being more involved in their school life (OR=.75), and the school enforces rules (OR=.67) were less likely to perceive their schools as unsafe. Youths observing someone carrying a weapon in school were 1.68 times more likely to perceive an unsafe school. Within the neighborhood environment, youths perceiving their neighborhoods as safe were less likely to feel unsafe in school (OR=.62), and those residing in a metropolitan area not in a central city, compared with youths living in a central city, were .68 times as likely to perceive their schools as unsafe. Finally, youths whose parents were more involved in their schools were less likely to feel unsafe in their schools (OR=.90).

Implications: These findings support the importance of examining interactions within multiple system levels and indicate that school and community environments and parents' involvement in the school have important influences on students' perceptions of an unsafe school. These results suggest that practitioners who assist schools in creating environments that are supportive, yet enforce rules, free of weapons, and involve parents will increase students' perceptions of a safe school. Advocating for community interventions, such as neighborhood watches, and social policies to decrease violence in communities also might increase youths' perceptions that their schools are safe.

Bibliography Citation
Eamon, Mary Keegan and Jun Sung Hong. "Youths' Perceptions of Unsafe Schools: An Ecological Systems Analysis." Presented: San Francisco, CA, Society for Social Work and Research 14th Annual Conference, January 2010.
13. Eamon, Mary Keegan
Mulder, Cray
Predicting Antisocial Behavior Among Latino Young Adolescents: An Ecological Systems Analysis
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 75,1 (January 2005): 117-127.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1037/0002-9432.75.1.117/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Orthopsychiatric Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Hispanic Youth; Hispanics; Neighborhood Effects; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parenting Skills/Styles; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Poverty; Punishment, Corporal

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The authors used data from a national sample of 420 Latino young adolescents to examine multiple predictors of antisocial behavior within an ecological systems framework. They found that boys and youths who lived a higher proportion of their life in poverty exhibited higher levels of antisocial behavior, and mothers' acculturation was associated with lower levels. Neighborhood and school environments, exposure to deviant peer pressure, and 3 parenting practice--parent-youth attachment, physical punishment, and mothers' monitoring--were related to Latino youth antisocial behavior. Neighborhood quality and peer pressure explained the relation between poverty and an increased risk for antisocial behavior.
Bibliography Citation
Eamon, Mary Keegan and Cray Mulder. "Predicting Antisocial Behavior Among Latino Young Adolescents: An Ecological Systems Analysis." American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 75,1 (January 2005): 117-127.
14. Eamon, Mary Keegan
Zuehl, Rachel M.
Maternal Depression and Physical Punishment as Mediators of the Effect of Poverty on Socioemotional Problems of Children in Single-Mother Families
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 71,2 (2001): 218-226.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1037/0002-9432.71.2.218/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Orthopsychiatric Association
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Poverty; Punishment, Corporal; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data from a national sample of 878, 4- to 9-year-old children in single-mother families were used to test a structural model of the effect of poverty on children s socioemotional problems. Results show that the effect of poverty is mediated by maternal depression and mothers use of physical punishment. Maternal depression influences children s socioemotional problems both directly, and also indirectly through physical punishment.
Bibliography Citation
Eamon, Mary Keegan and Rachel M. Zuehl. "Maternal Depression and Physical Punishment as Mediators of the Effect of Poverty on Socioemotional Problems of Children in Single-Mother Families." American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 71,2 (2001): 218-226.
15. Hong, Jun Sung
Eamon, Mary Keegan
Students’ Perceptions of Unsafe Schools: An Ecological Systems Analysis
Journal of Child and Family Studies 21,3 (June 2012): 428-438.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/w1703k12un5043g3/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Children, Well-Being; Handguns, carrying or using; Neighborhood Effects; Parenting Skills/Styles; School Characteristics/Rating/Safety

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In the aftermath of several school shooting incidents in recent years, students’ perceptions of unsafe schools has been a major concern for parents, teachers, school officials, school practitioners, and policy-makers. Using Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems framework, we examined the micro-, meso-, and exosystem level factors associated with perceptions of unsafe school environments in a nationally representative sample of 10- to 15-year-old youth in the United States. We found that for the socio-demographic characteristics, students who were older, male, and poor had increased risks of perceiving higher levels of unsafe school environments. Within the microsystem of the family, our results indicate that parent-youth discussions of school activities/events decreased the risk of students perceiving unsafe schools. All of the school environment variables—ease of making friends, teachers’ involvement, observed weapon carrying, and school rule enforcement—were related in the expected direction to students’ perceiving their schools as unsafe. At the mesosystem level, findings from our study demonstrate that variables measuring parental school involvement were unrelated to perceptions of school safety. Finally, at the exosystem level, we found that students’ perceptions of residing in a safer neighborhood and residence in a non-central city metropolitan area, compared with a central city, decreased the odds of perceiving school environments as unsafe. School policy and practice implications are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Hong, Jun Sung and Mary Keegan Eamon. "Students’ Perceptions of Unsafe Schools: An Ecological Systems Analysis ." Journal of Child and Family Studies 21,3 (June 2012): 428-438.