Search Results

Author: Gortmaker, Steven L.
Resulting in 14 citations.
1. Co, John Patrick T.
Perrin, James M.
Gortmaker, Steven L.
Increasing Co-Morbidity of Obesity and Asthma in Children
Presented: Boston, MA, Pediatric Academies Society Meetings, 2000
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Pediatric Society
Keyword(s): Asthma; Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Health; Cohort Effects; Obesity; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship of obesity to a diagnosis of asthma over a six-year period from 1988 to 1994.

DESIGN/METHODS: We used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), identifying children 5-14 years of NLSY mothers in 1988 and 1994. We initially determined presence of obesity (body mass index (BMI)>85th percentile) and asthma in the child in 1988 and 1994, as well as dichotomized age (5-9 vs. 10-14 years) and maternal BMI (>85% or not). Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between obesity and asthma over time, controlling for the child's age, gender, race/ethnicity, and maternal BMI and chronic health status.

RESULTS: In 1988, the presence of obesity was not associated with the presence of asthma (p=0.37). In 1994, the presence of obesity was significantly positively associated with the presence of asthma (odds ratio [OR] 1.88; 95% CI 1.29, 2.72; p<0.001). While this relationship in 1994 was found in both age groups and genders, it was more pronounced among children in the older age group (OR 1.66; 95% CI 1.16, 2.38; p<0.01) and less pronounced in females (OR 0.55; 95% CI 0.38, 0.80; p<0.01). Race/ethnicity was not significantly related to the presence of asthma.

CONCLUSIONS: While recent studies suggest that obesity and asthma are positively related, this study implies that this relationship is relatively new. This suggests the possibility of an evolving environmental or biological risk factor common to both obesity and asthma.

Bibliography Citation
Co, John Patrick T., James M. Perrin and Steven L. Gortmaker. "Increasing Co-Morbidity of Obesity and Asthma in Children." Presented: Boston, MA, Pediatric Academies Society Meetings, 2000.
2. Co, John Patrick T.
Perrin, James M.
Gortmaker, Steven L.
Increasing Co-Morbidity of Obesity and Asthma in Children
Pediatric Research 47,4,Supplement_2 (2000): 144A
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Keyword(s): Asthma; Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Health; Cohort Effects; Obesity; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship of obesity to a diagnosis of asthma over a six-year period from 1988 to 1994.

DESIGN/METHODS: We used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), identifying children 5-14 years of NLSY mothers in 1988 and 1994. We initially determined presence of obesity (body mass index (BMI)>85th percentile) and asthma in the child in 1988 and 1994, as well as dichotomized age (5-9 vs. 10-14 years) and maternal BMI (>85% or not). Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between obesity and asthma over time, controlling for the child's age, gender, race/ethnicity, and maternal BMI and chronic health status.

RESULTS: In 1988, the presence of obesity was not associated with the presence of asthma (p=0.37). In 1994, the presence of obesity was significantly positively associated with the presence of asthma (odds ratio [OR] 1.88; 95% CI 1.29, 2.72; p<0.001). While this relationship in 1994 was found in both age groups and genders, it was more pronounced among children in the older age group (OR 1.66; 95% CI 1.16, 2.38; p<0.01) and less pronounced in females (OR 0.55; 95% CI 0.38, 0.80; p<0.01). Race/ethnicity was not significantly related to the presence of asthma.

CONCLUSIONS: While recent studies suggest that obesity and asthma are positively related, this study implies that this relationship is relatively new. This suggests the possibility of an evolving environmental or biological risk factor common to both obesity and asthma.

Bibliography Citation
Co, John Patrick T., James M. Perrin and Steven L. Gortmaker. "Increasing Co-Morbidity of Obesity and Asthma in Children." Pediatric Research 47,4,Supplement_2 (2000): 144A.
3. Gidwani, Pradeep P.
Sobol, Arthur M.
Dejong, William
Perrin, James M.
Gortmaker, Steven L.
Television Viewing and Initiation of Smoking Among Youth
Pediatrics 110,3 (September 2002): 505-508.
Also: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/110/3/505
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Household Structure; I.Q.; Mothers, Education; Poverty; Risk-Taking; Television Viewing; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

Background. Smoking is the leading preventable cause of death in the United States, and the risk of disease increases the earlier in life smoking begins. The prevalence of smoking among US adolescents has increased since 1991. Despite bans on television tobacco advertising, smoking on television remains widespread.

Objective. To determine whether youth with greater exposure to television viewing exhibit higher rates of smoking initiation.

Methods. We used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, Child Cohort to examine longitudinally the association of television viewing in 1990 among youth ages 10 to 15 years with smoking initiation from 1990-1992. Television viewing was based on the average of youth and parent reports. We used multiple logistic regression, taking into account sampling weights, and controlled for ethnicity; maternal education, IQ, and work; household structure; number of children; household poverty; child gender; and child aptitude test scores.

Results. Among these youth, smoking increased from 4.8% in 1990 to 12.3% in 1992. Controlling for baseline characteristics, youth who watched 5 or more hours of TV per day were 5.99 times more likely to initiate smoking behaviors (95% confidence interval: 1.39-25.71) than those youth who watched <2 hours. Similarly, youth who watched >4 to 5 hours per day were 5.24 times more likely to initiate smoking than youth who watched <2 hours (95% confidence interval: 1.19-23.10).

Conclusions. Television viewing is associated in a dose-response relationship with the initiation of youth smoking. Television viewing should be included in adolescent risk behavior research. Interventions to reduce television viewing may also reduce youth smoking initiation.

Bibliography Citation
Gidwani, Pradeep P., Arthur M. Sobol, William Dejong, James M. Perrin and Steven L. Gortmaker. "Television Viewing and Initiation of Smoking Among Youth." Pediatrics 110,3 (September 2002): 505-508.
4. Gortmaker, Steven L.
Bielby, William T.
Cost of Watching Television: A Longitudinal Assessment of the Effect of Heavy Viewing on Earnings
Working Paper, School of Public Health Harvard University, Boston MA, 1995
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: School of Public Health, Harvard University
Keyword(s): Behavior; Earnings; Gender Differences; Health Factors; Household Income; Human Capital; Leisure; Minorities; Obesity; Self-Esteem; Television Viewing

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data from the 1981 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth are used to examine the impact of time spent watching television on subsequent earnings. The focus is on a sample of some 8,000 respondents during 1986-1988. It is hypothesized that heavy viewing might make an impact on subsequent earnings either by choosing to allocate time to leisure over investment in human capital, or by being a consequence of behavioral or subjective characteristics that are valued negatively in the labor market which makes any association between viewership and subsequent earnings spurious. Estimated coefficients indicated that each additional hour of television viewed per week was associated with a decrease in personal income of $40.72 for males and $73.89 for females, independent of household income, schooling, marital status, maternal/paternal education, height, self-esteem, age, and minority status. Other control variables related to productivity and/or earnings capacity include cognitive ability, self-esteem, chronic health conditions, and extreme obesity. Results provide evidence for the substantial impact of television viewing on subsequent earnings and point to the need for further research.
Bibliography Citation
Gortmaker, Steven L. and William T. Bielby. "Cost of Watching Television: A Longitudinal Assessment of the Effect of Heavy Viewing on Earnings." Working Paper, School of Public Health Harvard University, Boston MA, 1995.
5. Gortmaker, Steven L.
Kagan, Jerome
Caspi, Avshalom
Silva, Phil A.
Daylength During Pregnancy and Shyness in Children: Results from Northern and Southern Hemispheres
Developmental Psychobiology 31,2 (September 1997): 107-114.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/%28SICI%291098-2302%28199709%2931:2%3C107::AID-DEV3%3E3.0.CO;2-O/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Gerontological Society of America
Keyword(s): Behavior; Children, Behavioral Development; Cross-national Analysis; Genetics; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Shyness; Temperament

An extreme degree of shyness in young children is a temperamental trait under modest genetic influence and characterized by distinct physiological profiles. Complete longitudinal data for the US were available for 2,415 children (aged 2-7 yrs) from the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience, Youth cohort. A 2nd analysis used data from a complete cohort of births born during a 1-yr period in New Zealand. These data indicate that maternal exposure to short daylenth during pregnancy, especially the midpoint of gestation, predicts an increased risk of subsequent shy behavior in children. Estimates of attributable risk indicate that approximately one-quarter of shyness prevalence can be linked to pregnancy during times of reduced daylength. This phenomenon might be mediated by changing concentrations of melatonin, serotonin, or other neurotransmitters or corticoids that are known to covary with seasonal variations in daylength. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1997 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved)
Bibliography Citation
Gortmaker, Steven L., Jerome Kagan, Avshalom Caspi and Phil A. Silva. "Daylength During Pregnancy and Shyness in Children: Results from Northern and Southern Hemispheres." Developmental Psychobiology 31,2 (September 1997): 107-114.
6. Gortmaker, Steven L.
Must, Aviva
Perrin, James M.
Sobol, Arthur M.
Social and Economic Consequences of Overweight in Adolescence and Young Adulthood
New England Journal of Medicine 329,14 (September 1993): 1036-1037
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Massachusetts Medical Society
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Educational Attainment; Health Factors; Household Income; Marital Status; Obesity; Self-Esteem

Permission to reprint the abstract has been denied by the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Gortmaker, Steven L., Aviva Must, James M. Perrin and Arthur M. Sobol. "Social and Economic Consequences of Overweight in Adolescence and Young Adulthood." New England Journal of Medicine 329,14 (September 1993): 1036-1037.
7. Gortmaker, Steven L.
Must, Aviva
Sobol, Arthur M.
Peterson, Karen E.
Colditz, Graham A.
Dietz, William H.
Television Viewing as a Cause of Increasing Obesity Among Children in the United States, 1986-1990
Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 150,4 (April 1996): 356-362.
Also: http://archpedi.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/150/4/356
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Medical Association
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Obesity; Television Viewing; Variables, Independent - Covariate; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: The prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents has increased, and television viewing has been suggested as a cause. We examined the relation between hours of television viewed and the prevalence of overweight in 1990, and the incidence and remission of overweight from 1986 to 1990 in a nationally representative cohort of 746 youths aged 10 to 15 years in 1990 whose mothers were 25 to 32 years old. Overweight was defined as a body mass index higher than the 85th percentile for age and gender. RESULTS: We observed a strong dose-response relationship between the prevalence of overweight in 1990 and hours of television viewed. The odds of being overweight were 4.6 (95% confidence interval, 2.2 to 9.6) times greater for youth watching more than 5 hours of television per day compared with those watching 0 to 2 hours. When adjustments were made for previous overweight (in 1986), baseline maternal overweight, socioeconomic status, household structure, ethnicity, and maternal and child aptitude test scores, results were similar (odds ratio, 5.3; 95% confidence interval, 2.3 to 12.1). We also found significant relations between television viewing and increased incidence and decreased remission of overweight during this 4-year period, adjusted for baseline covariates. The adjusted odds of incidence were 8.3 (95% confidence interval, 2.6 to 26.5) times greater for youth watching more than 5 hours of television per day compared with those watching for 0 to 2 hours. Estimates of attributable risk indicate that more than 60% of overweight incidence in this population can be linked to excess television viewing time. CONCLUSION: Television viewing affects overweight among youth, and reductions in viewing time could help prevent this increasingly common chronic health condition.
Bibliography Citation
Gortmaker, Steven L., Aviva Must, Arthur M. Sobol, Karen E. Peterson, Graham A. Colditz and William H. Dietz. "Television Viewing as a Cause of Increasing Obesity Among Children in the United States, 1986-1990." Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 150,4 (April 1996): 356-362.
8. Gortmaker, Steven L.
Perrin, James M.
Weitzman, Michael
Homer, Charles J.
An Unexpected Success Story: Transition to Adulthood in Youth with Chronic Physical Health Conditions. Special Issue: Late Adolescence and the Transition to Adulthood
Journal of Research on Adolescence 3,3 (1993): 317-336
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates ==> Taylor & Francis
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Educational Attainment; Health Factors; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Self-Esteem; Unemployment

Permission to reprint the abstract has been denied by the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Gortmaker, Steven L., James M. Perrin, Michael Weitzman and Charles J. Homer. "An Unexpected Success Story: Transition to Adulthood in Youth with Chronic Physical Health Conditions. Special Issue: Late Adolescence and the Transition to Adulthood." Journal of Research on Adolescence 3,3 (1993): 317-336.
9. Must, Aviva
Gortmaker, Steven L.
Dietz, William H.
Risk Factors for Obesity in Young Adults: Hispanics, African Americans and Whites in the Transition Years, Age 16-28 Years
Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy 48,3-4 (1994): 143-156.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0753332294901031
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Masson Pub. USA, Inc.
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Black Youth; Epidemiology; Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Gender Differences; Hispanics; Obesity; Social Environment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Previous studies have suggested that late adolescence may represent a critical period in the development of lifelong obesity, but representative prospective studies in this age group are lacking. The analytic cohort consisted of a representative sample from the United States of 11,591 Hispanic, African American, and white youths interviewed as part of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Significant differences in obesity measures were observed among the six race-sex groups. Compared to whites of the same sex, the prevalence of obesity in 1981 was significantly higher among Hispanic males (12.0 vs 8.6%, P < 0.05) and African American females (14.2% vs 7.3%, P > 0.001) and lower among African American males (6.4% vs 8.6%, P > 0.005). Five-year cumulative incidence of obesity (1981-1986) was highest in Hispanic males, Hispanic females and African American females. Among those ages studied both in 1981 and in 1986, a secular trend towards increased prevalence of obesity was observed over the five-year period (10.6% in 1981, 13.6% in 1986, P > 0.0001). Multivariate analyses failed to identify behavioral or sociodemographic factors that operated similarly in all race-sex groups.
Bibliography Citation
Must, Aviva, Steven L. Gortmaker and William H. Dietz. "Risk Factors for Obesity in Young Adults: Hispanics, African Americans and Whites in the Transition Years, Age 16-28 Years." Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy 48,3-4 (1994): 143-156.
10. Resch, Stephen
Ward, Zachary J.
Long, Michael W.
Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.
Wang, Y. Claire
Gortmaker, Steven L.
Using Synthetic Growth Trajectories to Predict Childhood Obesity Trends at the Individual and Population Level
Presented: New Orleans LA, American Public Health Association Annual Meeting and Expo, November 2014
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent health; Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Health; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Modeling, Trajectory analysis; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth); Obesity; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Within-person height and weight trajectory segments were pooled from National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Young Adults (NLSY) (1986-2010, n=9,402) and National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1996-2009, n=4,972). Overlapping height and weight trajectories from early childhood and adolescence were jointly matched using Bayesian methods. A cohort of one million 5 year olds (5yo) was matched to anthropometric and sociodemographic measures from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (2005-2010,n=565 5yo) and simulated through age 19 years. Projected mean BMI and obesity prevalence was validated against NHANES 2005-2010 data.
Bibliography Citation
Resch, Stephen, Zachary J. Ward, Michael W. Long, Jeremy D. Goldhaber-Fiebert, Y. Claire Wang and Steven L. Gortmaker. "Using Synthetic Growth Trajectories to Predict Childhood Obesity Trends at the Individual and Population Level." Presented: New Orleans LA, American Public Health Association Annual Meeting and Expo, November 2014.
11. Van Cleave, Jeanne
Gortmaker, Steven L.
Perrin, James M.
Dynamics of Obesity and Chronic Health Conditions Among Children and Youth
Journal of the American Medical Association 303,7 (February 2010): 623-630.
Also: http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/short/303/7/623
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Medical Association
Keyword(s): Asthma; Behavioral Problems; Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Health; Children, Illness; Cohort Effects; Health, Chronic Conditions; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Illnesses; Life Course; Obesity; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Context: Rates of obesity and other childhood chronic conditions have increased over recent decades. Patterns of how conditions change over time have not been widely examined.

Objective: To evaluate change in prevalence of obesity and other chronic conditions in US children, including incidence, remission, and prevalence.

Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective study using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth–Child Cohort (1988-2006) of 3 nationally representative cohorts of children. Children were aged 2 through 8 years at the beginning of each study period, and cohorts were followed up for 6 years, from 1988 to 1994 (cohort 1, n=2337), 1994 to 2000 (cohort 2, n=1759), and 2000 to 2006 (n=905).

Main Outcome Measures: Parent report of a child having a health condition that limited activities or schooling or required medicine, special equipment, or specialized health services and that lasted at least 12 months. Obesity was defined as a body mass index at or above the 95th percentile for age. Chronic conditions were grouped into 4 categories: obesity, asthma, other physical conditions, and behavior/learning problems.

Results: The end-study prevalence of any chronic health condition was 12.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 11.2%-14.5%) for cohort 1 in 1994, 25.1% (95% CI, 22.7%-27.6%) for cohort 2 in 2000, and 26.6% (95% CI, 23.5%-29.9%) for cohort 3 in2006. There was substantial turnover in chronic conditions: 7.4% (95% CI, 6.5%-8.3%) of participants in all cohorts had a chronic condition at the beginning of the study that persisted to the end, 9.3% (95% CI, 8.3%-10.3%) reported conditions at the beginning that resolved within 6 years, and 13.4% (95% CI, 12.3%-14.6%) had new conditions that arose during the 6-year study period. The prevalence of having a chronic condition during any part of the 6-year study period was highest for cohort 3 (51.5%; 95% CI, 47.3%-55.0%), and there were higher rates among male (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.24; 95% CI, 1.07-1.42), Hispanic (AOR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.11-1.67), and black (AOR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.35-1.90) youth.

Conclusions: Prevalence of chronic conditions among children and youth increased from 1988 to 2006. However, presence of these conditions was dynamic over each 6-year cohort.

Bibliography Citation
Van Cleave, Jeanne, Steven L. Gortmaker and James M. Perrin. "Dynamics of Obesity and Chronic Health Conditions Among Children and Youth." Journal of the American Medical Association 303,7 (February 2010): 623-630.
12. Wang, Y. Claire
Gortmaker, Steven L.
Sobol, Arthur M.
Kuntz, Karen M.
Estimating the Energy Gap Among US Children: A Counterfactual Approach
Pediatrics 118,6 (December 2006): e1721-e1733.
Also: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/118/6/e1721
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Height; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); Obesity; Weight

OBJECTIVE. Our goal was to quantify the magnitude of energy imbalance responsible for the increase in body weight among US children during the periods 1988–1994 and 1999–2002.

METHODS. We adopted a counterfactual approach to estimate weight gains in excess of normal growth and the implicit "energy gap" the daily imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. On the basis of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts, we constructed weight, height, and BMI percentile distributions for cohorts 2 to 4 and 5 to 7 years of age in the 1988–1994 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (N = 5000). Under the counterfactual "normal-growth-only" scenario, we assumed that these percentile distributions remained the same as the cohort aged 10 years. Under this assumption, we projected the weight and height distributions for this cohort at 12 to 14 and 15 to 17 years of age on the basis of their baseline weight-for-age and stature-for-age percentiles. We compared these distributions with those for corresponding age groups in the 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (N = 3091) ~10 years after the 1988–1994 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We calculated differences between the counterfactual and observed weight distributions and translated this difference into the estimated average energy gap, adjusting for increased total energy expenditure attributable to weight gain. In addition, we estimated the average excess weight accumulated among overweight adolescents in the 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, validating our counterfactual assumptions by analyzing longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and Bogalusa Heart Study.

RESULTS. Compared with the counterfactual scenario, boys and girls who were aged 2 to 7 in the 1988–1994 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey gained, on average, an excess of 0.43 kg/year over the 10-year period. Assuming that 3500 kcal leads to an average of 1-lb weight gain as fat, our results suggest that a reduction in the energy gap of 110–165 kcal/day could have prevented this increase. Among overweight adolescents aged 12 to 17 in 1999–2002, results indicate an average energy imbalance ranging from 678 to 1017 kcal/day because of an excess of 26.5 kg accumulated over 10 years.

CONCLUSIONS. Quantifying the energy imbalance responsible for recent changes in weight distribution among children can provide salient targets for population intervention. Consistent behavioral changes averaging 110 to 165 kcal/day may be sufficient to counterbalance the energy gap. Changes in excess dietary intake (eg, eliminating one sugar-sweetened beverage at 150 kcal per can) may be easier to attain than increases in physical activity levels (eg, a 30-kg boy replacing sitting for 1.9 hours with 1.9 hours walking for an extra 150 kcal). Youth at higher levels of weight gain will likely need changes in multiple behaviors and environments to close the energy gap.

Bibliography Citation
Wang, Y. Claire, Steven L. Gortmaker, Arthur M. Sobol and Karen M. Kuntz. "Estimating the Energy Gap Among US Children: A Counterfactual Approach." Pediatrics 118,6 (December 2006): e1721-e1733.
13. Ward, Zachary J.
Long, Michael W.
Resch, Stephen
Giles, Catherine M.
Cradock, Angie L.
Gortmaker, Steven L.
Simulation of Growth Trajectories of Childhood Obesity into Adulthood
New England Journal of Medicine 377,22 (30 November 2017): 2145-2153.
Also: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1703860#t=abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Massachusetts Medical Society
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Health; Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-B, ECLS-K); Life Course; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth); Obesity; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID)

Permission to reprint the abstract has been denied by the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Ward, Zachary J., Michael W. Long, Stephen Resch, Catherine M. Giles, Angie L. Cradock and Steven L. Gortmaker. "Simulation of Growth Trajectories of Childhood Obesity into Adulthood." New England Journal of Medicine 377,22 (30 November 2017): 2145-2153.
14. Weitzman, Michael
Gortmaker, Steven L.
Sobol, Arthur M.
Maternal Smoking and Behavior Problems of Children
Pediatrics 90,3 (September 1992): 342-349.
Also: http://www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/abstract/90/3/342
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Asthma; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Birthweight; Child Health; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Mortality; Mothers, Behavior; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Self-Esteem

Numerous health consequences of children's exposure to maternal smoking have been demonstrated, including increased rates of low birth weight, infant mortality, respiratory infections, asthma, and modest impairments of cognitive development. There is little evidence, however, linking maternal smoking and increased rates of children's behavior problems. Data from the population-based National Longitudinal Survey of Youth were used to investigate the possible association of maternal smoking and behavior problems among 2256 children aged 4 through 11 years. In multiple regression analyses the authors controlled for child's race, age, sex, birth weight, and chronic asthma; family structure, income, and divorce or separation in the prior 2 years; mother's education, intelligence, self-esteem, employment status, chronic disabling health conditions, and use of alcohol during pregnancy; and the quality of the home environment as assessed by the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment-Short Form to investigate the relationship between maternal smoking and children's behavior problems. The measure of maternal smoking status reflected two levels of smoking intensity (less than a pack per day and a pack or more per day) for each of three different categories of children's exposure: prenatal only (mother smoked only during pregnancy), passive only (mother smoked only after pregnancy), and prenatal plus passive exposure (mother smoked both during and after pregnancy). Measures of children's behavior problems included the overall score on a 32-item parent-reported child Behavior Problem Index (BPI), scores on the BPI's subscales, and rates of extreme scores on the BPI.
Bibliography Citation
Weitzman, Michael, Steven L. Gortmaker and Arthur M. Sobol. "Maternal Smoking and Behavior Problems of Children." Pediatrics 90,3 (September 1992): 342-349.