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Source: Journal of Urban Economics
Resulting in 11 citations.
1. Bacolod, Marigee Ponla
Blum, Bernardo S.
Strange, William C.
Skills in the City
Journal of Urban Economics 65,2 (March 2009):136-153.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0094119008001083
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Academic Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Cognitive Development; Geocoded Data; Human Capital; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Neighborhood Effects; Occupational Choice; Rural/Urban Differences; Rural/Urban Migration; Skilled Workers; Urban and Regional Planning; Urbanization/Urban Living

This paper documents the allocation of skills across cities and estimates the impact of agglomeration on the hedonic prices of worker skills. We find that large cities are more skilled than are small cities, but only to a modest degree. We also show that the increase in productivity associated with agglomeration, as measured by the urban wage premium, is larger for workers with stronger cognitive and people skills. In contrast, motor skills and physical strength are not rewarded to a greater degree in large cities. Urbanization thus enhances thinking and social interaction, rather than physical abilities. These results are robust to a variety of estimation strategies, including using NLSY variables that control for worker quality and a worker-MSA fixed effect specification.
Bibliography Citation
Bacolod, Marigee Ponla, Bernardo S. Blum and William C. Strange. "Skills in the City." Journal of Urban Economics 65,2 (March 2009):136-153.
2. Baum, Charles L., II
The Effects of Vehicle Ownership on Employment
Journal of Urban Economics 66,3 (November 2009): 151-163.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0094119009000412
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Academic Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Employment; Job Search; Mothers, Education; Parents, Single; Rural/Urban Differences; Transportation; Welfare

Vehicle ownership may promote work if employment opportunities and job searches are enhanced by reliable transportation. For example, vehicles may serve to reduce potential physical isolation from employment opportunities. I examine the effects of vehicle ownership and vehicle quality on employment for single mothers with no more than a high school education using National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data. I control for potential bias by jointly estimating employment and vehicle ownership in a maximum likelihood framework using state welfare eligibility asset rules as instruments. Results show that vehicle ownership increases employment. Positive effects of vehicles do not differ for urban and rural residents, but they do change with economic conditions. Further, welfare recipients are significantly more likely to exit the program and become employed if they own a vehicle. [Copyright 2009 Elsevier]
Bibliography Citation
Baum, Charles L., II. "The Effects of Vehicle Ownership on Employment." Journal of Urban Economics 66,3 (November 2009): 151-163.
3. Borjas, George J.
To Ghetto or Not to Ghetto: Ethnicity and Residential Segregation
Journal of Urban Economics 44,2 (September 1998): 228-253.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0094119097920684
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Academic Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Household Composition; Household Income; Household Models; Human Capital

This paper analyzes the link between ethnicity and the choice of residing in ethnically segregated neighborhoods. Data drawn from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth show that there exist strong human capital externalities both within and across ethnic groups. As a result, the segregation choices made by particular households depend both on the household's economic opportunities and on aggregate characteristics of the ethnic groups. The evidence suggests that highly skilled persons who belong to disadvantaged groups have lower probabilities of ethnic residential segregation--relative to the choices made by the most skilled persons in the most skilled groups. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.
Bibliography Citation
Borjas, George J. "To Ghetto or Not to Ghetto: Ethnicity and Residential Segregation." Journal of Urban Economics 44,2 (September 1998): 228-253.
4. Borjas, George J.
Bronars, Stephen G.
Trejo, Stephen J.
Self-Selection and Internal Migration in the United States
Journal of Urban Economics 32,2 (September 1992): 159-185.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0094119092900034
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Academic Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Geographical Variation; Migration; Mobility; Mobility, Labor Market; Regions; Residence; Rural/Urban Differences; Skilled Workers; Skills

Within the conceptual framework of the Roy model, this paper provides an empirical analysis of internal migration flows using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The theoretical approach highlights regional differences in the return to skills: regions that pay higher returns to skills attract more skilled workers than regions that pay lower returns. The authors empirical results suggest that interstate differences in the returns to skills are a major determinant of both the size and skill composition of internal migration flows. Persons whose skills are most mismatched with the reward structure offered by their current state of residence are the persons most likely to leave that state, and these persons tend to relocate in states which offer higher rewards for their particular skills. (c) 1992 Academic Press, Inc.
Bibliography Citation
Borjas, George J., Stephen G. Bronars and Stephen J. Trejo. "Self-Selection and Internal Migration in the United States." Journal of Urban Economics 32,2 (September 1992): 159-185.
5. Eid, Jean
Overman, Henry G.
Puga, Diego
Turner, Matthew A.
Fat City: Questioning the Relationship Between Urban Sprawl and Obesity
Journal of Urban Economics 63,2 (March 2008): 385-404.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0094119007001209
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Academic Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Geocoded Data; Neighborhood Effects; Obesity; Urbanization/Urban Living

We study the relationship between urban sprawl and obesity. Using data that tracks individuals over time, we find no evidence that urban sprawl causes obesity. We show that previous findings of a positive relationship most likely reflect a failure to properly control for the fact the individuals who are more likely to be obese choose to live in more sprawling neighborhoods. Our results indicate that current interest in changing the built environment to counter the rise in obesity is misguided.
Bibliography Citation
Eid, Jean, Henry G. Overman, Diego Puga and Matthew A. Turner. "Fat City: Questioning the Relationship Between Urban Sprawl and Obesity ." Journal of Urban Economics 63,2 (March 2008): 385-404.
6. Engelhardt, Gary V.
Nominal Loss Aversion, Housing Equity Constraints, and Household Mobility: Evidence from the United States
Journal of Urban Economics 53,1 (January 2003): 171-195.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0094119002005119
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Academic Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Home Ownership; Mobility

This paper exploits the recent variation in US house prices to examine the effect of equity constraints and nominal loss aversion on household mobility. Detailed data from the 1985-1996 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) were matched with house price data from 149 metropolitan areas to estimate instrumental variables linear probability and semi-parametric proportional hazard models of intra-metropolitan mobility. Household mobility is significantly influenced by nominal loss aversion. There is little evidence that low equity because of fallen house prices constrains mobility. [Copyright 2003 Elsevier]
Bibliography Citation
Engelhardt, Gary V. "Nominal Loss Aversion, Housing Equity Constraints, and Household Mobility: Evidence from the United States." Journal of Urban Economics 53,1 (January 2003): 171-195.
7. Haurin, Donald R.
Hendershott, Patric H.
Kim, Dongwook
Housing Decisions of American Youth
Journal of Urban Economics 35,1 (January 1994): 28-45.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0094119084710023
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Academic Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Demography; Earnings; Family Background; Family Formation; Home Ownership; Household Composition; Household Structure; Labor Supply

The relationship of household tenure decision with household formation and labor supply choices is examined. Primary data used was the 1987 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth which was filled out by respondents aged 22 to 29 years old. Results show that young adults' decisions whether to live alone (single/married), or to cohabit with parents or other adults is influenced by potential earnings and housing rental costs. Household tenure choice, on the other hand, depends on wealth, the relative homeowning cost and demographic variables such as gender, presence of children and race. Finally, housing demand is swayed by potential wage, wealth and owner cost, but not by demographic and family background factors.
Bibliography Citation
Haurin, Donald R., Patric H. Hendershott and Dongwook Kim. "Housing Decisions of American Youth." Journal of Urban Economics 35,1 (January 1994): 28-45.
8. Hjalmarsson, Randi
Criminal Justice Involvement and High School Completion
Journal of Urban Economics 63,2 (March 2008): 613-630.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0094119007000642
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Academic Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Arrests; GED/General Educational Diploma/General Equivalency Degree/General Educational Development; Heterogeneity; High School Completion/Graduates; Human Capital; Incarceration/Jail

This paper analyzes the relationships between juvenile justice system interactions and high school graduation. When controlling for a large set of observable and unobservable characteristics, arrested and incarcerated individuals are about 11 and 26 percentage points, respectively, less likely to graduate high school than non-arrested individuals. However, the effect of arrest is not robust to there being relatively little selection on unobservable characteristics. In contrast, the incarceration effect is less sensitive to such selection and therefore more likely to at least partially represent a real effect. The remainder of the paper explores the mechanisms underlying this incarceration effect, including hypotheses of an education impeding stigma and disruptions in human capital accumulation. © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bibliography Citation
Hjalmarsson, Randi. "Criminal Justice Involvement and High School Completion ." Journal of Urban Economics 63,2 (March 2008): 613-630.
9. Lovenheim, Michael F.
Owens, Emily G.
Does Federal Financial Aid Affect College Enrollment? Evidence from Drug Offenders and the Higher Education Act of 1998
Journal of Urban Economics 81 (May 2014): 1-13.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0094119014000096
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Arrests; College Enrollment; Drug Use; Educational Attainment; Financial Assistance

In 2001, amendments to the Higher Education Act made people convicted of drug offenses ineligible for federal financial aid for up to two years after their conviction. Using rich data on educational outcomes and drug charges in the NLSY 1997, we show that this law change had a large negative impact on the college attendance of students with drug convictions. On average, the temporary ban on federal financial aid increased the amount of time between high school graduation and college enrollment by about two years, and we also present suggestive evidence that affected students were less likely to ever enroll in college. Students living in urban areas are the most affected by these amendments. Importantly, we do not find that the law deterred young people from committing drug felonies nor did it substantively change the probability that high school students with drug convictions graduated from high school. We find no evidence of a change in college enrollment of students convicted of non-drug crimes, or of those charged by not convicted of drug offenses. In contrast to much of the existing research, we conclude that, for this high-risk group of students, eligibility for federal financial aid strongly impacts college investment decisions.
Bibliography Citation
Lovenheim, Michael F. and Emily G. Owens. "Does Federal Financial Aid Affect College Enrollment? Evidence from Drug Offenders and the Higher Education Act of 1998." Journal of Urban Economics 81 (May 2014): 1-13.
10. Reid, Clifford E.
The Effect of Residential Location on the Wages of Black Women and White Women
Journal of Urban Economics 18,3 (November 1985): 350-363.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0094119085900087
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Academic Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Earnings; Geographical Variation; Residence

After reviewing previous research in the area, the analysis of black and white women's wages according to residential location is conducted, using data from the NLS. Wages for black women appear to be unaffected by residential location, if occupation and industry employment are controlled as variables. The research does not strongly support or refute the theory that suburban nonwhites enjoy higher salaries than central city nonwhites. [MGMT CONTENTS]
Bibliography Citation
Reid, Clifford E. "The Effect of Residential Location on the Wages of Black Women and White Women." Journal of Urban Economics 18,3 (November 1985): 350-363.
11. Wheeler, Christopher H.
Cities and the Growth of Wages Among Young Workers: Evidence from the NLSY
Journal of Urban Economics 60,2 (September 2006): 162-184.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0094119006000179
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Academic Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Human Capital Theory; Job Skills; Local Labor Market; Mobility, Job; Skills; Urbanization/Urban Living; Wage Growth

Human capital-based theories of cities suggest that large, economically diverse urban agglomerations increase worker productivity by increasing the rate at which individuals acquire skills. One largely unexplored implication of this theory is that workers in big cities should see faster growth in their earnings over time than comparable workers in smaller markets. This paper examines this implication using data on a sample of young male workers drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Cohort. The results suggest that earnings growth does tend to be faster in large, economically diverse local labor markets—-defined as counties and metropolitan areas—-than in smaller, more specialized markets. Yet, when examined in greater detail, I also find that this association tends to be the product of faster wage growth due to job changes rather than faster wage growth experienced while on a particular job. This result is consistent with the idea that cities enhance worker productivity through a job search and matching process and, thus, that an important aspect of 'learning' in cities may involve individuals learning about what they do well. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR; Copyright 2006 Elsevier]
Bibliography Citation
Wheeler, Christopher H. "Cities and the Growth of Wages Among Young Workers: Evidence from the NLSY." Journal of Urban Economics 60,2 (September 2006): 162-184.