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Source: Employment Policies Institute
Resulting in 6 citations.
1. Employment Policies Institute
Just Getting By? Income Dependence on Minimum Wage Jobs
Policy Brief, Washington, DC: Employment Policies Institute, March 2011.
Also: http://epionline.org/studies/Schiller_Policy_Brief.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Employment Policies Institute
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); Employment, Part-Time; Family Income; Job Satisfaction; Minimum Wage; Wage Growth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), Schiller looks at employment and family income for minimum wage workers between the ages of 33 and 50, in the years between 1998 and 2006 when the federal minimum wage was unchanged at $5.15 an hour.
Bibliography Citation
Employment Policies Institute. "Just Getting By? Income Dependence on Minimum Wage Jobs." Policy Brief, Washington, DC: Employment Policies Institute, March 2011.
2. Ruhm, Christopher J.
Effects of High School Work Experience on Future Economic Attainment
Washington DC: Employment Policies Institute, May 1994
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Employment Policies Institute
Keyword(s): Employment, Part-Time; Employment, Youth; High School Students; Training, Post-School; Vocational Education; Wages, Youth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A study used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to track the earnings histories of high school students over a period of 12 years, starting in either their freshman or sophomore year of high school. Contrary to some previous research, the analysis failed to uncover any evidence of harmful effects of working during high school. Instead, jobs held during the senior year yielded substantial and lasting benefits. Moderate work (1-20 hours per week) had a strong positive influence on adult earnings. Those who showed no work activity as seniors had average earnings of about $16,000 a year, rising to over $20,300 for those working 1-10 hours a week. This was slightly above the annual earnings of those reported having worked either 11-20 hours a week (annual earnings almost $19,600) or more than 20 hours a week (barely $20,300). This pattern of adult earnings persisted if the data were disaggregated. For males as a group, adult earnings rose from about $18,600 for those reporting no work to just over $24,000 for those who reported working 1-10 hours a week. Earnings for adult women peaked at 11-20 hours of work as a senior compared to 1-10 hours for males. For whites as a group, earnings rose consistently with hours worked in school. (Contains 33 references.) (YLB)
Bibliography Citation
Ruhm, Christopher J. Effects of High School Work Experience on Future Economic Attainment. Washington DC: Employment Policies Institute, May 1994.
3. Ruhm, Christopher J.
Baum, Charles L., II
The Lasting Benefits of Early Work Experience
Policy Report, Washington DC: Employment Policies Institute, August 2014.
Also: https://www.epionline.org/study/the-lasting-benefits-of-early-work-experience/
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Employment Policies Institute
Keyword(s): Employment, In-School; Employment, Part-Time; Employment, Youth; High School Employment; Minimum Wage; Occupational Attainment; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The US labor market has recovered slowly but steadily in the years since the Great Recession officially ended in June 2009. But for young adults between the ages of 16 and 19, the recovery has been tepid at best: In the five year period since the summer of 2008, youth unemployment has averaged a staggering 23.5 percent, and the seasonally-adjusted rate was still north of 21 percent as of this writing. These young adults are missing out on extra spending cash, but they’re also missing out on early workforce experience that could play a valuable role in future career development. In this new study, Drs. Christopher Ruhm of the University of Virginia and Charles Baum of Middle Tennessee State University examine data that spans three decades to measure the career benefits of early work experience.

The economists rely on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), which tracks the career progress of one group of respondents who graduated from high school in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and another group of respondents who were in high school around the turn of the millennium. This permits them to examine both the near-term benefits of early work experience (roughly 10 years after graduation) and the longer-term benefits of that experience (roughly 30 years after graduation).

Carefully controlling for other family background characteristics that could impact subsequent career achievement, Drs. Ruhm and Baum find clear evidence that part-time work by young adults–both during senior year of high school, and during the summer months—translates to future career benefits that include higher hourly wages, increased annual earnings and less time spent out of work.

Bibliography Citation
Ruhm, Christopher J. and Charles L. Baum. "The Lasting Benefits of Early Work Experience." Policy Report, Washington DC: Employment Policies Institute, August 2014.
4. Schiller, Bradley R.
Just Getting By? Income Dependence On Minimum Wage Jobs
Final Report, Washington, DC: Employment Policies Institute, March 2011.
Also: http://epionline.org/study_detail.cfm?sid=132
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Employment Policies Institute
Keyword(s): Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); Employment, Part-Time; Family Income; Job Satisfaction; Minimum Wage; Wage Growth; Work Histories

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Schiller’s study shows that only a small minority of adults age 33 to 50 who earn at or below the minimum wage are the primary (or sole) breadwinner in their household. Previous research has shown that long-term minimum wage earners (while an enormously small portion of the population) often lack basic job skills needed to move up in the workforce. Paradoxically, raising the minimum wage in an attempt to help this small subset of minimum wage workers can actually harm them; decades of economic research show that artificially raising the cost to hire and train these employees makes it likely that management will hire a more-skilled employee to do their job (or replace that job with an automated, self-service alternative).
Bibliography Citation
Schiller, Bradley R. "Just Getting By? Income Dependence On Minimum Wage Jobs." Final Report, Washington, DC: Employment Policies Institute, March 2011.
5. Schiller, Bradley R.
Youth Employment in the Hospitality Sector
Washington DC: Employment Policies Institute, June 1995.
Also: http://www.epionline.org/study_detail.cfm?sid=49
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Employment Policies Institute
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Employment; Employment, Part-Time; Employment, Youth; Higher Education; Job Tenure; Part-Time Work; Schooling; Wage Effects; Wage Growth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A study used data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth to analyze the long-term effects of hospitality industry employment on youth. The subsample extracted for the study included all youth who were aged 16-24 in 1980 and employed in the civilian sector for pay at any time in the year. Statistics indicated the hospitality sector was clearly a major source of employment for youth employing nearly one out of five (18.1%) working youth in any given year. Especially important was the availability of part-time opportunities for students. Students, particularly those college bound or in college, filled a disproportionately large share of jobs in the sector. Although entry-level jobs were an important source of income support for students and other youth, relatively few young workers established careers in the industry. Industry affiliation declined sharply as workers got older. Although many youth, particularly students, had several years of experience (part-time) in the restaurant and hotel industries, few youth remained in the industry. Noncollege-bound youth were even less likely to make longer-term commitments to this sector. As their work lives evolved, the youth with experience in the hospitality industry followed the average tendency toward rapidly rising wage levels. With no distinct long-term wage effect from experience in the hospitality sector, such jobs were best viewed as a transitory phase in highly varied career paths. The youth who held jobs in the hospitality sector were likely to complete additional schooling than youth employed in other industries. (YLB).
Bibliography Citation
Schiller, Bradley R. Youth Employment in the Hospitality Sector. Washington DC: Employment Policies Institute, June 1995..
6. Wright, James D.
Carr, Rhoda Viellion
Effects of High School Work Experience a Decade Later: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey
Washington DC: Employment Policies Institute, September 1995
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Employment Policies Institute
Keyword(s): Families, Two-Parent; Family Background; Family Income; High School; High School Completion/Graduates; Labor Force Participation; Part-Time Work; Teenagers; Unemployment Rate; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using a data sample from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth that included all youths enrolled in high school who were aged 16-19 in 1979, a study tracked the youths' labor force attachment and earnings 12 years later. The study found that students who worked while in high school show increased rates of labor force participation along with lower rates of unemployment 12 years later. At the later date, of those with the heaviest work schedules while in school, 87 percent were employed and only 4 percent were unemployed (the rest were not in the labor force). Those with moderate work hours while in school had an 81 percent employment rate and 5 percent unemployment rate 12 years later, whereas of those with no work hours while in school 72 percent were employed and 7 percent were unemployed. In addition, those who had the heaviest work schedules while in high school had the highest earnings in the later study---attributable to more hours worked per year. The study also found that the teens who were most likely to work had higher family incomes, better-educated parents, and more often, two working parents in the home. When differences in family background were accounted for, the only potentially negative effect of in-school work is that those who worked, especially those who worked the most hours, tended to complete about 12 weeks less total education than did students who did not work while in school. The study concluded that the measured reduction in adult unemployment rates of those teens who worked speaks to the importance and value of the work they carried out. Their reduced unemployment rates, greater labor force attachment, and earnings gains all took place despite the fact that the typical employment opportunities were found in the service and retail sectors, jobs often maligned in discussions of the current economy. (Contains 22 references.) (KC)
Bibliography Citation
Wright, James D. and Rhoda Viellion Carr. Effects of High School Work Experience a Decade Later: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey. Washington DC: Employment Policies Institute, September 1995.