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Author: Smythe, Andria C.
Resulting in 3 citations.
1. Daniels, Gerald
Smythe, Andria C.
Student Debt and Labor Market Outcomes
Working Paper, Social Science Research Network, March 2018.
Also: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3052040
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc.
Keyword(s): Debt/Borrowing; Income; Labor Market Outcomes; Student Loans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We study the impact of student debt on various labor market outcomes, namely, labor market income, hourly wages, hours worked, probability of being employed and probability of full-time employment. Using data from the NLSY97 surveys and a difference in difference approach, we find statistically significant differences in labor market outcomes for individuals who received a student loan versus those who received no student loan. Our findings are that the difference in income during versus after college enrollment is 8-9 percent higher for student debt holders when compared to individuals with no student debt. We find evidence that this higher income among student loan holders is due to higher work hours rather than higher wage rates. We also find that the difference in full-time employment during versus after college enrollment is 5 percent higher for student-debt holders when compared to students with no debt. [Also presented at Atlanta GA, American Economic Association Annual Meeting, January 2019]
Bibliography Citation
Daniels, Gerald and Andria C. Smythe. "Student Debt and Labor Market Outcomes." Working Paper, Social Science Research Network, March 2018.
2. Smythe, Andria C.
Labor Market Conditions and Racial/Ethnic Differences in College Enrollment
Journal of Economics, Race, and Policy 2,3 (September 2019): 173-183.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s41996-019-00030-4
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): College Enrollment; Ethnic Differences; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Racial Differences; Unemployment Rate

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The racial/ethnic differences in college enrollment are pervasive and persistent. In this article, I provide evidence of a business cycle-driven component to the college enrollment gaps among racial/ethnic groups in the USA. Using a nationally representative sample from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youths 1997 (NLSY97) and fixed-effects enrollment probability models, I find that Hispanics are more likely than non-Black-non-Hispanics to enroll in 2-year college during high unemployment periods. Similarly, I find that individuals who are Black are more likely than non-Black-non-Hispanic individuals to enroll in 2-year colleges but are less likely to enroll in 4-year colleges during periods of high unemployment. The positive effect of high unemployment rate on 2-year college enrollment for Blacks is almost entirely offset by negative effects on 4-year college enrollment. Non-Black-non-Hispanics are least sensitive to labor market conditions. The cyclicality of college enrollment rates of Blacks and Hispanics and the relatively smooth enrollment rates of non-Black-non-Hispanic individuals may be able to explain a part of the persistent gap in college enrollment.
Bibliography Citation
Smythe, Andria C. "Labor Market Conditions and Racial/Ethnic Differences in College Enrollment." Journal of Economics, Race, and Policy 2,3 (September 2019): 173-183.
3. Smythe, Andria C.
The Impact of Economic Conditions during the College-aged Years on Educational Outcomes
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Temple University, 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): College Enrollment; Dropouts; Economic Changes/Recession; Educational Attainment; Educational Outcomes; Geocoded Data

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Essay 1 examines whether economic conditions affect college participation among different demographic groups differently. The main or average effect of an economic downturn on enrollment is well studied. However, research on how a downturn affects individuals from different backgrounds is rare. Using a class of logit models that account for interaction effects, I find that individuals who are black or Hispanic and individuals from low education maternal backgrounds are more likely to enroll in college during high unemployment periods compared to individuals from other demographic backgrounds.

Essay 2 picks up where essay 1 leaves off by investigating college outcomes for individuals who enrolled during a recession. While many studies consider the enrollment decisions, little evidence exists on whether enrollment is successfully transformed into completed education for recession era enrollees. Employing an innovative competing risk model, I estimate the completion and drop-out probabilities for individuals who enrolled during a downturn. I find that individuals who enrolled in college at 18 and who experience a recession at enrollment, are less likely to complete a 4-year degree by age 24, are more likely to complete a 2-year degree, are more likely to drop out of college and are more likely to experience inactivity.

Essay 3 builds upon the negative effects of a recession on college-aged youths found in essay 2. In essay 3, I study educational attainment after individuals have exited their college-aged years. I investigate whether cohorts who experienced adverse economic conditions during young adulthood eventually caught up with their luckier counterparts who experienced more prosperous years. I find that individuals who experience adverse economic conditions during parts of the college-aged years (18-21) experience lower educational attainment than those who experience more prosperous college-aged years and these negative effects are still present up to ten years post college-age.

Bibliography Citation
Smythe, Andria C. The Impact of Economic Conditions during the College-aged Years on Educational Outcomes. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Temple University, 2015.