Search Results

Author: Smith, Patricia K.
Resulting in 7 citations.
1. Smith, Patricia K.
Bogin, Barry
Bishai, David M.
Are Time Preference and Body Mass Index Associated? Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
Economics and Human Biology 3,2 (July 2005): 259-270.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1570677X05000286
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Ethnic Differences; Gender Differences; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Height, Height-Weight Ratios; Obesity; Racial Differences; Time Preference; Weight

The prevalence of obesity among both adults and children in the U.S. has risen to all time highs in the past two decades. We propose that an increase in the marginal rate of time preference has contributed to increasing obesity. More people are consuming more calories than they expend because they have become less willing to trade current pleasure for potential future health benefits. Accordingly, this paper explores the association between body mass index (BMI) and time preference. We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) to test our hypothesis that time preference and BMI are positively related. We find some evidence that there is such a positive association among black and Hispanic men and black women.
Bibliography Citation
Smith, Patricia K., Barry Bogin and David M. Bishai. "Are Time Preference and Body Mass Index Associated? Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." Economics and Human Biology 3,2 (July 2005): 259-270.
2. Smith, Patricia K.
Shah, Parth J.
Does Policy Affect a Teen's Pregnancy Resolution Decision?
Department of Social Sciences, Economics ,University of Michigan-Dearborn, 1996
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Social Sciences, Economics, University of Michigan-Dearborn
Keyword(s): Abortion; Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Food Stamps (see Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program); Marital Status; Mothers, Adolescent; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Pregnancy, Adolescent; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines a pregnant teen's choice between marital birth, premarital birth, and abortion. We estimate the effect of benefit levels in the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) and Food Stamps programs, the legal restrictions on Medicaid funding for abortions, and parental involvement restrictions on a minor's access to abortion on a teen's first premarital pregnancy resolution decision while controlling for an host of other factors. The results suggest that a teen's individual characteristics are very influential. However, there is evidence that prior family welfare receipt and the level of welfare benefits lower the likelihood that the teen will marry.
Bibliography Citation
Smith, Patricia K. and Parth J. Shah. "Does Policy Affect a Teen's Pregnancy Resolution Decision?" Department of Social Sciences, Economics ,University of Michigan-Dearborn, 1996.
3. Smith, Patricia K.
Zagorsky, Jay L.
"Do I Look Fat?" Self-Perceived Body Weight and Labor Market Outcomes
Economics and Human Biology 30 (September 2018): 48-58.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1570677X17302617
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Employment; Labor Market Outcomes; Self-Perception; Wages; Weight

Research reporting that greater body weight is associated with lower wages and employment, particularly among women, focuses on how employers perceive workers. In contrast, we examine whether workers' own perceptions of body weight influence labor market outcomes. Numerous studies find that misperception of body weight influences health behaviors and health, both mental and physical. For example, anorexia nervosa involves the over-perception of weight and raises the risk of cardiovascular disease. Do the health consequences of inaccurate self-perceived weight carry through to the labor market? We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) to investigate patterns in weight misperception and three labor market outcomes. We find little evidence that either over-perception or under-perception of weight is associated with wages, weeks worked, or the number of jobs held for women and men.
Bibliography Citation
Smith, Patricia K. and Jay L. Zagorsky. ""Do I Look Fat?" Self-Perceived Body Weight and Labor Market Outcomes." Economics and Human Biology 30 (September 2018): 48-58.
4. Zagorsky, Jay L.
Smith, Patricia K.
Does Asthma Impair Wealth Accumulation or Does Wealth Protect Against Asthma?
Social Science Quarterly 97,5 (November 2016): 1070-1081.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ssqu.12293/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Asthma; Inheritance; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objective: We investigate the association between adult asthma and wealth, testing whether the disease impairs wealth accumulation (social selection model) or if wealth protects against asthma (social causation model).

Methods: We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 7,644) and linear and logistic regressions to estimate the association between wealth and asthma. Changes in relative wealth following an asthma diagnosis and asthma status by increases in wealth through inheritance provide evidence on the causal direction.

Results: Asthma, particularly severe asthma, is associated with lower wealth. Wealth ranking does not change after a diagnosis of asthma, but inheriting a substantial sum is associated with a lower risk of severe asthma.

Conclusion: Wealth appears to protect against severe asthma, supporting the social causation model of disease.

Bibliography Citation
Zagorsky, Jay L. and Patricia K. Smith. "Does Asthma Impair Wealth Accumulation or Does Wealth Protect Against Asthma?" Social Science Quarterly 97,5 (November 2016): 1070-1081.
5. Zagorsky, Jay L.
Smith, Patricia K.
The Association between Socioeconomic Status and Adult Fast-Food Consumption in the U.S.
Economics and Human Biology 27,A (November 2017): 12-25.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1570677X16300363
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Nutritional Status/Nutrition/Consumption Behaviors; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Wealth

Health follows a socioeconomic status (SES) gradient in developed countries with disease prevalence falling as SES rises. This pattern is partially attributed to differences in nutritional intake, with the poor eating the least healthy diets. This paper examines whether there is an SES gradient in one specific aspect of nutrition: fast-food consumption. Fast food is generally high in calories and low in nutrients. We use data from the 2008, 2010, and 2012 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) to test whether adult fast-food consumption in the United States falls as monetary resources rise (n = 8,136). This research uses more recent data than previous fast-food studies and includes a comprehensive measure of wealth in addition to income to measure SES. We find little evidence of a gradient in adult fast-food consumption with respect to wealth. While adults in the highest quintile are 54.5% less likely to report fast-food consumption than those in the lowest quintile, adults in the second and third quintiles are no less likely to report fast food-food intake than the poorest. Contrary to popular belief, fast-food consumption rises as income rises from the lowest to middle quintiles. The variation in adult fast-food consumption across income and wealth groups is, however, small. Those in the wealthiest quintile ate about one less fast-food meal on average than those in the lowest quintile. Other factors play a bigger role in explaining fast-food consumption: reading ingredient labels is negatively associated while soda consumption and hours of work are positively associated with fast-food consumption.
Bibliography Citation
Zagorsky, Jay L. and Patricia K. Smith. "The Association between Socioeconomic Status and Adult Fast-Food Consumption in the U.S." Economics and Human Biology 27,A (November 2017): 12-25.
6. Zagorsky, Jay L.
Smith, Patricia K.
The Freshman 15: A Critical Time for Obesity Intervention or Media Myth?
Social Science Quarterly 92,5 (December 2011): 1389-1407.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1540-6237.2011.00823.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): College Education; College Enrollment; Health Factors; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives: We test whether the phrase “Freshman 15” accurately describes weight change among first-year college students. We also analyze freshmen's weight change during and after college.

Methods: This is the first investigation of the “Freshman 15” to use a nationally representative random sample, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97). The data are analyzed using descriptive statistics, regression analysis, simulations, and longitudinal analysis.

Results: Freshmen gain between 2.5 to 3.5 pounds, on average, over the course of their first year of college. Compared to same-age noncollege attendees, the typical freshman gains only an additional half-pound. Instead of a spike in weight during the freshman year, college-educated individuals exhibit moderate but steady weight gain during and after college.

Conclusion: Anti-obesity efforts directed specifically at college freshmen will likely have little impact on obesity prevalence among young adults.

Bibliography Citation
Zagorsky, Jay L. and Patricia K. Smith. "The Freshman 15: A Critical Time for Obesity Intervention or Media Myth?" Social Science Quarterly 92,5 (December 2011): 1389-1407.
7. Zagorsky, Jay L.
Smith, Patricia K.
Who Drinks Soda Pop? Economic Status and Adult Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages
Economics and Human Biology published online (5 May 2020): 100888.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1570677X1930214X
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Income; Nutritional Status/Nutrition/Consumption Behaviors; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Wealth

We use two cohorts from the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLSY79 and NLSY97), which are large, nationally representative samples of U.S. adults, to investigate consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) by SES, using nine surveys fielded between 2008 and 2016. Previous studies used income and education to measure SES, the NLS enables us to include wealth as well. Previous studies also used cross-sectional data, whereas the NLS allows us to examine whether changes in income and wealth correlate with changes in SSB intake.

The results indicate an inverse gradient in SSB consumption with respect to both income and wealth, controlling for education. However, we do not find evidence that changes in income and wealth correlate with changes in SSB intake. This finding suggests that SES influences the development of SSB consumption patterns, but changes in income and wealth generally do not alter them in adulthood.

Bibliography Citation
Zagorsky, Jay L. and Patricia K. Smith. "Who Drinks Soda Pop? Economic Status and Adult Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages." Economics and Human Biology published online (5 May 2020): 100888.