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Author: Pace, Garrett T.
Resulting in 3 citations.
1. Pace, Garrett T.
Shafer, Kevin M.
Divorce, Cohabitation and Remarriage: The Association of (Step)Children and Adult Depression
Presented: San Diego CA, Society for Social Work and Research Annual Conference, January 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Society for Social Work and Research (SSWR)
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Depression (see also CESD); Divorce; Remarriage; Stepfamilies

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Method: Data were from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), a nationally representative sample of adults born between 1957 and 1965. Data were collected annually until 1994 and biannually since. Respondents (n = 1,561) had each divorced at T1 (age 27-37), and were continuously divorced (27%), cohabiting (12%), or remarried (61%) at T2 (age 40 or 50). Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression Scale (CES-D) and dichotomized as “high depressive symptoms” and “low depressive symptoms.” Children were categorized as stepchild in household, biological child from previous relationship in household, or new child with partner. Data were analyzed using logistic regression with odds ratios.

Results: Respondents tended to experience less depressive symptoms during their new relationship than previously during divorce. Also, compared to the continuously divorced, cohabiting and remarried respondents had approximately 38% lower odds of high depressive symptoms (p < .05). Those who had a new child with their new partner while a stepchild was already present in the home were 4.614 times more likely to have high depressive symptoms than those without children (p < .01). Respondents who had a new child in the first year of their new relationship had a very low likelihood of depressive symptoms; however, the odds increased by 10.4% for each year they waited to have a new child together.

Bibliography Citation
Pace, Garrett T. and Kevin M. Shafer. "Divorce, Cohabitation and Remarriage: The Association of (Step)Children and Adult Depression." Presented: San Diego CA, Society for Social Work and Research Annual Conference, January 2013.
2. Pace, Garrett T.
Shafer, Kevin M.
Parenting and Depression: Differences Across Parental Roles
Journal of Family Issues 36,8 (June 2015): 1001-1021.
Also: http://jfi.sagepub.com/content/36/8/1001.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Children; Depression (see also CESD); Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parenthood; Parenting Skills/Styles; Stepfamilies

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Few empirical studies have examined the association between parenthood and psychological well-being. Using NLSY79 data (n = 6,297), we examined how various parental roles, or specific parent–child relationship types, were associated with depressive symptoms in adults. We hypothesized that less traditional and more complex parental roles would be associated with higher depressive symptoms. Ordinary least squares regression results revealed that having a stepchild was associated with higher depressive symptoms, regardless of the stepchild’s residential status. Additionally, certain combinations of parental roles were a risk factor for depressive symptoms, including having a biological child residing in the home and another biological child residing outside the home simultaneously, a biological child and a stepchild residing together (with or without a new biological child), and having more than two combined parental roles in general. Findings suggested certain parental roles are indeed associated with higher depressive symptoms, while others may be null relationships.
Bibliography Citation
Pace, Garrett T. and Kevin M. Shafer. "Parenting and Depression: Differences Across Parental Roles." Journal of Family Issues 36,8 (June 2015): 1001-1021.
3. Shafer, Kevin M.
Pace, Garrett T.
Gender Differences in Depression across Parental Roles
Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Depression (see also CESD); Family Structure; Gender Differences; Parenthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Prior research has focused on the relationship between parenthood and psychological well-being with mixed results. Some studies have also addressed potential gender differences in this relationship, again yielding varied findings. One reason may be methodological choices pursued in these studies, including the lack of focus on combined parental roles (i.e., biological parent and stepparent). We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 (NLSY, n= 6276) and multinomial treatment models to address how combined roles influence depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers. Further, we explore potential gender differences. Our results indicate that numerous parental roles are negatively associated with psychological well-being for both men and women, while childlessness is negative for women, and specific parental role combinations affect mothers and fathers differently. Within the context of changing family structure in the U.S., these results help us understand any link how gendered parental roles can influence mental health.
Bibliography Citation
Shafer, Kevin M. and Garrett T. Pace. "Gender Differences in Depression across Parental Roles." Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014.