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Author: Routon, P. Wesley
Resulting in 7 citations.
1. Brown, Christian
Routon, P. Wesley
Military Service and the Civilian Labor Force: Time- and Income-Based Evidence
Armed Forces and Society 42,3 (July 2016): 562-584.
Also: http://afs.sagepub.com/content/42/3/562
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Inter-University Seminar on Armed Forces & Society
Keyword(s): Earnings; Labor Force Participation; Military Service

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The average American military enlistee is likely to differ from the average civilian in employment ambitions and prospects. Current research on veteran wages, however, only examines the effect of military service on average earnings. We employ quantile regression techniques to estimate the effect of military service for the above- and below-average earnings that veterans may experience. We draw data from two longitudinal surveys, one including veterans who served during 1980-1994 and the other including veterans of the early 21st-century wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the 21st-century cohort, we find that military service appears to increase wages at and below the median wage but decrease earnings at the high end of the distribution, although these benefits may take several years after service and entry into the civilian labor market to appear.
Bibliography Citation
Brown, Christian and P. Wesley Routon. "Military Service and the Civilian Labor Force: Time- and Income-Based Evidence." Armed Forces and Society 42,3 (July 2016): 562-584.
2. Brown, Christian
Routon, P. Wesley
On the Distributional and Evolutionary Nature of the Obesity Wage Penalty
Economics and Human Biology 28 (February 2018): 160-172.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1570677X17301089
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Obesity; Wage Effects; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

The economics literature supports a link between labor market measures, such as earnings, and health conditions, such as obesity. There is reason to believe the effects of obesity on wages may vary for high- and low-earning individuals and that obesity wage effects may evolve over a lifecycle or from generation to generation. Drawing on data from two longitudinal surveys, we estimate quantile and fixed effect quantile regressions, among others, to further examine the obesity wage effect. Results suggest an increasingly severe penalty across the wage distribution for females. Specifically, the highest-earning women may be penalized as much as five times that of the lowest earners. Results for males suggest that penalties may be present at select wage levels, while prior research has generally found no male obesity penalty. We also provide evidence that the obesity penalty has increased across generations and limited evidence that it may slow earnings growth over one's lifetime.
Bibliography Citation
Brown, Christian and P. Wesley Routon. "On the Distributional and Evolutionary Nature of the Obesity Wage Penalty." Economics and Human Biology 28 (February 2018): 160-172.
3. DeBacker, Jason M.
Routon, P. Wesley
Expectations, Education, and Opportunity
Journal of Economic Psychology 59 (April 2017): 29-44.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167487016302379
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Expectations/Intentions; Parental Influences; Socioeconomic Background

Using a long panel of youths, we establish a causal link between parental expectations regarding education and educational attainment. In particular, we use an instrumental variables approach to find that the child's chances of obtaining a high school or college degree are increasing in the parent's expectations of the likelihood of these events. We then use differences between the objective likelihood of a child's educational attainment and the parents' subjective probabilities to consider the hypothesis that lower educational outcomes among certain groups are driven by a "culture of despair," where children are low-achieving because they are expected to underachieve. While we do find that children from households with lower levels of income, wealth, and parental education are less likely to attain high school and college degrees, we reject the hypothesis that this is driven by low subjective expectations of educational success. Rather, we find that parents from disadvantaged groups have expectations for the educational outcomes of their children that differ more from the statistical likelihood of these outcomes than do parents of children from advantaged households. That is, we find that parents in more disadvantaged households are more optimistic about the educational outcomes of their children than those from more advantaged households.
Bibliography Citation
DeBacker, Jason M. and P. Wesley Routon. "Expectations, Education, and Opportunity." Journal of Economic Psychology 59 (April 2017): 29-44.
4. Routon, P. Wesley
Military Service and Marital Dissolution: A Trajectory Analysis
Review of Economics of the Household 15,1 (March 2017): 335-355.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11150-016-9323-3
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Divorce; Marital Dissolution; Military Service; Veterans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Military service adds additional challenges for married couples. Previous literature on service and marital stability is comprised of mixed results and has often ignored the timing of these effects. This timing is important as it helps disclose the nature of causality and has implications for both military and social security policies. Using a trajectory specification, I estimate the effect of military service on the likelihood of divorce during the volunteer's period of service and the years following. Two veteran cohorts are examined, those who served during the early twenty-first century wars and those who served during the early 1980s. Among my results, the former cohort is shown to have had their divorce probability increased in the first 2 years post-service, while the opposite effect is found for the latter cohort. Unlike many previous studies of military service and marital stability, I find that effects are not overly dissimilar across racial groups.
Bibliography Citation
Routon, P. Wesley. "Military Service and Marital Dissolution: A Trajectory Analysis." Review of Economics of the Household 15,1 (March 2017): 335-355.
5. Routon, P. Wesley
Socio-economic Returns to Voluntary Armed Forces Service
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics and Finance, Middle Tennessee State University, 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Divorce; Educational Outcomes; Military Service; Racial Differences; Veterans; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In Chapter 1, I estimate the effect of military service during these wars on civilian labor and educational outcomes. I find that veteran status increases civilian wages by approximately ten percent for minorities but has little or no effect on whites in this regard. Veterans of all demographic groups are found to be equally employable and equally as satisfied with their civilian occupation as non-veterans. For females and minorities, veteran status substantially increases the likelihood one attempts college. They are found to be more apt to pursue and obtain a two year degree instead of a four year degree.

With respect to their employment ambitions and perhaps prospects, the average military enlistee is likely to differ from the average American. In Chapter 2, we estimate the impact military service has on civilian wages across the wage distribution. For early 21st century veterans, we find that former military service grants civilian wage premiums at and below the median wage level but perhaps penalties at the high end of the wage distribution. For late 20th century veterans, who were mostly peace-time volunteers, we find evidence that veteran wage premiums were more constant across the wage distribution.

Military service adds additional challenges for married couples. In Chapter 3, I perform a trajectory analysis of the effect of military service on the likelihood of divorce. I find that these individuals were most likely to get a divorce in the first year following active duty service, with an increased probability of three to six percentage points. A within-racial group analysis shows that these effects are stronger for whites than minorities. I find that veterans who served during an earlier period (1980-1992) were unaffected, implying differing effects for wartime versus peacetime service.

Bibliography Citation
Routon, P. Wesley. Socio-economic Returns to Voluntary Armed Forces Service. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics and Finance, Middle Tennessee State University, 2014.
6. Routon, P. Wesley
The Effect of 21st Century Military Service on Civilian Labor and Educational Outcomes
Journal of Labor Research 35,1 (March 2014): 15-38.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12122-013-9170-4
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Educational Outcomes; Labor Force Participation; Military Service; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Propensity Scores; Veterans; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

I estimate the effect of military service during the Afghanistan and Iraq wars on civilian labor and educational outcomes using several empirical methodologies including sibling fixed effects and propensity score matching. Since military occupations and training have changed significantly in the past few decades, these effects may be different than those found in previous studies on veterans of earlier theaters. I find that veteran status increases civilian wages by approximately ten percent for minorities but has little or no effect on whites in this regard. Veterans of all demographic groups are found to be equally employable and equally as satisfied with their civilian occupation as non-veterans. For females and minorities, veteran status substantially increases the likelihood one attempts college. These veterans are found to be more apt to pursue and obtain a two year (associate’s) degree instead of a four year (bachelor’s) degree. Lastly, I find mixed evidence that veteran status increases the likelihood of public sector employment.
Bibliography Citation
Routon, P. Wesley. "The Effect of 21st Century Military Service on Civilian Labor and Educational Outcomes." Journal of Labor Research 35,1 (March 2014): 15-38.
7. Routon, P. Wesley
The Probability of Teenage Parenthood: Parental Predictions and Their Accuracy
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 39,4 (December 2018): 647-661.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10834-018-9583-6
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Expectations/Intentions; Parenthood; Parenting Skills/Styles; Pregnancy, Adolescent

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Teenage parenthood is an often-discussed topic in family economics since it has been shown to affect many outcomes for the teen, child, and household. Using a nationally representative longitudinal panel of American teenagers and their parents, two questions related to the probability of teenage parenthood are examined. First, how do predictions of this occurrence made by the teenager's parents vary across the population? Second, how does the accuracy of these predictions vary? The actual prevalence and variance of teenage parenthood are also examined, and the determinants of its occurrence are estimated. Among other results, expectations and their accuracy are found to differ substantially across socioeconomic status and some demographics such as race and religion. The average American parent underestimates the probability their child will become a teen parent by only a small amount, but within certain demographic groups this outcome is considerably underestimated, and in others it is overestimated. These differences help explain the variability in teen parenthood effects, and more broadly, the analysis serves as a test of parents' ability to judge their childrens' future outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Routon, P. Wesley. "The Probability of Teenage Parenthood: Parental Predictions and Their Accuracy." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 39,4 (December 2018): 647-661.