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Author: Brown, Christian
Resulting in 7 citations.
1. Brown, Christian
Estimating the Gender-Dependent Effects of Parental Incarceration
Working Paper, Department of Economics, Middle Tennessee State University, June 2011.
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Department of Economics and Finance, Middle Tennessee State University
Keyword(s): Family Income; Fathers, Absence; Gender Differences; Household Composition; Incarceration/Jail; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Parental incarceration is believed to have deleterious effects on children's cognitive and social development as well as educational attainment. Research suggests that parent absence (and therefore parental incarceration) may have varying effects across gender. I evaluate this hypothesis empirically, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Child & Young Adult Supplement (NLSY79CYA) to estimate the long-term effect of parental incarceration on a child's level of educational attainment and wages. This paper extends the literature by estimating unique incarceration effects for each parent-child gender combination, utilizing data that identities only incarcerated parents living in the child's household. I present evidence supporting negative parent-child same-sex incarceration effects on a child's future wages, and slight but generally negative effects on educational attainment. I conclude that parental incarceration largely impacts future earnings as a negative shock to a child's development and social capital.
Bibliography Citation
Brown, Christian. "Estimating the Gender-Dependent Effects of Parental Incarceration." Working Paper, Department of Economics, Middle Tennessee State University, June 2011.
2. Brown, Christian
Incarceration and Earnings: Distributional and Long-Term Effects
Journal of Labor Research published online (12 November 2018): DOI: 10.1007/s12122-018-9280-0.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12122-018-9280-0
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Earnings; Incarceration/Jail; Labor Supply; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Before and after incarceration, the typical prisoner differs from the typical American in several ways, including education, employment prospects, and earnings. Current research on the effect of incarceration on earnings predominantly uses techniques that characterize incarceration's effect on mean wages and is limited to observing wages immediately after release. I employ data drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and a variety of quantile regressions to estimate differential incarceration penalties across the wage and income distribution. I also estimate the long-term effects of incarceration on mean wages, income, and labor supply. Results suggest that the incarceration wage penalty is relatively homogenous across wages, while more severe penalties are estimated at lower income levels, suggestive of incarceration's deleterious effect on labor supply. Mean earnings and labor supply penalties are most severe in the period after release but gradually diminish over time for releasees that do not experience additional incarceration spells.
Bibliography Citation
Brown, Christian. "Incarceration and Earnings: Distributional and Long-Term Effects." Journal of Labor Research published online (12 November 2018): DOI: 10.1007/s12122-018-9280-0.
3. Brown, Christian
Maternal Incarceration and Children's Education and Labor Market Outcomes
Labour: Review of Labour Economics and Industrial Relations 31,1 (March 2017): 43-58.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/labr.12086/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Childhood Adversity/Trauma; Dropouts; Educational Attainment; Grade Retention/Repeat Grade; Labor Market Outcomes; Mothers, Incarceration; Parental Influences

I estimate the effect of maternal incarceration on education and labor market outcomes. I link mother-child panels and estimate maternal fixed effects to control for unobservable household heterogeneity. Maternal incarceration from birth to age 10 is associated with increased grade retention and dropout rates. Conditional on completing high school, incarceration from 15 to 17 is associated with decreased college attendance. Maternal incarceration does not appear to have a further effect on employment, but some wage penalties are apparent. Propensity score analysis suggests that controlling for unobservable household characteristics is vital when examining the link between incarceration and labor outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Brown, Christian. "Maternal Incarceration and Children's Education and Labor Market Outcomes." Labour: Review of Labour Economics and Industrial Relations 31,1 (March 2017): 43-58.
4. Brown, Christian
Modern American Incarceration and Labor Economics
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics and Finance, Middle Tennessee State University, 2013
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Earnings; Educational Attainment; Family Income; Fathers, Absence; Gender Differences; Household Composition; Incarceration/Jail; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Many individuals in the United States are incarcerated. The American incarceration rate and average sentence length have risen dramatically since the early 1980s. It is commonly hypothesized that mass incarceration has had various unintended consequences on individuals, households, and society at large. In this dissertation, I examine the effects of an individual's incarceration on several economic variables, including educational attainment, employment, and earnings. Over the course of three essays, I utilize the theoretical background and empirical methodology of contemporary labor economics to establish links between the experience of incarceration and generally negative subsequent outcomes. Each chapter draws on data from the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, which allow me to examine the varying life courses and behaviors of a subsample of individuals that are incarcerated at some point during adulthood.

The first chapter of this dissertation investigates the long-term effects of parental incarceration on children. I utilize detailed intergenerational data and a variety of empirical methods to provide evidence that individuals who report resident parental incarceration during childhood experience depressed levels of educational attainment and earnings as an adult. These effects appear to vary by parent and child gender. The second chapter is concerned with estimating the returns to education attained after an incarceration spell. I analyze longitudinal individual histories of incarceration, education, employment, and earnings for a sample of former prisoners using regression and propensity score matching techniques. My results suggest that education has a positive effect on post-release labor supply and earnings, but this benefit is largely confined to the completion of four-year college degrees. The third and final chapter reevaluates the negative relationship between incarceration and earnings found in the current empirical lit erature. I extend this literature with a battery of quantile regression models. My results clarify incarceration's effect on subsequent low earnings and suggest that the incarceration wage penalty is smaller in magnitude for low-skill, low-earnings employment. In total, this dissertation extends the current understanding of incarceration's effects on individuals and households, particularly with respect to performance on the market for labor. Each essay also provides some insight into the effectiveness of American criminal justice policy.

Bibliography Citation
Brown, Christian. Modern American Incarceration and Labor Economics. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics and Finance, Middle Tennessee State University, 2013.
5. Brown, Christian
Returns to Postincarceration Education for Former Prisoners
Social Science Quarterly 96,1 (March 2015): 161-175.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ssqu.12094/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Educational Returns; GED/General Educational Diploma/General Equivalency Degree/General Educational Development; Incarceration/Jail; Labor Market Outcomes; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives: I estimate the returns to education for individuals who attain education after an incarceration spell.

Methods: Returns to labor supply and wages are estimated using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and a variety of regression and matching techniques.

Results: A positive relationship is found between postincarceration education and labor outcomes, especially for college completion. The General Equivalency Diploma (GED) is not associated with direct benefits.

Conclusions: The returns to post-incarceration education are positive but diminished, implying that programs targeted at college completion may best serve prisoners after release.

Bibliography Citation
Brown, Christian. "Returns to Postincarceration Education for Former Prisoners." Social Science Quarterly 96,1 (March 2015): 161-175.
6. Brown, Christian
Routon, P. Wesley
Military Service and the Civilian Labor Force: Time- and Income-Based Evidence
Armed Forces and Society 42,3 (July 2016): 562-584.
Also: http://afs.sagepub.com/content/42/3/562
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Inter-University Seminar on Armed Forces & Society
Keyword(s): Earnings; Labor Force Participation; Military Service

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The average American military enlistee is likely to differ from the average civilian in employment ambitions and prospects. Current research on veteran wages, however, only examines the effect of military service on average earnings. We employ quantile regression techniques to estimate the effect of military service for the above- and below-average earnings that veterans may experience. We draw data from two longitudinal surveys, one including veterans who served during 1980-1994 and the other including veterans of the early 21st-century wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the 21st-century cohort, we find that military service appears to increase wages at and below the median wage but decrease earnings at the high end of the distribution, although these benefits may take several years after service and entry into the civilian labor market to appear.
Bibliography Citation
Brown, Christian and P. Wesley Routon. "Military Service and the Civilian Labor Force: Time- and Income-Based Evidence." Armed Forces and Society 42,3 (July 2016): 562-584.
7. Brown, Christian
Routon, P. Wesley
On the Distributional and Evolutionary Nature of the Obesity Wage Penalty
Economics and Human Biology 28 (February 2018): 160-172.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1570677X17301089
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Obesity; Wage Effects; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

The economics literature supports a link between labor market measures, such as earnings, and health conditions, such as obesity. There is reason to believe the effects of obesity on wages may vary for high- and low-earning individuals and that obesity wage effects may evolve over a lifecycle or from generation to generation. Drawing on data from two longitudinal surveys, we estimate quantile and fixed effect quantile regressions, among others, to further examine the obesity wage effect. Results suggest an increasingly severe penalty across the wage distribution for females. Specifically, the highest-earning women may be penalized as much as five times that of the lowest earners. Results for males suggest that penalties may be present at select wage levels, while prior research has generally found no male obesity penalty. We also provide evidence that the obesity penalty has increased across generations and limited evidence that it may slow earnings growth over one's lifetime.
Bibliography Citation
Brown, Christian and P. Wesley Routon. "On the Distributional and Evolutionary Nature of the Obesity Wage Penalty." Economics and Human Biology 28 (February 2018): 160-172.