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Author: Li, Xiao
Resulting in 1 citation.
1. Li, Xiao
Rural-Urban Differences in Motherhood Wage Penalty
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Maternal Employment; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Rural/Urban Differences; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Although a rich body of literature has explored variances in motherhood wage penalties, few studies have explored rural-urban differences in motherhood wage penalties. In this paper, I use data from National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) to examine whether there are rural-urban differences in motherhood wage penalties. Fixed-effects models are used to examine the effects of motherhood on hourly wages across rural and urban contexts and across age groups. Variables including marital status, human capital, job characteristics, availability of family-friendly policies, job satisfaction and work hours are added into the models step by step, to explore how these factors contribute to the rural-urban differences in motherhood wage penalties. The results show that rural young mothers (younger than thirty) experienced a higher level of motherhood wage penalties than urban young mothers. However, when controlling marital status, urban women who were thirty or older experienced a motherhood boost while rural women of the same age group did not. College education, job characteristics, working environment and the availability of family-friendly policies contribute to the rural-urban differences in motherhood wage penalties in important ways.
Bibliography Citation
Li, Xiao. "Rural-Urban Differences in Motherhood Wage Penalty." Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017.