Search Results

Author: Heywood, John S.
Resulting in 7 citations.
1. Artz, Benjamin
Green, Colin P.
Heywood, John S.
Does Performance Pay Increase Alcohol and Drug Use?
Journal of Population Economics published online (25 June 2020): DOI: 10.1007/s00148-020-00776-4.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00148-020-00776-4
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Drug Use; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Performance pay

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using US panel data on young workers, we demonstrate that those who receive performance pay are more likely to consume alcohol and illicit drugs. Recognizing that this likely reflects worker sorting, we first control for risk, ability, and personality proxies. We further mitigate sorting concerns by introducing worker fixed effects, worker-employer match fixed effects, and worker-employer-occupation match fixed effects. Finally, we present fixed effect IV estimates. All of these estimates continue to indicate a greater likelihood of substance use when a worker receives performance pay. The results support conjectures that stress and effort increase with performance pay and that alcohol and drug use is a coping mechanism for workers.
Bibliography Citation
Artz, Benjamin, Colin P. Green and John S. Heywood. "Does Performance Pay Increase Alcohol and Drug Use?" Journal of Population Economics published online (25 June 2020): DOI: 10.1007/s00148-020-00776-4.
2. Artz, Benjamin
Heywood, John S.
Performance Pay and Workplace Injury: Panel Evidence
Economica 82, s1 (December 2015): 1241-1260.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ecca.12153/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Blue-Collar Jobs; Injuries, Workplace; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Performance pay

Using panel survey data, we show cross-sectional evidence of an elevated risk of workplace injury for those paid piece rates and bonuses. While consistent with Adam Smith's behavioural conjecture, this could simply reflect sorting across workers or firms. In response we successively control for a risk proxy, for worker fixed effects and for worker with employer match fixed effects. No previous examination has controlled for such fixed effects or examined US survey data. The estimates indicate that injury risk increases substantially when blue-collar (manual) workers become paid by piece rates and bonuses.
Bibliography Citation
Artz, Benjamin and John S. Heywood. "Performance Pay and Workplace Injury: Panel Evidence." Economica 82, s1 (December 2015): 1241-1260.
3. Donohue, Susan M.
Heywood, John S.
Job Satisfaction and Gender: An Expanded Specification from the NLSY
International Journal of Manpower 25,2 (2004): 211-235.
Also: http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=14001118&db=buh
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: MCB University Press
Keyword(s): Benefits, Fringe; Benefits, Insurance; Child Care; Gender Differences; Human Capital; Human Capital Theory; Job Satisfaction; Skills

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Estimates the determinants of job satisfaction for younger US workers. While age representative data from both the USA and Britain routinely show women reporting greater job satisfaction, this is not true for the younger US cohort in National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (ed. note: NLSY79) sample. Finds no gender satisfaction gap, but does find that the job satisfaction of women is less sensitive to both actual and comparison earnings than that of men. Moreover, estimates an expanded specification showing substantial gender differences in the influence of fringe benefit provision (including childcare) on job satisfaction The expanded specification also demonstrates that while general skills are associated with greater job satisfaction, specific skills are associated with lower job satisfaction, argues that the results are it keeping with human capital theory. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Donohue, Susan M. and John S. Heywood. "Job Satisfaction and Gender: An Expanded Specification from the NLSY." International Journal of Manpower 25,2 (2004): 211-235.
4. Geddes, Lori Ann
Heywood, John S.
Gender and Piece Rates, Commissions, and Bonuses
Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 42,3 (July 2003): 419-445.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1468-232X.00298/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Job Tenure; Labor Force Participation; Simultaneity; Women

Previous work shows that establishments with higher proportions of women are more likely to use piece rates but that individual women are less likely to receive performance pay. We present a model in which lower expected tenure and labor force attachment are positively associated with piece rates but are negatively associated with other forms of performance pay. Analysis of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) confirms that women are more likely to be paid piece rates and simultaneously less likely to be paid commissions and bonuses. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Geddes, Lori Ann and John S. Heywood. "Gender and Piece Rates, Commissions, and Bonuses." Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 42,3 (July 2003): 419-445.
5. Heywood, John S.
Racial Earnings Differentials and Performance Pay
Journal of Human Resources 40,2 (Spring 2005): 435-452.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4129532
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Earnings; Performance pay; Racial Differences; Wage Determination; Wage Differentials; Wages; Wages, Men

This paper presents an information model in which workers receiving output-based pay experience less racial earnings discrimination than those receiving time rates and supervisory evaluations. Tests using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth reveal no racial wage differential among male workers paid output-based pay while confirming a significant differential among those paid time rates. In addition, the racial wage differential among those receiving bonus pay, usually based on supervisory evaluations, tends to be larger than for those not receiving such bonuses.
Bibliography Citation
Heywood, John S. "Racial Earnings Differentials and Performance Pay." Journal of Human Resources 40,2 (Spring 2005): 435-452.
6. Heywood, John S.
Parent, Daniel
Performance Pay and the White-Black Wage Gap
Journal of Labor Economics 30,2 (April 2012): 249-290.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/info/10.1086/663355
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Earnings; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Performance pay; Racial Differences; Wage Determination; Wage Differentials

We show that the reported tendency for performance pay to be associated with greater wage inequality at the top of the earnings distribution applies only to white workers. This results in the white-black wage differential among those in performance pay jobs growing over the earnings distribution even as the same differential shrinks over the distribution for those not in performance pay jobs. We show that this remains true even when examining suitable counterfactuals that hold observables constant between whites and blacks. We explore reasons behind our finding focusing on the interactions between discrimination, unmeasured ability, and selection.
Bibliography Citation
Heywood, John S. and Daniel Parent. "Performance Pay and the White-Black Wage Gap." Journal of Labor Economics 30,2 (April 2012): 249-290.
7. Heywood, John S.
Parent, Daniel
Performance Pay, the Gender Gap, and Specialization within Marriage
Journal of Labor Research 38,4 (December 2017): 387-427.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12122-017-9256-5
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Marriage; Motherhood; Performance pay; Wage Gap; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We show that the large gender earnings gap at the top of the distribution (the glass ceiling) and the motherhood penalty are associated with each other and that both are uniquely associated with performance pay. These patterns appear consistent with specialization by gender. We show that among married couples with children, the hours worked by wives are strongly and persistently negatively correlated with earnings of the husbands only when those husbands work in performance pay jobs. There is no correlation between husbands' hours and wives' earnings.
Bibliography Citation
Heywood, John S. and Daniel Parent. "Performance Pay, the Gender Gap, and Specialization within Marriage." Journal of Labor Research 38,4 (December 2017): 387-427.