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Author: Farkas, Janice I.
Resulting in 4 citations.
1. Farkas, Janice I.
Emergent Careers: American Women's Pension Coverage at Midlife
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University, 1994. DAI, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences 56,2, (August 1995): 712-A
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Demography; Gerontology; Infants; Life Course; Marriage; Pensions; Retirement; Women

Current research has examined the retirement process and satisfaction of older women, but has not linked research with women's planning for their old age security while currently at midlife, ages 35 to 54. This research compared two ten-year birth cohorts of women at midlife using two data sets from the National Longitudinal Surveys to examine how past and current events and the decision that construct the life course trajectory of middle-aged women influence participation in employer sponsored pension plans at midlife. The study also considered which familial and demographic circumstances affected participation in pension plans. The research concludes that the majority of the 1928 to 1937 birth cohort of women followed a normative life course trajectory of ending school, starting first job, marriage, followed by first birth. Following a non-normative life course trajectory was negatively correlated with pension coverage for women in the 1928 to 1937 birth cohort. Women in the 1944 to 1954 birth cohort were less apt to follow the normative life course when compared to the prior cohorts. Following a non-normative life course trajectory did not have the negative consequences for pension coverage found for the 1928 to 1937 birth cohort. Time spent with a young child in the household impacted the two birth cohorts' pension coverage differentially. Duration with a toddler in the household negatively affected the 1944 to 1954 birth cohort women's pension coverage. The positive role of ERISA legislation is observed for the 1944 to 1954 birth cohort's pension coverage when examining firm size and current employment status, but the significance of continuous employment history has increased for the 1944 to 1954 birth cohort. The research concludes that the negative consequences of following a non-normative life course for women has decreased when considering pension coverage. UMI, Ann Arbor, MI. Order No. DA9518742
Bibliography Citation
Farkas, Janice I. Emergent Careers: American Women's Pension Coverage at Midlife. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University, 1994. DAI, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences 56,2, (August 1995): 712-A.
2. Farkas, Janice I.
Women's Participation in Employer Sponsored Pension Plans at Midlife: A Cohort Comparison
Presented: San Francisco, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, 1995
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Benefits; Educational Attainment; Firm Size; Job Status; Life Course; Marital Status; Part-Time Work; Women's Education

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A cohort comparison of women born between 1928-37 and women born between 1944-53 on the likelihood of pension coverage at midlife is conducted. The analysis examines how past and current events that construct the life course trajectory for middle-aged women, ages 35-54, influences the probability of participating in an employer sponsored pension at midlife. The data for the analysis come from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Mature Women and Young Women. The results find that the 1944-53 birth cohort have nearly a 40 percent relative increase in pension coverage compared to the 1928-37 birth cohort. Although differences are observed on the probability of pension coverage between birth cohort by life course trajectories, education, and marital status; increased pension coverage is primarily the result of several exogenous factors--the employee's firm size and the reduced significance of current employment status on pension coverage.
Bibliography Citation
Farkas, Janice I. "Women's Participation in Employer Sponsored Pension Plans at Midlife: A Cohort Comparison." Presented: San Francisco, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, 1995.
3. Farkas, Janice I.
O'Rand, Angela M.
The Pension Mix For Women In Middle and Late Life: The Changing Employment Relationship
Social Forces 76,3 (March 1998):1007-1032.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3005701
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Gerontology; Life Course; Modeling; Modeling, Probit; Pensions; Retirement; Savings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Revised version of a paper presented at the Gerontological Society of America Meetings, Los Angeles CA, 1995. The effects of life-course, employment and labor market characteristics on the probability of pension participation and on type of pension coverage are estimated for two cohorts of working women in middle and late life, respectively. The National Longitudinal Surveys of Mature and Young Women are used to differentiate the relative importance of life course and diverse structural factors on worker pension participation and employer coverage patterns. The defined contribution plan is argued to be an indicator of the changing employment relationship which is relieving employers of pension liability and increasing workers' responsibilities for retirement saving. Probit regressions are used to estimate the relative risks for nonparticipation in any pension among these working women. Multinominal logistic models, controlling for selectivity, estimate cohort processes in workers' access to employer-provided pension types. The results reveal the relative importance for middle-aged and older women of life course and structural variables that reflect life stage and changing employment relationships. Younger cohorts appear to be relatively more vulnerable to the changing employment contract given their greater dependence on defined contribution plans and the conflict between family and market contingencies.
Bibliography Citation
Farkas, Janice I. and Angela M. O'Rand. "The Pension Mix For Women In Middle and Late Life: The Changing Employment Relationship." Social Forces 76,3 (March 1998):1007-1032.
4. O'Rand, Angela M.
Farkas, Janice I.
Couples' Retirement Timing in the United States in the 1990s
International Journal of Sociology 32,2 (Summer 2002): 11-29
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: M.E. Sharpe, Inc.
Keyword(s): Exits; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Labor Force Participation; Pensions; Retirement; Simultaneity

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The timing of retirement among married couples is a complex process. As women remain attached to the labor market for longer periods of their lives and as they bring market resources such as pensions and health insurance to the couple's retirement decision, they introduce new contingencies to the process and variability in job exits. Couples are most likely to coordinate their retirement timing to be as simultaneous as possible. However, the second most likely pattern is for husbands to precede their wives into retirement. This study used the Mature Women sample of the National Longitudinal Surveys between 1989 and 1997 to track the effects of family, pension, health insurance, and changes in spousal health statuses on joint and sequential retirement patterns. Proportional hazards models reveal that joint retirement is most likely among couples in which wives reach the ages of eligibility for Social Security and Medicare and among couples who have defined benefit plans. Alternatively, wives' health insurance coverage from their own employment tends to result in their delayed retirements following their husbands'. Husbands' health limitations and caregiving needs also delay their wives' retirement, while wives' health limitations are more likely to result in joint retirement. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
O'Rand, Angela M. and Janice I. Farkas. "Couples' Retirement Timing in the United States in the 1990s." International Journal of Sociology 32,2 (Summer 2002): 11-29.