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Author: Baker, Elizabeth H.
Resulting in 5 citations.
1. Baker, Elizabeth H.
The Effect of Maternal and Own Education on BMI Trajectories from Adolescence to Adulthood
Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Educational Attainment; Life Course; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Mothers, Education; Parental Influences; Transition, Adulthood; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines the effect of own and maternal education on body mass index (BMI) trajectories by gender during the transition to adulthood using a life course perspective. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1997 to 2010 cohort and growth curve models, I find that parent’s education is associated with lower adolescent BMI and slower growth in BMI during the transition to adulthood for both men and women. However, this slower growth in BMI is accounted for by own education and lower and delayed fertility and partnering. Own education is associated with slower growth in BMI, but only among women. I situate these findings using a life course perspective on health and theories concerning the educational gradient in health.
Bibliography Citation
Baker, Elizabeth H. "The Effect of Maternal and Own Education on BMI Trajectories from Adolescence to Adulthood." Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013.
2. Baker, Elizabeth H.
Three Essays on BMI Trajectories by Generation during the Transition to Adulthood
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University, 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Education; Hispanics; Immigrants; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Obesity; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Immigrants tend to be healthier than their native born peers on many factors, including obesity. However, to date, research has produced contradictory results about the potential contributors of this relationship as well as the magnitude of this phenomenon. This research examines weight assimilation, using both a pooled sample and a Mexican-American specific sub-sample of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 cohort , as adolescents transition to adulthood. The negative health assimilation hypothesis states that overtime, there is convergence in the health between immigrant generations and natives. Examining this relationship longitudinally, using growth curve models, I find continued divergence rather than convergence. Immigrant generations weigh less at the beginning of the study period and gain less weight as they enter adulthood compared to native generations (1). In addition to documenting this phenomenon descriptively, this research also examined the different contexts that could contribute to this relationship, concentrating specifically on emerging young adult socioeconomic status and residence. Inequality in socioeconomic status contributes to health disparities, such that those with lower socioeconomic status have worse health than those with higher socioeconomic status. Immigrant children and children of immigrants often have lower origin socioeconomic status than children of natives and they tend to make great strides over the educational attainment of their parents. In addition, increases in educational attainment mean that children of immigrants spend an extended period of time in one of the most influential socializing institutions they will encounter during this phase of their life, college. Using OLS regression when the respondents are in between the ages of 24 to 28, I find that own emerging socioeconomic status, measured as education, is important to all generations, but this is especially true among the second generation, even controlling for family of origin socioeconomic status (2). Lastly, I examine the relationship between parental co-residence and weight using growth curve models. Strong immigrant families are suggested as one of the potential sources that allow immigrants and their children to overcome many of the disadvantages they face, such as disorganized neighborhoods and poverty. Also, immigrant children and children of immigrants are more likely to remain in their parents home longer and the implications this has on their adult outcomes differs from those found for children of natives. I find that non-parental co-residence is associated with weight gain among all generations, but only among the first and second generation is this weight gain not accounted for by partnering and childbearing (3). Other factors, perhaps related to acculturation and assimilation, drive this relationship for children of immigrants. These findings suggest that weight assimilation is a complex process, influenced by factors experienced in childhood, as suggested by the immigrants continued divergence in weight gain, and their immediate environment, as suggested by the importance of own emerging socioeconomic status and parental co-residence.
Bibliography Citation
Baker, Elizabeth H. Three Essays on BMI Trajectories by Generation during the Transition to Adulthood. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University, 2013.
3. Baker, Elizabeth H.
Weight Gain during the Transition to Adulthood among Children of Immigrants: Is Parental Co-Residence Important?
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Children; Immigrants; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Transition, Adulthood; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Immigrants tend to be healthier than their native born peers, despite their low socioeconomic status. One common explanation for this is that immigrants bring cultural norms with them that protect themselves from their health hazardous environments. I examine BMI trajectories from adolescence to young adulthood and whether parental co-residence moderates or mediates the relationship between BMI and generation. Home leaving may take children of immigrants away from the cultural protection of their parents and neighborhoods, but may also be associated with increases in young adult socioeconomic status through college attendance. I find that home leaving is associated with increase in BMI for all generations, but this effect is stronger for the first and second generation. Additionally, only among the third or higher generation is this effect explained by family transitions, partnering and childbearing. Lastly, the reason for home leaving (partnering, college attendance, or other) and its association with BMI is examined.
Bibliography Citation
Baker, Elizabeth H. "Weight Gain during the Transition to Adulthood among Children of Immigrants: Is Parental Co-Residence Important?" Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011.
4. Wolfe, Joseph D.
Baker, Elizabeth H.
Scarinci, Isabel C.
Wealth and Obesity Among US Adults Entering Midlife
Obesity 27,12 (December 2019): 2067-2075.
Also: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/oby.22625
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Home Ownership; Net Worth; Obesity; Racial Differences; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objective: This study examines the relationship between wealth and obesity among adults entering midlife and whether this relationship varies by sex, race, and measure of wealth.

Methods: The data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY‐79). Population‐averaged models were used to examine the associations between multiple measures of wealth and obesity among 6,979 respondents while controlling for education, occupation, income, and relevant sociodemographic variables.

Results: The analysis found a robust association between wealth and midlife obesity as well as heterogeneity in the wealth‐obesity association across sex, race, and measure of wealth. With the exception of black men, net worth generally had a significant and inverse relationship with obesity. The net worth-obesity association was largest among women and was driven primarily by home value, in addition to savings and debt for black women. Although home value was significant for white men, the components of wealth were generally unrelated to obesity among men.

Bibliography Citation
Wolfe, Joseph D., Elizabeth H. Baker and Isabel C. Scarinci. "Wealth and Obesity Among US Adults Entering Midlife." Obesity 27,12 (December 2019): 2067-2075.
5. Wolfe, Joseph D.
Baker, Elizabeth H.
Uddin, Jalal
Kirkland, Stephanie
Varieties of Financial Stressors and Midlife Health Problems
Journals of Gerontology: Series B published online (17 June 2021): gbab108.
Also: https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbab108
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Gerontological Society of America
Keyword(s): Bankruptcy; Debt/Borrowing; Health, Chronic Conditions; Health, Mental; Stress

Objective: Financial stressors such as wealth loss, indebtedness, and bankruptcy have gained the attention of public health scholars since the Great Recession. In this study, we extend this area of research by comparing the mental and physical impact of multiple financial stressors during midlife, a pivotal period in the life course for wealth accumulation and disease onset.

Methods: With data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (www.nlsinfo.org), an ongoing survey of adult men and women in the U.S., we used logistic regression to estimate the associations between financial stressors and the risk of a psychiatric disorder or high blood pressure diagnosis from ages 31-39 in 1996 to ages 50-59 in 2016 (N = 7,143). Financial stressors include multiple types of wealth loss, debt, and bankruptcy.

Results: Even after adjusting for a comprehensive set of confounders, many of the financial stressors we considered had similar associations with the risk of a psychiatric disorder, whereas only debt and bankruptcy were associated with the risk of high blood pressure. The best fitting models for both health outcomes included a simple indicator of indebtedness. Stock losses were not significantly associated with either health outcome.

Bibliography Citation
Wolfe, Joseph D., Elizabeth H. Baker, Jalal Uddin and Stephanie Kirkland. "Varieties of Financial Stressors and Midlife Health Problems." Journals of Gerontology: Series B published online (17 June 2021): gbab108.