# Standard Errors & Design Effects

## Standard Errors & Design Effects

This section contains information on standard errors and design effects for the NLSY79 sample, briefly discussing how to use these two statistical factors. It then includes tables for the first round and for 1996 through 2020. Users interested in the intervening years should review the NLSY79 Technical Sampling Report and Technical Sampling Report Addendum.

Standard errors have been explicitly computed for a number of statistics based upon the entire NLSY79 sample (total, civilian, and military) and a number of sex or race subclasses. Standard errors for other statistics (defined over the entire sample or the subclasses) may be approximated with use of the DEFT factors given in the linked tables. Users who examine the tables will note that CHRR has calculated standard errors for different variables over time. The R program that computed the Standard Errors and Design Effects for survey year 2020 can be accessed in the document NLSY79 Design Effects R Program.docx.

## Approximate Standard Errors: Percentages

The following formula approximates a standard error of a percentage:

where:

 se(P) = the approximate standard error for the percentage of P P = the sample percentage (ranging from 0 to 100) n = the actual unweighted sample size for the demographic subclass from which the percentage was developed DEFT = the appropriate DEFT factor for the particular demographic subclass and sample type from which the percentage was developed

For example, for 1996 the appropriate DEFT factor for estimating a standard error of the percentage of Hispanic or Latino males who were high school dropouts is 1.17744 (see proportion column, row seven of Table: Deft Factors for Round 17, 1996). Assuming the calculated sample (P) equals 22.19 percent and the unweighted sample estimate size is 946, then:

To approximate the standard error of the corresponding projected population total (NP/100), calculate:

where:

 se(NP/100) = the approximate standard error of the projected population total corresponding to a percentage P within a particular demographic subclass and sample type. N = the appropriate projected total population base for the particular demographic subclass and sample type.

For example, if the projected total population base for Hispanic or Latino males is 1,030,861, the projected number of civilian Hispanic or Latino male high school dropouts is equal to NP/100 or 1,030,861 * 22.19/100 = 228,748. Thus, the approximate standard error for the total number of Hispanic or Latino male high school dropouts is:

Note that the 1.5907 came from the previous calculation.

## Approximate Standard Errors: Means

One can compute approximate standard errors for means as follows:

where:

 se(X) = the approximate standard error of the mean DEFT = the appropriate DEFT factor for the particular demographic subclass and sample type from which the mean was developed S2 = the weighted element variance computed for the demographic subclass and sample type from which the mean was developed n = the unweighted sample size for the particular mean.

For example, for 1979 the DEFT factor for all Hispanics or Latinos is 1.45699 (see means column, row four of Table 1). To approximate the standard error of the mean number of years of education completed by this subclass, where the weighted element variance is .72955 and the sample size is 77, compute:

## Design Effects

Because the samples are multi-stage, stratified random samples instead of simple random samples, respondents tend to come in geographic clusters and clusters of persons tend to be alike in a variety of ways for a variety of reasons. (For more information on the sampling and screening process, users are referred to section on Sample Design & Screening Process in this guide.) For example, there may be cultural differences by locality or ecological differences in labor market conditions. Depending upon the degree of this homogeneity, the conventionally computed standard deviations for the variables, which assume a simple random sample, may be too small. However, by controlling the rate at which particular strata are sampled, multi-stage, stratified random samples can improve upon simple random samples. The ratio of the correct standard error to the standard error computed under the assumption of a simple random sample is known as the design effect. The technical sampling report for the NLSY79 (Frankel, Williams, and Spencer 1983) and its addendum (CHRR) provide design effects for the various strata.

A single design effect that can be broadly applied to regression analysis cannot be constructed. To illustrate the approximate size of design effects in regression analysis, a regression of rate of pay for the CPS job in 1979 was estimated using race, sex, marital status, and education as explanatory variables. Assuming each of the roughly 200 PSUs has the same number of respondents in the sample of 5,724 persons with observed wages, the design effect was calculated to be 1.52; that is, the true standard errors were larger than the naively computed standard errors by a factor of 1.52. When this exercise was repeated for rate of pay on the CPS job in 1986, the design effect had fallen to 1.37.

This reduction reflects the fact that mobility tends to mix the respondents more uniformly through the country, reducing the clustering of the sample. Many of the persons who started out in the same PSU will have moved to different areas and, hence, no longer share unobservable labor market conditions. These shared unobservable labor market conditions are likely responsible for the spatial correlation of the error terms which generate design effects. Thus, another advantage of longitudinal data is the lessening of design effects over time.

By examining the Geocode data for the NLSY79, it is possible to control for some of the environmental factors generating design effects or, if desired, to compute design effects based upon county or metropolitan area clusters which continue to be present. To facilitate study of design effects, scrambled PSU codes from the 1979 survey are available to persons with authorized access to the NLSY79 Geocode data.

#### Table: Deft Factors for Round 1, 1979

 Proportions Means All Youth 1.72547 1.71282 Males 1.46605 1.56808 Females 1.58029 1.49720 Hispanics or Latinos 1.44342 1.45699 Blacks 1.35303 1.43730 Non-black/non-Hispanics 1.58686 1.56996 Hispanic or Latino Males 1.24321 1.22329 Hispanic or Latino Females 1.40353 1.25095 Black Males 1.19457 1.21378 Black Females 1.24877 1.25243 Non-black/non-Hispanic Males 1.33775 1.45962 Non-black/non-Hispanic Females 1.46889 1.37581

#### Table: Deft Factors for Round 17, 1996

 Proportions Means All Youth 1.35848 1.967232 Males 1.28523 1.667333 Females 1.24536 1.621727 Hispanics or Latinos 1.28275 1.584298 Blacks 1.19735 1.423025 Non-black/non-Hispanics 1.19087 1.713184 Hispanic or Latino Males 1.17744 1.407125 Hispanic or Latino Females 1.13217 1.264911 Black Males 1.16541 1.174734 Black Females 1.13258 1.319091 Non-black/non-Hispanic Males 1.13217 1.456022 Non-black/non-Hispanic Females 1.09545 1.405347

#### Table: Deft Factors for Round 18, 1998

 Proportions Means All Youth 1.38301 1.96469 Males 1.30836 1.66433 Females 1.28311 1.60000 Hispanics or Latinos 1.21917 1.52807 Blacks 1.19164 1.40890 Non-black/non-Hispanics 1.17937 1.67481 Hispanic or Latino Males 1.19248 1.37659 Hispanic or Latino Females 1.13418 1.25100 Black Males 1.14336 1.12694 Black Females 1.12088 1.31529 Non-black/non-Hispanic Males 1.18195 1.43353 Non-black/non-Hispanic Females 1.11028 1.37133

#### Table: Deft Factors for Round 19, 2000

 Proportions Means All Youth 1.36423 1.90919 Males 1.26007 1.61864 Females 1.21244 1.58588 Hispanics or Latinos 1.24544 1.48492 Blacks 1.19954 1.42127 Non-black/non-Hispanics 1.20052 1.62327 Hispanic or Latino Males 1.19722 1.31909 Hispanic or Latino Females 1.09240 1.22474 Black Males 1.20277 1.18322 Black Females 1.08282 1.34907 Non-black/non-Hispanic Males 1.12750 1.39462 Non-black/non-Hispanic Females 1.13908 1.34907

#### Table: Deft Factors for Round 20, 2002

 Proportions Means All Youth 1.34578 1.82757 Males 1.29701 1.58430 Females 1.18181 1.52807 Hispanics or Latinos 1.24097 1.47986 Blacks 1.20692 1.35647 Non-black/non-Hispanics 1.15085 1.56844 Hispanic or Latino Males 1.12450 1.28841 Hispanic or Latino Females 1.09479 1.21861 Black Males 1.20830 1.12694 Black Females 1.18743 1.33604 Non-black/non-Hispanic Males 1.20468 1.37659 Non-black/non-Hispanic Females 1.06829 1.30958

#### Table: Deft Factors for Round 21, 2004

 Proportions Means All Youth 1.38789 1.83712 Males 1.27377 1.55563 Females 1.23592 1.55081 Hispanics or Latinos 1.30336 1.46969 Blacks 1.14782 1.35831 Non-black/non-Hispanics 1.18163 1.57003 Hispanic or Latino Males 1.27083 1.31149 Hispanic or Latino Females 1.12750 1.19164 Black Males 1.14455 1.10454 Black Females 1.02896 1.37113 Non-black/non-Hispanic Males 1.09373 1.35647 Non-black/non-Hispanic Females 1.08224 1.32098 Notes: Users are cautioned that the figures in the proportion column for the last six categories are becoming much less relevant over time. The proportion DEFT column is based on education, training, marriage, and employment variables. Over time categories, such as black females, have only a few respondents in school or training, which causes the DEFT factors to change from survey to survey. Broader categories, like "All Youth," "Males," and "Females" are more accurate to use.

#### Table: Deft Factors for Round 22, 2006

 Proportions Means All Youth 1.35881 1.81246 Males 1.23472 1.55563 Females 1.25553 1.52315 Hispanics or Latinos 1.13710 1.48661 Blacks 1.15994 1.33041 Non-black/non-Hispanics 1.14455 1.53460 Hispanic or Latino Males 1.15195 1.31719 Hispanic or Latino Females 1.00995 1.23085 Black Males 1.15247 1.09772 Black Females 1.11221 1.35647 Non-black/non-Hispanic Males 1.09636 1.32288 Non-black/non-Hispanic Females 1.08082 1.30192 Notes: Users are cautioned that the figures in the proportion column for the last six categories are becoming much less relevant over time. The proportion DEFT column is based on education, training, marriage, and employment variables. Over time categories, such as black females, have only a few respondents in school or training, which causes the DEFT factors to change from survey to survey. Broader categories, like "All Youth," "Males," and "Females" are more accurate to use.

#### Table: Deft Factors for Round 23, 2008

 Proportions Means All Youth 1.31106 1.83712 Males 1.25599 1.60468 Females 1.22474 1.52315 Hispanics or Latinos 1.13235 1.43353 Blacks 1.16726 1.38203 Non-black/non-Hispanics 1.10855 1.56365 Hispanic or Latino Males 1.14837 1.27083 Hispanic or Latino Females 1.03870 1.18322 Black Males 1.14182 1.12916 Black Females 1.11467 1.34907 Non-black/non-Hispanic Males 1.09030 1.38564 Non-black/non-Hispanic Females 1.09829 1.28841 Notes: Users are cautioned that the figures in the proportion column for the last six categories are becoming much less relevant over time. The proportion DEFT column is based on education, training, marriage, and employment variables. Over time categories, such as black females, have only a few respondents in school or training, which causes the DEFT factors to change from survey to survey. Broader categories, like "All Youth," "Males," and "Females" are more accurate to use.

#### Table: Deft Factors for Round 24, 2010

 Proportions Means All Youth 1.34024 1.80278 Males 1.26293 1.58745 Females 1.23288 1.48829 Hispanics or Latinos 1.19284 1.46116 Blacks 1.21295 1.36015 Non-black/non-Hispanics 1.12639 1.54434 Hispanic or Latino Males 1.19284 1.28452 Hispanic or Latino Females 1.11867 1.20208 Black Males 1.16458 1.10905 Black Females 1.13137 1.34907 Non-black/non-Hispanic Males 1.07877 1.37659 Non-black/non-Hispanic Females 1.03983 1.26886 Notes: Users are cautioned that the figures in the proportion column for the last six categories are becoming much less relevant over time. The proportion DEFT column is based on education, training, marriage, and employment variables. Over time categories, such as black females, have only a few respondents in school or training, which causes the DEFT factors to change from survey to survey. Broader categories, like "All Youth," "Males," and "Females" are more accurate to use.

#### Table: Deft Factors for Round 25, 2012

 Proportions Means All Youth 1.34604 1.77682 Males 1.26681 1.55921 Females 1.24255 1.48757 Hispanics or Latinos 1.21171 1.46095 Blacks 1.19992 1.35592 Non-black/non-Hispanics 1.17951 1.52438 Hispanic or Latino Males 1.16338 1.24213 Hispanic or Latino Females 1.05880 1.20750 Black Males 1.11229 1.16998 Black Females 1.15019 1.32479 Non-black/non-Hispanic Males 1.14991 1.36160 Non-black/non-Hispanic Females 1.12411 1.25952 Notes: Users are cautioned that the figures in the proportion column for the last six categories are becoming much less relevant over time. The proportion DEFT column is based on education, training, marriage, and employment variables. Over time categories, such as black females, have only a few respondents in school or training, which causes the DEFT factors to change from survey to survey. Broader categories, like "All Youth," "Males," and "Females" are more accurate to use.

#### Table: Deft Factors for Round 26, 2014

 Proportions Means All Youth 1.33370 1.77496 Males 1.25238 1.56764 Females 1.19779 1.50041 Hispanics or Latinos 1.15607 1.41956 Blacks 1.13520 1.38628 Non-black/non-Hispanics 1.18624 1.50758 Hispanic or Latino Males 1.15649 1.25180 Hispanic or Latino Females 1.06414 1.20324 Black Males 1.12620 1.19193 Black Females 1.00051 1.34394 Non-black/non-Hispanic Males 1.15447 1.35138 Non-black/non-Hispanic Females 1.18466 1.26346 Notes: Users are cautioned that the figures in the proportion column for the last six categories are becoming much less relevant over time. The proportion DEFT column is based on education, training, marriage, and employment variables. Over time categories, such as black females, have only a few respondents in school or training, which causes the DEFT factors to change from survey to survey. Broader categories, like "All Youth," "Males," and "Females" are more accurate to use.

#### Table: Deft Factors for Round 27, 2016

 Proportions Means All Youth 1.40369 1.73651 Males 1.36746 1.53267 Females 1.23931 1.47176 Hispanics or Latinos 1.28005 1.44627 Blacks 1.10852 1.34987 Non-black/non-Hispanics 1.26546 1.47732 Hispanic or Latino Males 1.19194 1.22472 Hispanic or Latino Females 1.16081 1.23085 Black Males 1.10918 1.15997 Black Females 1.04381 1.30468 Non-black/non-Hispanic Males 1.21767 1.32061 Non-black/non-Hispanic Females 1.17469 1.24867

Notes: Users are cautioned that the figures in the proportion column for the last six categories are becoming much less relevant over time. The proportion DEFT column is based on education, training, marriage, and employment variables. Over time categories, such as black females, have only a few respondents in school or training, which causes the DEFT factors to change from survey to survey. Broader categories, like “All Youth,” “Males,” and “Females” are more accurate to use.

#### Table: Deft Factors for Round 28, 2018

 Proportions Means All Youth 1.36769 1.72280 Males 1.29963 1.57090 Females 1.18347 1.46229 Hispanics or Latinos 1.23085 1.43839 Blacks 1.06561 1.30877 Non-black/non-Hispanics 1.21787 1.46098 Hispanic or Latino Males 1.12575 1.25443 Hispanic or Latino Females 1.10262 1.19304 Black Males 1.05849 1.15098 Black Females 0.97723 1.31684 Non-black/non-Hispanic Males 1.12186 1.35481 Non-black/non-Hispanic Females 1.11219 1.22446

Notes: Users are cautioned that the figures in the proportion column for the last six categories are becoming much less relevant

over time. The proportion DEFT column is based on education, training, marriage, and employment variables. Over time categories, such as black females, have only a few respondents in school or training, which causes the DEFT factors to change from survey to survey. Broader categories, like "All Youth," "Males," and "Females" are more accurate to use.

#### Table: Deft Factors for Round 29, 2020

 Proportions Means All Youth 1.36387 1.72145 Males 1.35466 1.56630 Females 1.12285 1.12285 Hispanics or Latinos 1.15142 1.15142 Blacks 1.05324 1.28861 Non-black/non-Hispanics 1.22780 1.45744 Hispanic or Latino Males 1.00312 1.22750 Hispanic or Latino Females 1.02489 1.21003 Black Males 0.95852 1.09251 Black Females 0.96780 1.34382 Non-black/non-Hispanic Males 1.16393 1.36001 Non-black/non-Hispanic Females 1.06213 1.19797
Notes: Users are cautioned that the figures in the proportion column for the last six categories are becoming much less relevant
over time. The proportion DEFT column is based on education, training, marriage, and employment variables. Over time categories, such as black females, have only a few respondents in school or training, which causes the DEFT factors to change from survey to survey. Broader categories, like "All Youth," "Males," and "Females" are more accurate to use.

#### Table: Standard Errors For Round 1, 1979

 All Male Female Hispanic or Latino Black Non-black, non-Hisp. Male H or L Female H or L Male Black Female Black Male NB/NH Female NB/NH Prop. HS dropout 0.00471 0.00627 0.00545 0.01385 0.00835 0.00527 0.01744 0.01814 0.01232 0.00928 0.00710 0.00619 Prop. attending HS 0.00735 0.00893 0.01006 0.01554 0.01151 0.00904 0.02176 0.02146 0.01460 0.01628 0.01085 0.01233 Prop attending college 0.00597 0.00729 0.00778 0.01037 0.00784 0.00710 0.01230 0.01460 0.00919 0.01119 0.00862 0.00947 Prop. HS graduate 0.00658 0.00776 0.00905 0.01277 0.01033 0.00785 0.01440 0.01957 0.01217 0.01448 0.00926 0.01094 Mean yrs. of school completed 0.02900 0.04000 0.03800 0.08200 0.05700 0.03400 0.10000 0.10500 0.06100 0.07400 0.04600 0.04400 Mean yrs. of school expected 0.04600 0.05900 0.04700 0.10800 0.06400 0.05500 0.12500 0.11700 0.07900 0.07900 0.07100 0.05500 Prop. living in south 0.02286 0.02353 0.02324 0.05641 0.04264 0.02544 0.04973 0.06060 0.04555 0.04084 0.02610 0.02601 Mean #'s of children expected 0.02400 0.02700 0.03200 0.05800 0.04600 0.02800 0.06500 0.07000 0.05600 0.05500 0.03100 0.03700 Prop. married 0.00454 0.00365 0.00686 0.01023 0.00533 0.00570 0.00923 0.01646 0.00440 0.00884 0.00448 0.00855

#### Table: Standard Errors For Round 17, 1996

 All Male Female Hispanic or Latino Black Non-black, non-Hisp. Male H or L Female H or L Male Black Female Black Male NB/NH Female NB/NH Prop. not on active duty 0.001 0.003 0.001 0.005 0.004 0.002 0.009 0.001 0.007 0.003 0.003 0.001 Prop. high school dropouts 0.006 0.008 0.006 0.014 0.009 0.007 0.018 0.016 0.012 0.010 0.009 0.007 Prop. in high school or less 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.000 Prop. attending college 0.003 0.003 0.005 0.006 0.005 0.004 0.008 0.009 0.005 0.007 0.004 0.005 Prop. high school graduate 0.006 0.007 0.006 0.015 0.009 0.007 0.018 0.016 0.012 0.010 0.009 0.007 Prop. living in south 0.034 0.034 0.036 0.052 0.046 0.039 0.049 0.059 0.046 0.048 0.038 0.041 Prop. currently married 0.007 0.010 0.010 0.016 0.013 0.008 0.020 0.021 0.018 0.017 0.011 0.011 Prop. employed at present 0.006 0.007 0.009 0.015 0.009 0.007 0.017 0.020 0.014 0.013 0.007 0.010 Prop. unemployed 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.006 0.005 0.003 0.007 0.009 0.008 0.008 0.004 0.004 Prop. in labor force 0.005 0.005 0.008 0.013 0.008 0.006 0.015 0.018 0.012 0.012 0.006 0.010 Prop. government training 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.003 0.002 0.001 0.003 0.003 0.002 0.004 0.001 0.001 Average number of children 0.023 0.027 0.030 0.054 0.035 0.028 0.067 0.065 0.040 0.050 0.033 0.036 Average highest grade completed 0.060 0.074 0.063 0.109 0.065 0.073 0.137 0.119 0.074 0.081 0.091 0.077 Prop. currently enrolled 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.005 0.004 0.008 0.008 0.005 0.007 0.004 0.006

#### Table: Standard Errors For Round 18, 1998

 All Male Female Hispanic or Latino Black Non-black, non-Hisp. Male H or L Female H or L Male Black Female Black Male NB/NH Female NB/NH Prop. not on active duty 0.001 0.003 0.001 0.005 0.003 0.002 0.008 0.002 0.006 0.003 0.003 0.001 Prop. high school dropouts 0.005 0.007 0.006 0.014 0.009 0.006 0.017 0.016 0.012 0.010 0.009 0.007 Prop. in high school or less 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.001 Prop. attending college 0.003 0.003 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.003 0.005 0.008 0.005 0.007 0.004 0.005 Prop. high school graduate 0.005 0.007 0.006 0.014 0.009 0.006 0.017 0.016 0.012 0.010 0.009 0.007 Prop. living in south 0.035 0.034 0.037 0.051 0.045 0.039 0.047 0.058 0.044 0.047 0.039 0.041 Prop. currently married 0.008 0.010 0.011 0.015 0.012 0.008 0.021 0.021 0.018 0.016 0.011 0.010 Prop. employed at present 0.006 0.007 0.009 0.014 0.009 0.007 0.017 0.020 0.012 0.014 0.008 0.011 Prop. unemployed 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.005 0.005 0.002 0.007 0.008 0.007 0.007 0.003 0.003 Prop. in labor force 0.005 0.006 0.009 0.013 0.008 0.006 0.016 0.019 0.011 0.011 0.006 0.011 Prop. government training 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.003 0.004 0.003 0.004 0.001 0.001 Average number of children 0.024 0.028 0.030 0.050 0.036 0.028 0.061 0.065 0.042 0.050 0.033 0.035 Average highest grade completed 0.061 0.077 0.063 0.114 0.066 0.073 0.147 0.121 0.074 0.082 0.09. 0.074 Prop. currently enrolled 0.003 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.005 0.003 0.005 0.008 0.005 0.007 0.004 0.005

#### Table: Standard Errors For Round 19, 2000

 All Male Female Hispanic or Latino Black Non-black, non-Hisp. Male H or L Female H or L Male Black Female Black Male NB/NH Female NB/NH Prop. not on active duty 0.001 0.002 0.000 0.003 0.003 0.001 0.006 0.001 0.005 0.002 0.003 0.000 Prop. high school dropouts 0.005 0.007 0.006 0.014 0.009 0.006 0.017 0.015 0.013 0.010 0.009 0.006 Prop. in high school or less 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.000 0.000 0.000 Prop. attending college 0.003 0.003 0.004 0.006 0.004 0.003 0.008 0.009 0.004 0.007 0.003 0.005 Prop. high school graduate 0.005 0.007 0.006 0.014 0.009 0.006 0.017 0.015 0.013 0.010 0.009 0.006 Prop. living in south 0.035 0.034 0.037 0.052 0.043 0.039 0.049 0.059 0.044 0.046 0.038 0.041 Prop. currently married 0.008 0.010 0.010 0.014 0.012 0.008 0.022 0.021 0.018 0.015 0.011 0.010 Prop. employed at present 0.006 0.006 0.009 0.012 0.009 0.007 0.014 0.018 0.014 0.012 0.007 0.010 Prop. government training 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.003 0.002 0.001 0.003 0.004 0.003 0.003 0.001 0.001 Average number of children 0.024 0.029 0.030 0.048 0.037 0.027 0.061 0.064 0.046 0.051 0.034 0.035 Average highest grade completed 0.061 0.076 0.065 0.114 0.069 0.074 0.146 0.118 0.078 0.089 0.092 0.078 Prop. currently enrolled 0.003 0.003 0.004 0.006 0.004 0.003 0.008 0.009 0.005 0.007 0.003 0.005 Notes: Users are cautioned that by round 17 cohort changes have made some categories much less relevant.  In particular, the extremely small subsample sizes for "Proportion government training participant" and "Proportion in high school or less" make these categories statistically suspect.  They have been kept in the table for historical continuity.

#### Table: Standard Errors For Round 20, 2002

 All Male Female Hispanic or Latino Black Non-black, non-Hisp. Male H or L Female H or L Male Black Female Black Male NB/NH Female NB/NH Prop. not on active duty 0.001 0.002 0.000 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.004 0.000 0.004 0.002 0.003 0.000 Prop. high school dropouts 0.005 0.007 0.005 0.015 0.008 0.006 0.018 0.016 0.011 0.010 0.009 0.006 Prop. in high school or less 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.000 Prop. attending college 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.002 0.005 0.006 0.005 0.006 0.003 0.004 Prop. high school graduate 0.005 0.007 0.005 0.015 0.008 0.006 0.018 0.016 0.011 0.010 0.009 0.006 Prop. living in south 0.035 0.034 0.036 0.053 0.042 0.039 0.050 0.060 0.043 0.045 0.039 0.041 Prop. currently married 0.009 0.010 0.011 0.015 0.013 0.009 0.023 0.022 0.018 0.015 0.011 0.012 Prop. employed at present 0.007 0.007 0.009 0.012 0.011 0.008 0.016 0.015 0.016 0.014 0.008 0.011 Prop. government training 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.004 0.004 0.002 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.002 0.002 Average number of children 0.023 0.028 0.028 0.051 0.037 0.026 0.062 0.067 0.048 0.053 0.034 0.034 Average highest grade completed 0.061 0.077 0.065 0.120 0.066 0.074 0.150 0.125 0.073 0.091 0.094 0.078 Prop. currently enrolled 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.004 0.004 0.002 0.005 0.006 0.005 0.006 0.003 0.004 Notes: Users are cautioned that by round 17 cohort changes have made some categories much less relevant. In particular, the extremely small sample sizes for "Proportion government training participant" and "Proportion in high school or less: make these categories statistically suspect. They have been kept in the table for historical continuity.

#### Table: Standard Errors For Round 21, 2004

 All Male Female Hispanic or Latino Black Non-black, non-Hisp. Male H or L Female H or L Male Black Female Black Male NB/NH Female NB/NH Prop. not on active duty 0.001 0.002 0.000 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.004 0.001 0.003 0.002 0.002 0.000 Prop. high school dropouts 0.005 0.007 0.005 0.014 0.009 0.006 0.019 0.015 0.013 0.010 0.009 0.006 Prop. in high school or less 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 Prop. attending college 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.006 0.003 0.003 0.006 0.009 0.004 0.006 0.002 0.004 Prop. high school graduate 0.005 0.007 0.005 0.014 0.009 0.006 0.019 0.015 0.012 0.010 0.009 0.006 Prop. living in south 0.034 0.034 0.036 0.053 0.044 0.039 0.051 0.059 0.044 0.045 0.039 0.041 Prop. currently married 0.008 0.010 0.011 0.014 0.012 0.008 0.021 0.020 0.018 0.014 0.010 0.012 Prop. employed at present 0.007 0.007 0.010 0.014 0.009 0.008 0.018 0.018 0.012 0.013 0.008 0.012 Prop. government training 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.001 0.003 0.006 0.004 0.003 0.002 0.002 Average number of children 0.024 0.029 0.031 0.053 0.037 0.028 0.069 0.065 0.049 0.051 0.035 0.036 Average highest grade completed 0.061 0.076 0.065 0.115 0.069 0.074 0.149 0.119 0.074 0.096 0.093 0.077 Prop. currently enrolled 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.006 0.003 0.003 0.006 0.009 0.004 0.006 0.002 0.004 Notes: Users are cautioned that cohort changes over time have made some categories much less relevant. In particular, the extremely small sample sizes for education related variables such as "Proportion in high school or less," "Proportion government training participant," "Proportion currently enrolled," and "Proportion attending college" make these categories statistically suspect. They have been kept in the table for historical continuity.

#### Table: Standard Errors For Round 22, 2006

 All Male Female Hispanic or Latino Black Non-black, non-Hisp. Male H or L Female H or L Male Black Female Black Male NB/NH Female NB/NH Prop. not on active duty 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.003 0.001 0.002 0.000 Prop. high school dropouts 0.005 0.007 0.005 0.014 0.008 0.005 0.018 0.016 0.012 0.009 0.008 0.006 Prop. in high school or less 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 Prop. attending college 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.004 0.002 0.003 0.005 0.005 0.006 0.002 0.004 Prop. high school graduate 0.005 0.007 0.005 0.014 0.008 0.005 0.018 0.016 0.012 0.009 0.008 0.006 Prop. living in south 0.034 0.034 0.036 0.052 0.043 0.039 0.048 0.059 0.043 0.046 0.039 0.041 Prop. currently married 0.009 0.010 0.012 0.014 0.012 0.009 0.022 0.018 0.016 0.015 0.011 0.012 Prop. employed at present 0.007 0.007 0.010 0.014 0.010 0.008 0.020 0.017 0.014 0.015 0.008 0.012 Prop. government training 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.001 0.002 0.004 0.004 0.005 0.002 0.002 Average number of children 0.023 0.029 0.030 0.055 0.037 0.027 0.069 0.068 0.048 0.052 0.034 0.035 Average highest grade completed 0.061 0.076 0.065 0.114 0.067 0.074 0.145 0.126 0.072 0.096 0.093 0.078 Prop. currently enrolled 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.004 0.002 0.003 0.005 0.005 0.006 0.002 0.004 Notes: Users are cautioned that cohort changes over time have made some categories much less relevant. In particular, the extremely small sample sizes for education related variables such as "Proportion in high school or less," "Proportion government training participant," "Proportion currently enrolled," and "Proportion attending college" make these categories statistically suspect. They have been kept in the table for historical continuity.

#### Table: Standard Errors For Round 23, 2008

 All Male Female Hispanic or Latino Black Non-black, non-Hisp. Male H or L Female H or L Male Black Female Black Male NB/NH Female NB/NH Prop. not on active duty 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.000 Prop. high school dropouts 0.005 0.007 0.005 0.013 0.008 0.005 0.018 0.015 0.011 0.009 0.008 0.006 Prop. in high school or less 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 Prop. attending college 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.003 0.002 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.006 0.002 0.004 Prop. high school graduate 0.005 0.007 0.005 0.013 0.008 0.005 0.018 0.015 0.011 0.009 0.008 0.006 Prop. living in south 0.032 0.031 0.034 0.050 0.043 0.035 0.046 0.058 0.042 0.046 0.034 0.038 Prop. currently married 0.009 0.010 0.011 0.015 0.012 0.008 0.022 0.020 0.017 0.015 0.011 0.012 Prop. employed at present 0.007 0.008 0.010 0.013 0.011 0.008 0.018 0.017 0.015 0.014 0.008 0.012 Prop. government training 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.001 0.003 0.004 0.003 0.004 0.002 0.002 Average number of children 0.023 0.030 0.030 0.054 0.038 0.027 0.068 0.067 0.049 0.052 0.036 0.035 Average highest grade completed 0.062 0.078 0.066 0.109 0.070 0.075 0.141 0.117 0.076 0.094 0.096 0.079 Prop. currently enrolled 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.004 0.002 0.006 0.006 0.005 0.007 0.002 0.004 Notes: Users are cautioned that cohort changes over time have made some categories much less relevant. In particular, the extremely small sample sizes for education related variables such as "Proportion in high school or less," "Proportion government training participant," "Proportion currently enrolled," and "Proportion attending college" make these categories statistically suspect. They have been kept in the table for historical continuity.

#### Table: Standard Errors For Round 24, 2010

All Male Female Hispanic or Latino Black Non-black, non-Hisp. Male
H or L
Female
H or L
Male Black Female Black Male NB/NH Female NB/NH
Prop. not on active duty 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.000
Prop. high school dropouts 0.005 0.007 0.005 0.013 0.008 0.005 0.019 0.015 0.011 0.009 0.008 0.006
Prop. in high school or less 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Prop. attending college 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.004 0.002 0.005 0.004 0.004 0.007 0.002 0.003
Prop. high school graduate 0.005 0.007 0.005 0.013 0.008 0.005 0.019 0.015 0.011 0.009 0.008 0.006
Prop. living in south 0.034 0.033 0.037 0.051 0.042 0.039 0.047 0.058 0.042 0.044 0.038 0.041
Prop. currently married 0.009 0.010 0.011 0.016 0.012 0.008 0.021 0.023 0.017 0.016 0.010 0.012
Prop. employed at present 0.008 0.009 0.011 0.014 0.011 0.009 0.019 0.020 0.017 0.014 0.011 0.013
Prop. government training 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.002 0.004 0.005 0.004 0.004 0.002 0.002
Average number of children 0.024 0.030 0.030 0.057 0.037 0.027 0.072 0.068 0.049 0.053 0.036 0.035
Average highest grade completed 0.062 0.079 0.064 0.112 0.072 0.075 0.140 0.125 0.077 0.098 0.096 0.077
Prop. currently enrolled 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.004 0.002 0.005 0.004 0.004 0.007 0.002 0.004

Notes: Users are cautioned that cohort changes over time have made some categories much less relevant. In particular, the extremely small sample sizes for education related variables such as "Proportion in high school or less," "Proportion government training participant," "Proportion currently enrolled," and "Proportion attending college" make these categories statistically suspect. They have been kept in the table for historical continuity.

#### Table: Standard Errors For Round 25, 2012

 All Male Female Hispanic or Latino Black Non-black, non-Hisp. Male H or L Female H or L Male Black Female Black Male NB/NH Female NB/NH Prop. not on active duty 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000 Prop. high school dropouts 0.005 0.007 0.005 0.014 0.009 0.005 0.020 0.015 0.012 0.009 0.009 0.006 Prop. in high school or less NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Prop. attending college 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.003 0.003 0.007 0.004 0.008 0.004 0.004 Prop. high school graduate 0.005 0.007 0.005 0.014 0.008 0.006 0.020 0.015 0.012 0.008 0.008 0.006 Prop. living in south 0.034 0.034 0.036 0.055 0.043 0.039 0.055 0.064 0.044 0.046 0.039 0.041 Prop. currently married 0.009 0.011 0.011 0.016 0.012 0.009 0.022 0.022 0.016 0.015 0.012 0.012 Prop. employed at present 0.008 0.010 0.011 0.015 0.011 0.009 0.020 0.018 0.016 0.015 0.010 0.013 Prop. government training 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.004 0.003 0.001 0.004 0.005 0.004 0.005 0.002 0.002 Average number of children 0.024 0.030 0.031 0.058 0.038 0.027 0.068 0.069 0.053 0.052 0.036 0.036 Average highest grade completed 0.062 0.080 0.065 0.114 0.073 0.076 0.139 0.126 0.084 0.098 0.098 0.078 Prop. currently enrolled 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.004 0.005 0.003 0.003 0.007 0.004 0.008 0.004 0.004 Notes: Users are cautioned that cohort changes over time have made some categories much less relevant. In particular, the extremely small subsample sizes for education related variables such as "Proportion government training participant," "Proportion currently enrolled" and "Proportion attending college" make these categories statistically suspect. They have been kept in the table for historical continuity. In round 25 the variable "Proportion in high school or less"was labeled "NA" since no NLSY79 respondent was in this category.

#### Table: Standard Errors For Round 26, 2014

All Male Female Hispanic or Latino Black Non-black, non-Hisp. Male
H or L
Female
H or L
Male Black Female Black Male NB/NH Female NB/NH
Prop. high school dropouts 0.005 0.007 0.006 0.014 0.009 0.006 0.021 0.016 0.012 0.010 0.009 0.007
Prop. attending college 0.002 0.003 0.002 0.004 0.005 0.004 0.005 0.008 0.003 0.007 0.003 0.004
Prop. high school graduate 0.005 0.007 0.005 0.013 0.008 0.005 0.020 0.014 0.012 0.008 0.008 0.006
Prop. living in south 0.034 0.033 0.036 0.056 0.042 0.038 0.059 0.061 0.044 0.046 0.038 0.041
Prop. currently married 0.009 0.011 0.012 0.016 0.012 0.009 0.022 0.021 0.017 0.016 0.012 0.012
Prop. employed at present 0.009 0.011 0.011 0.014 0.010 0.010 0.021 0.019 0.015 0.013 0.012 0.013
Prop. government training 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.001 0.003 0.003 0.004 0.003 0.001 0.002
Average number of children 0.024 0.029 0.032 0.055 0.039 0.027 0.066 0.070 0.054 0.054 0.035 0.037
Average highest grade completed 0.064 0.084 0.067 0.114 0.077 0.078 0.145 0.129 0.088 0.100 0.102 0.080
Prop. currently enrolled 0.002 0.002 0.004 0.005 0.004 0.003 0.005 0.008 0.003 0.007 0.003 0.004

Notes: Users are cautioned that cohort changes over time have made some categories much less relevant. In particular, the extremely small subsample sizes for education related variables such as "Proportion government training participant," "Proportion currently enrolled" and "Proportion attending college" make these categories statistically suspect. They have been kept in the table for historical continuity. In round 25, the variable “Proportion in high school or less” was removed from the table since no NLSY79 respondent was in this category. In round 26, the variable “Proportion not on active duty” was removed from the table since no NLSY79 respondent remained in this category.

#### Table: Standard Errors for Round 27, 2016

 All Males Females Hispanic or Latino Black Non-black, non-Hisp. Male H or L Female H or L Male Black Female Black Male NB/NH Female NB/NH Prop. high school dropouts 0.0048 0.007 0.005 0.014 0.008 0.006 0.018 0.018 0.012 0.009 0.008 0.006 Prop. attending college 0.0022 0.003 0.003 0.004 0.003 0.003 0.002 0.009 0.002 0.006 0.003 0.004 Prop. high school grads 0.0046 0.007 0.005 0.013 0.008 0.005 0.018 0.015 0.012 0.008 0.008 0.006 Prop. living in south 0.0337 0.033 0.036 0.058 0.041 0.038 0.061 0.063 0.042 0.045 0.038 0.040 Prop. currently married 0.0093 0.011 0.011 0.016 0.012 0.009 0.023 0.021 0.017 0.016 0.012 0.011 Prop. employed at present 0.0084 0.010 0.011 0.015 0.011 0.009 0.023 0.018 0.016 0.015 0.011 0.013 Prop. gov. training particip. 0.0012 0.001 0.001 0.004 0.002 0.001 0.007 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.002 0.002 Avg # of children 0.0239 0.031 0.031 0.059 0.039 0.028 0.070 0.073 0.054 0.051 0.036 0.037 Avg highest grade completed 0.0624 0.080 0.067 0.118 0.075 0.076 0.142 0.134 0.085 0.103 0.098 0.080 Prop. currently enrolled 0.0022 0.003 0.003 0.004 0.003 0.003 0.002 0.009 0.003 0.006 0.003 0.004

Notes: Users are cautioned that cohort changes over time have made some categories much less relevant. In particular, the extremely small subsample sizes for education related variables such as "Proportion government training participant," "Proportion currently enrolled" and "Proportion attending college" make these categories statistically suspect. They have been kept in the table for historical continuity. In round 25 the variable "Proportion in high school or less" was removed from the table since no NLSY79 respondent was in this category. In round 26 the variable "Proportion not on active duty" was removed from the table since no NLSY79 respondent remained in this category.

#### Table: Standard Errors for Round 28, 2018

 All Males Females Hispanic or Latino Black Non-black, non-Hisp. Male H or L Female H or L Male Black Female Black Male NB/NH Female NB/NH Prop. high school dropouts 0.0047 0.007 0.005 0.014 0.008 0.005 0.019 0.016 0.012 0.008 0.008 0.006 Prop. attending college 0.0010 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.004 0.003 0.000 0.004 0.002 0.002 Prop. high school graduates 0.0047 0.007 0.005 0.014 0.008 0.005 0.019 0.015 0.012 0.008 0.008 0.006 Prop. living in South 0.0334 0.033 0.036 0.058 0.042 0.038 0.060 0.063 0.043 0.045 0.038 0.041 Prop. currently married 0.0094 0.011 0.011 0.017 0.012 0.009 0.025 0.019 0.016 0.016 0.012 0.012 Prop. employed at present 0.0086 0.010 0.012 0.016 0.012 0.010 0.020 0.022 0.017 0.016 0.011 0.014 Prop. gov. training participant 0.0008 0.009 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.000 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.001 0.001 Avg # of children 0.0248 0.033 0.032 0.057 0.038 0.029 0.067 0.070 0.054 0.053 0.039 0.037 Avg highest grade completed 0.0610 0.081 0.066 0.117 0.074 0.074 0.151 0.126 0.084 0.105 0.100 0.078 Prop. currently enrolled 0.0011 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.002 0.001 0.004 0.004 0.000 0.004 0.002 0.002

Notes: Users are cautioned that cohort changes over time have made some categories much less relevant. In particular, the extremely small subsample sizes for education related variables such as "Proportion government training participant," "Proportion currently enrolled" and "Proportion attending college" make these categories statistically suspect. They have been kept in the table for historical continuity.  In round 25 the variable "Proportion in high school or less" was removed from the table since no NLSY79 respondent was in this category. In round 26 the variable "Proportion not on active duty" was removed from the table since no NLSY79 respondent remained in this category. Beginning in round 28, the "Average highest grade completed" was the highest grade completed as of the date of most recent interview, not as of May in the year previous to survey year.

#### Table: Standard Errors for Round 29, 2020

 All Males Females Hispanic or Latino Black Non-black, non-Hisp. Male H or L Female H or L Male Black Female Black Male NB/NH Female NB/NH Prop. high school dropouts 0.0048 0.007 0.005 0.014 0.008 0.006 0.019 0.015 0.012 0.008 0.000 0.006 Prop. attending college 0.0007 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.003 0.001 0.001 Prop. high school graduates 0.0048 0.007 0.005 0.014 0.008 0.006 0.019 0.015 0.012 0.008 0.009 0.006 Prop. living in South 0.0332 0.034 0.035 0.058 0.042 0.038 0.062 0.062 0.044 0.044 0.039 0.040 Prop. currently married 0.0100 0.012 0.012 0.017 0.012 0.010 0.025 0.020 0.017 0.016 0.013 0.012 Prop. employed at present 0.0092 0.013 0.012 0.015 0.013 0.011 0.020 0.023 0.018 0.017 0.015 0.014 Prop. gov. training participant 0.0008 0.001 0.001 0.003 0.002 0.001 0.005 0.003 0.003 0.002 0.001 0.001 Avg # of children 0.0250 0.034 0.032 0.055 0.039 0.029 0.068 0.071 0.055 0.057 0.040 0.037 Avg highest grade completed 0.0630 0.085 0.065 0.121 0.075 0.076 0.155 0.130 0.082 0.108 0.103 0.076 Prop. currently enrolled 0.0008 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.003 0.001 0.001

Notes: Users are cautioned that cohort changes over time have made some categories much less relevant. In particular, the extremely small subsample sizes for education related variables such as "Proportion government training participant," "Proportion currently enrolled" and "Proportion attending college" make these categories statistically suspect. They have been kept in the table for historical continuity. In round 25 the variable "Proportion in high school or less" was removed from the table since no NLSY79 respondent was in this category. In round 26 the variable "Proportion not on active duty" was removed from the table since no NLSY79 respondent remained in this category. Beginning in round 28, the "Average highest grade completed" was the highest grade completed as of the date of most recent interview, not as of May in the year previous to survey year.