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Author: Zill, Nicholas
Resulting in 8 citations.
1. Nord, Christine Winquis
Zill, Nicholas
Prince, Cynthia
Clarke, Sally
Developing an Index of Educational Risk from Health and Social Characteristics Known at Birth
Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 71, 2 (Winter 1994): 167-187.
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: New York Academy of Medicine
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Child Development; Child Health; Childhood Education, Early; Children, Health Care; Children, Well-Being; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Education Indicators; Health Factors; Marital Status; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Pre/post Natal Health Care; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; School Entry/Readiness; Substance Use

The goal of the work described in this report was to develop a new child health index that could be reported annually by the National Education Goals Panel for each of the 50 States, as well as for local areas. This index would serve as an indicator of health conditions at birth that relate to children's readiness to learn upon school entry. The new standard birth certificate adopted by nearly all states in 1989 contains more than a dozen items of information that are potentially useful for this purpose. The availability of these data make it possible to sum across the individual health factors to form a composite index made up of factors with demonstrated relevance to later educational performance for all children born in a given year in a given geographical area.
Bibliography Citation
Nord, Christine Winquis, Nicholas Zill, Cynthia Prince and Sally Clarke. "Developing an Index of Educational Risk from Health and Social Characteristics Known at Birth." Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 71, 2 (Winter 1994): 167-187.
2. Zill, Nicholas
National Surveys as Data Resources for Public Policy Research on Poor Children
In: Escape from Poverty: What Makes a Difference for Children? Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay and J. Brooks-Gunn, eds. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1995: pp. 272-290
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Education; Overview, Child Assessment Data; Vocational Rehabilitation; Vocational Training; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The eventual impact of welfare reform, such as the Family Support Act of 1988, depends greatly on the vigor and imagination with which regulations are implemented by the states. A resource that would aid both implementation and evaluation is accurate, up-to-date information on the characteristics of the welfare population of each state and of the nation as a whole. Data on the characteristics of current welfare recipients would be useful in helping state officials understand the needs and capabilities of dependent families. In order to plan services and get a sense of the kinds of occupations at which AFDC parents can realistically be expected to work, it would be helpful if state agencies had profiles of their dependent population that included assessments of physical health and disability, functional literacy, work motivation, psychiatric impairment, and drug and alcohol use, as well as measures of educational attainment, vocational training, and work experience. Such infor mation would make it possible to estimate the numbers of parents who would be eligible for immediate employment and the numbers who would require basic education, vocational training, or rehabilitation. Ideally, one would also like to know how many recipients need relatively limited services and how many require extensive rehabilitation and support if they are to have any hope of becoming self-sufficient.
Bibliography Citation
Zill, Nicholas. "National Surveys as Data Resources for Public Policy Research on Poor Children" In: Escape from Poverty: What Makes a Difference for Children? Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay and J. Brooks-Gunn, eds. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1995: pp. 272-290
3. Zill, Nicholas
Trends in Family Life and Children's School Performance
Presented: Pittsburgh, PA, American Sociological Association Symposium "Impact of Changes in the Family on Education: Linkages of Sociologies of Family and Education", August 1992
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Elementary School Students; Ethnic Groups; Family Background; Family Characteristics; Family Circumstances, Changes in; Family Income; Family Influences; Family Resources; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Minority Groups; Parental Influences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Education professionals have long known that family background is a stronger predictor of academic success than are school or teacher characteristics. The past 30 years have seen a series of drastic alterations in patterns of family living in the United States, and these changes mean that a substantial number of youngsters are being born or are growing up in circumstances that put them at risk of low achievement and school failure. Family characteristics associated with school difficulties are more common in some racial and ethnic groups than others, but when grade-repetition rates are adjusted for parent education, family income, and family composition, these ethnic disparities are substantially reduced. Research indicates that the disadvantaged minority students of today are doing better than those of yesterday. There is a scale that assesses what parents do to stimulate achievement in preschool and elementary-age children. This is the Home Observation for the Measurement of Environment (HOME) scale. An abbreviated version of the HOME scale was used in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to begin to study family influence on student achievement. Considerable further research is required to explore the complex relationships between family life and academic achievement. Includes one figure and two tables. (Contains 49 references.) (SLD)
Bibliography Citation
Zill, Nicholas. "Trends in Family Life and Children's School Performance." Presented: Pittsburgh, PA, American Sociological Association Symposium "Impact of Changes in the Family on Education: Linkages of Sociologies of Family and Education", August 1992.
4. Zill, Nicholas
Daly, Margaret
Researching the Family: A Guide to Survey and Statistical Data on U.S. Families
Report #93-28, Child Trends, Inc., Washington DC, 1993
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Child Trends, Inc.
Keyword(s): Data Quality/Consistency; Family Studies; Longitudinal Data Sets; Overview, Child Assessment Data

Prepared for the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, Office of the Secretary, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Includes bibliographical references.
Bibliography Citation
Zill, Nicholas and Margaret Daly. "Researching the Family: A Guide to Survey and Statistical Data on U.S. Families." Report #93-28, Child Trends, Inc., Washington DC, 1993.
5. Zill, Nicholas
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Nord, Christine Winquis
Stief, Thomas
Welfare Mothers as Potential Employees: A Statistical Profile Based on National Survey Data
Report, Child Trends, Inc., 1991.
Also: http://openlibrary.org/b/OL1492369M/Welfare_mothers_as_potential_employees
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Child Trends, Inc.
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Government Regulation; Mothers; Poverty; Self-Esteem; Welfare

When women who receive welfare benefits are compared with other women, both poor and non-poor, in the NLSY and other national sample surveys, welfare mothers are notably different from non-poor mothers. At the same time, these data show that there is considerable diversity within the welfare population. In particular, compared to short-term recipients, longer-term recipients have lower cognitive achievement scores, less education, sporadic work experience, and lower self-esteem. Non-welfare mothers with similar disadvantages disproportionately find only low-paying service jobs, which are insufficient to move them out of poverty. Differences between poor women on welfare and poor working women are too small to represent major positive changes in the lives of the women themselves or in the life prospects of their children. The study suggests that federal programs of education and job training may be of help to those whose academic skills, education, and work experience are in the second quartile among welfare mothers. Those in the top quartile probably possess enough skills, education, and experience to succeed on their own, while prospects for those in the bottom half are unclear.
Bibliography Citation
Zill, Nicholas, Kristin Anderson Moore, Christine Winquis Nord and Thomas Stief. "Welfare Mothers as Potential Employees: A Statistical Profile Based on National Survey Data." Report, Child Trends, Inc., 1991.
6. Zill, Nicholas
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Smith, Ellen Wolpow
Stief, Thomas
Life Circumstances and Development of Children in Welfare Families: A Profile Based on National Survey Data
Research Report, Washington DC: Child Trends, October 29, 1991
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Child Trends, Inc.
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); General Assessment; Health Care; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Composition; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Welfare

The finding that welfare children exhibit problems such as low achievement, grade repetition, and classroom conduct disorders at rates double those shown by non-poor children means the "cycle of disadvantage" is still very much with us. Unless effective interventions are found and applied, many of these young people will go on to become adult non-workers and impoverished or dependent parents, perhaps producing another generation of high-risk children. The similarities between children in families receiving AFDC and other poor children suggest that low parent education, poverty, and family turmoil are detrimental to children's development, no matter what the particular sources of the family's financial support or the predominant family configuration might be. The findings may also mean that if families move from being "welfare poor" to "working poor," the overall life chances of the children will not necessarily be enhanced. The findings regarding the home environments of children suggest that many mothers in low-income families need more than remedial education or job training; some need training in effective childrearing practices. A lack of parental stimulation may not be the only handicap, or even the most significant impediment faced by children in AFDC families, but it is a handicap that can be addressed through programs such as parenting education, high quality child care, and compensatory preschool. Finally, there is the finding that welfare children are clearly doing better than children in other low-income families with respect to receipt of routine health care. This finding reinforces concerns about the possible negative effects on children of a loss of Medicaid benefits as parents move from AFDC dependency to precarious self-sufficiency.
Bibliography Citation
Zill, Nicholas, Kristin Anderson Moore, Ellen Wolpow Smith and Thomas Stief. "Life Circumstances and Development of Children in Welfare Families: A Profile Based on National Survey Data." Research Report, Washington DC: Child Trends, October 29, 1991.
7. Zill, Nicholas
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Smith, Ellen Wolpow
Stief, Thomas
Coiro, Mary Jo
Life Circumstances and Development of Children in Welfare Families: A Profile Based on National Survey Data
In: Escape from Poverty: What Make a Difference for Children? Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay and J. Brooks-Gunn, eds. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1995: pp. 38-59
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Health Factors; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Racial Studies; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

One child in seven in the United States is in a family that receives "welfare," or cash income through the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program. As of September 1992 some 9.4 million children under the age of 18 were receiving AFDC (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1993). Because families move on and off welfare, a larger proportion of children receive AFDC for some period between birth and adulthood. Estimates by Martha Hill, Greg Duncan, and their colleagues at the University of Michigan, based on data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, are that 22% of U.S. children born in the early 1970s received welfare for at least 1 year before reaching their 15th birthday. For African-American children born during these years, an estimated 55% were dependent for some childhood (Committee on Ways and Means, 1991, p. 643).
Bibliography Citation
Zill, Nicholas, Kristin Anderson Moore, Ellen Wolpow Smith, Thomas Stief and Mary Jo Coiro. "Life Circumstances and Development of Children in Welfare Families: A Profile Based on National Survey Data" In: Escape from Poverty: What Make a Difference for Children? Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay and J. Brooks-Gunn, eds. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1995: pp. 38-59
8. Zill, Nicholas
Peterson, James Lloyd
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Guide to Federal Data on Children, Youth, and Families
Report #89-04, Conference on Child and Family Statistics, Child Trends, Inc., Washington DC, 1988
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Child Trends, Inc.
Keyword(s): Children; Data Quality/Consistency; Family Studies; Longitudinal Data Sets; Overview, Child Assessment Data

Overview of research and policy uses of federal data on children and families: Recommendations from the Second Interagency.
Bibliography Citation
Zill, Nicholas, James Lloyd Peterson and Kristin Anderson Moore. "Guide to Federal Data on Children, Youth, and Families." Report #89-04, Conference on Child and Family Statistics, Child Trends, Inc., Washington DC, 1988.