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Author: Sevigny, Eric L.
Resulting in 2 citations.
1. Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo
Powell, David
Heaton, Paul
Sevigny, Eric L.
Assessing the Effects of Medical Marijuana Laws on Marijuana Use: The Devil is in the Details
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 34,1 (Winter 2015): 7-31.
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Drug Use; Geocoded Data; Legislation; Modeling, Fixed Effects

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper sheds light on previous inconsistencies identified in the literature regarding the relationship between medical marijuana laws (MMLs) and recreational marijuana use by closely examining the importance of policy dimensions (registration requirements, home cultivation, dispensaries) and the timing of when particular policy dimensions are enacted. Using data from our own legal analysis of state MMLs, we evaluate which features are associated with adult and youth recreational and heavy use by linking these policy variables to data from the Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97). We employ differences-in-differences techniques, controlling for state and year fixed effects, allowing us to exploit within-state policy changes. We find that while simple dichotomous indicators of MML laws are not positively associated with marijuana use or abuse, such measures hide the positive influence legal dispensaries have on adult and youth use, particularly heavy use. Sensitivity analyses that help address issues of policy endogeneity and actual implementation of dispensaries support our main conclusion that not all MML laws are the same. Dimensions of these policies, in particular legal protection of dispensaries, can lead to greater recreational marijuana use and abuse among adults and those under the legal age of 21 relative to MMLs without this supply source.
Bibliography Citation
Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo, David Powell, Paul Heaton and Eric L. Sevigny. "Assessing the Effects of Medical Marijuana Laws on Marijuana Use: The Devil is in the Details." Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 34,1 (Winter 2015): 7-31.
2. Sevigny, Eric L.
Greathouse, Jared
Medhin, Danye N.
Health, Safety, and Socioeconomic Impacts of Cannabis Liberalization Laws: An Evidence and Gap Map
Campbell Systematic Reviews 19,4 (Dec 2023) e1362.
Cohort(s): NLS General
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Attitudes; Behavior; CBD (cannabidiol) products; Evidence and Gap Map (EGM); Health, Impacts to; Hemp; Marijuana/Cannabis; Marijuana/Cannabis Cultivation; Marijuana/Cannabis Law/Policy; Marijuana/Cannabis Legalization; Marijuana/Cannabis Liberalization; Marijuana/Cannabis Use; Marijuana/Cannabis, Medical; Marijuana/Cannabis, Recreational; Safety, Impacts to; Socioeconomics, Impacts to

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Background: Globally, cannabis laws and regulations are rapidly changing. Countries are increasingly permitting access to cannabis under various decriminalization, medicalization, and legalization laws. With strong economic, public health, and social justice incentives driving these domestic cannabis policy reforms, liberalization trends are bound to continue. However, despite a large and growing body of interdisciplinary research addressing the policy-relevant health, safety, and socioeconomic consequences of cannabis liberalization, there is a lack of robust primary and systematic research that comprehensively investigates the consequences of these reforms.

Objectives: This evidence and gap map (EGM) summarizes the empirical evidence on cannabis liberalization policies. Primary objectives were to develop a conceptual framework linking cannabis liberalization policies to relevant outcomes, descriptively summarize the empirical evidence, and identify areas of evidence concentration and gaps.

Search Methods: We comprehensively searched for eligible English-language empirical studies published across 23 academic databases and 11 gray literature sources through August 2020. Additions to the pool of potentially eligible studies from supplemental sources were made through November 2020.

Selection Criteria: The conceptual framework for this EGM draws upon a legal epidemiological perspective highlighting the causal effects of law and policy on population-level outcomes. Eligible interventions include policies that create or expand access to a legal or decriminalized supply of cannabis: comprehensive medical cannabis laws (MCLs), limited medical cannabidiol laws (CBDLs), recreational cannabis laws (RCLs), industrial hemp laws (IHLs), and decriminalization of cultivations laws (DCLs). Eligible outcomes include intermediate responses (i.e., attitudes/behaviors and markets/environments) and longer-term consequences (health, safety, and socioeconomic out comes) of these laws.

Data Collection and Analysis: Both dual screening and dual data extraction were performed with third person deconfliction. Primary studies were appraised using the Maryland Scientific Methods Scale and systematic reviews were assessed using AMSTAR 2.

Main Results: The EGM includes 447 studies, comprising 438 primary studies and nine systematic reviews. Most research derives from the United States, with little research from other countries. By far, most cannabis liberalization research focuses on the effects of MCLs and RCLs. Studies targeting other laws—including CBDLs, IHLs, and DCLs—are relatively rare. Of the 113 distinct outcomes we documented, cannabis use was the single most frequently investigated. More than half these outcomes were addressed by three or fewer studies, highlighting substantial evidence gaps in the literature. The systematic evidence base is relatively small, comprising just seven completed reviews on cannabis use (3), opioid-related harms (3), and alcohol-related outcomes (1). Moreover, we have limited confidence in the reviews, as five were appraised as minimal quality and two as low quality.

Authors’ Conclusions: More primary and systematic research is needed to better understand the effects of cannabis liberalization laws on longer-term—and arguably more salient—health, safety, and socioeconomic outcomes. Since most research concerns MCLs and RCLs, there is a critical need for research on the societal impacts of industrial hemp production, medical CBD products, and decriminalized cannabis cultivation. Future research should also prioritize understanding the heterogeneous effects of these laws given differences in specific provisions and implementation across jurisdictions.

Bibliography Citation
Sevigny, Eric L., Jared Greathouse and Danye N. Medhin. "Health, Safety, and Socioeconomic Impacts of Cannabis Liberalization Laws: An Evidence and Gap Map." Campbell Systematic Reviews 19,4 (Dec 2023) e1362.