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Author: Schmitz, Susanne
Resulting in 5 citations.
1. Gabriel, Paul E.
Schmitz, Susanne
A Longitudinal Analysis of the Union Wage Premium for US Workers
Applied Economics Letters 21,7 (May 2014): 487-489.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13504851.2013.868583#.Uw49_xDvDpV
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Routledge ==> Taylor & Francis (1998)
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Unions; Wages

Estimates of the union wage premium for US workers are presented based on longitudinal data from the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Our results indicate that the long-term private-sector union wage premium for men has remained fairly steady at nearly 22% over the period 1990 to 2010. For women, the wage premium exhibits greater volatility, although no clear downward trend, and is approximately one-half of the male premium.
Bibliography Citation
Gabriel, Paul E. and Susanne Schmitz. "A Longitudinal Analysis of the Union Wage Premium for US Workers." Applied Economics Letters 21,7 (May 2014): 487-489.
2. Gabriel, Paul E.
Schmitz, Susanne
Favorable Self-Selection and the Internal Migration of Young White Males in the United States
Journal of Human Resources 30,3 (Summer 1995): 460-471.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/146031
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): Economics, Demographic; Economics, Regional; Labor Market Demographics; Labor Market Studies, Geographic; Labor Market, Secondary; Migration; Regions; Rural/Urban Differences; Selectivity Bias/Selection Bias; Wage Differentials

This study offers an alternative empirical technique to test whether the favorable self-selection hypothesis applies to internal migrants in the United States. The authors' empirical specification attempts to determine if prospective migrants possess unobserved traits, such as higher ability or motivation, that influence their earnings potential relative to nonmigrants. Using National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data for 1985 through 1991, they find some support for the favorable self-selection hypothesis for white males who move from one standard metropolitan statistical area to another. Prior to their move, prospective migrants enjoy a consistent advantage in annual wage and salary income relative to nonmigrants with similar earnings-related characteristics.
Bibliography Citation
Gabriel, Paul E. and Susanne Schmitz. "Favorable Self-Selection and the Internal Migration of Young White Males in the United States." Journal of Human Resources 30,3 (Summer 1995): 460-471.
3. Gabriel, Paul E.
Schmitz, Susanne
Gender Differences in Occupational Distributions Among Workers
Monthly Labor Review 130,6 (June 2007): 19-24.
Also: http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2007/06/art2full.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Occupational Attainment

An investigation of gender differences in occupational attainment of prime-age U.S. workers reveals that such differences do exist, especially among women, but apparently are the results of voluntary choices and long-term changes in the labor market.

DO WOMEN AND MEN ENCOUNTER unequal employment prospects across occupations, given their personal characteristics? Empirical evidence presented in this article indicates that gender differences in occupational distributions remained stable during the 1990s at levels comparable to those of the 1980s. The multinomial logit model of occupational attainment set forth here also detected a significant shift of women across occupational categories if their characteristics are evaluated according to the men's occupational structure. These shifts did not change significantly throughout the 1990s and are similar to comparable estimates from the late 1970s and 1980s. A more detailed examination of the occupational shifts occupational distribution predicts a movement of women from white-collar to blue-collar jobs. This is unlikely, however, especially in light of recent literature on occupational employment patterns and choice by gender. Thus, U.S. women in their thirties and forties do not appear to encounter significant levels of involuntary segregation across broad occupational categories. Although gender differences in occupational attainment persist, they apparently result from voluntary choices of men and women and from long-term changes in labor markets, such as the simultaneous growth of white-collar occupations and women's labor force participation rates.

Bibliography Citation
Gabriel, Paul E. and Susanne Schmitz. "Gender Differences in Occupational Distributions Among Workers." Monthly Labor Review 130,6 (June 2007): 19-24.
4. Gabriel, Paul E.
Williams, Donald R.
Schmitz, Susanne
The Relative Occupational Attainment of Young Blacks, Whites, and Hispanics
Southern Economic Journal 57,1 (July 1990): 35-46.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1060476
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Southern Economic Association
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Gender Differences; Hispanics; Minorities, Youth; Occupational Attainment; Occupational Segregation; Racial Differences

The proposition is examined that young blacks and Hispanics encounter discrimination resulting in occupational segregation in the labor market. A multinomial logit model was utilized to construct hypothetical occupational distributions for young black and Hispanic males and females, based on estimated white male and female occupational structures from the NLSY. A comparison of hypothetical distributions with actual distributions permitted an estimate of the extent to which minority youth face different processes for occupational attainment than whites. The findings suggest that, for all minority cohorts examined, occupational distributions improved when adjusted to the white occupational structure. Overall, the impact of disparate treatment on occupational segregation was most pronounced for black males and least pronounced for Hispanic females. The difference was statistically significant only for black males. It is noticed that policy measures designed to decrease occupational segregation among black males should focus on the unionized sectors of the economy. [ABI/INFORM]
Bibliography Citation
Gabriel, Paul E., Donald R. Williams and Susanne Schmitz. "The Relative Occupational Attainment of Young Blacks, Whites, and Hispanics ." Southern Economic Journal 57,1 (July 1990): 35-46.
5. Schmitz, Susanne
Williams, Donald R.
Gabriel, Paul E.
An Empirical Examination of Racial and Gender Differences in Wage Distributions
Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance 34,3 (Fall 1994): 227-239.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/1062976994900256
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Job; Gender Differences; Human Capital; Modeling, Logit; Racial Differences; Wage Differentials; Wives, Income

This research presents an examination of racial and gender differences in differences in earnings distributions among a sample of young workers. Using data from the 1987 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we utilize an ordered-response logit model to estimate the probability of a white male being in a given position in the earnings distribution, based on his human capital and other personal characteristics. We then generate "predicted" probabilities of given earnings positions for individual black males, black females, and white females. Non-parametric tests indicate that significant differences exist between the actual and predicted earnings distributions for all of the racial and gender groups studied. We interpret this as evidence of the impact of differential treatment in the labor market. Reprinted by permission of the publisher.
Bibliography Citation
Schmitz, Susanne, Donald R. Williams and Paul E. Gabriel. "An Empirical Examination of Racial and Gender Differences in Wage Distributions." Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance 34,3 (Fall 1994): 227-239.