Search Results

Author: Powell, Lisa M.
Resulting in 10 citations.
1. Auld, M. Christopher
Powell, Lisa M.
The Economics of Obesity: Research and Policy Implications from a Canada-U.S. Comparison
Presented: Kingston, Ontario, Canada, John Deutsch Institute Conference at Queen's University, November 2005
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: John Deutsch Institute for the Study of Economic Policy
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Canada, Canadian; Cognitive Ability; Cross-national Analysis; Health Factors; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Obesity; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Why do obesity rates differ across the United States and Canada, for which groups do they differ, and what do these differences suggest for policy and for research? In this paper, we use cross-sectional data on middle aged adults in the two countries to answer these questions.

Note: The final version of this paper is published in a book: Health Services Restructuring: New Evidence and New Directions, edited by C.M. Beach, R.C. Chaykowski, S. Shortt, F. St-Hilaire, and A. Sweetman, 2006 (Kingston: John Deutsch Institute, Queen’s University).

Bibliography Citation
Auld, M. Christopher and Lisa M. Powell. "The Economics of Obesity: Research and Policy Implications from a Canada-U.S. Comparison." Presented: Kingston, Ontario, Canada, John Deutsch Institute Conference at Queen's University, November 2005.
2. Han, Euna
Norton, Edward C.
Powell, Lisa M.
Direct and Indirect Effects of Body Weight on Adult Wages
Economics and Human Biology 9,4 (December 2011): 381-392.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1570677X11000803
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Education; Obesity; Occupational Choice; Wages

Previous estimates of the association between body weight and wages in the literature have been conditional on education and occupation. In addition to the effect of current body weight status (body mass index (BMI) or obesity) on wages, this paper examines the indirect effect of body weight status in the late-teenage years on wages operating through education and occupation choice. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 data, for women, we find that a one-unit increase in BMI is directly associated with 1.83% lower hourly wages whereas the indirect BMI wage penalty is not statistically significant. Neither a direct nor an indirect BMI wage penalty is found for men. However, results based on clinical weight classification reveal that the indirect wage penalty occurs to a larger extent at the upper tail of the BMI distribution for both men and women via the pathways of education and occupation outcomes. Late-teen obesity is indirectly associated with 3.5% lower hourly wages for both women and men. These results are important because they imply that the total effect of obesity on wages is significantly larger than has been estimated in previous cross-sectional studies.
Bibliography Citation
Han, Euna, Edward C. Norton and Lisa M. Powell. "Direct and Indirect Effects of Body Weight on Adult Wages." Economics and Human Biology 9,4 (December 2011): 381-392.
3. Han, Euna
Norton, Edward C.
Powell, Lisa M.
Direct and Indirect Effects of Teenage Body Weight on Adult Wages
NBER Working Paper No. 15027, National Bureau of Economic Research, June 2009.
Also: http://www.nber.org/papers/w15027.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Teenagers; Wage Effects; Wages; Weight

Previous estimates on the association between body weight and wages in the literature have been contingent on education and occupation. This paper examines the direct effect of BMI on wages and the indirect effects operating through education and occupation choice, particularly for late-teen BMI and adult wages. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 data, we show that education is the main pathway for the indirect BMI wage penalty. The total BMI wage penalty is underestimated by 18% for women without including those indirect effects. Whereas for men there is no statistically significant direct BMI wage penalty, we do observe a small indirect wage penalty through education.
Bibliography Citation
Han, Euna, Edward C. Norton and Lisa M. Powell. "Direct and Indirect Effects of Teenage Body Weight on Adult Wages." NBER Working Paper No. 15027, National Bureau of Economic Research, June 2009.
4. Han, Euna
Norton, Edward C.
Powell, Lisa M.
Direct and Indirect Effects of Teenage Body Weight on Adult Wages
Presented: Chicago, IL, Academy Health Annual Research Meeting, June 28-30, 2009
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: AcademyHealth
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Education; Occupational Choice; Wage Effects

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Research Objective: This paper examines the direct effect of BMI on wages and the indirect effects operating through education and occupation choice, particularly for late-teen BMI and adult wages. In addition to the direct effect of BMI in the late teenage years between age 16 and 20 on long-term wages in the early thirties, late teen BMI is hypothesized to also affect wages in the early thirties indirectly through its effect on education and occupation choice in the early thirties.

Study Design: We present an empirical model that predicts wages as a function of BMI (the direct effect), education and occupation choice (indirect effects of BMI), and other factors. The effect of a unit change in late teen BMI on the logarithm of wages in the early career stage is the full derivative of the logarithm of wages in the early career with respect to late teen BMI, taking into account the indirect effect of late teen BMI through education and occupation choice in the early career. To calculate the indirect effects, we estimate the effect of late teen BMI on the stock of education accumulated by the time an individual reaches their early 30s using OLS. We specify education in the early thirties as a function of late teen BMI and other factors in the early thirties. We then estimate reduced form models of the effect of late teen BMI on occupation choice among white-collar, service, sales, managerial or professional specialty jobs, and blue-collar jobs (based on Census occupational codes), and choice of jobs requiring social interactions with colleagues or customers (based on the Dictionary of Occupation Titles).

Bibliography Citation
Han, Euna, Edward C. Norton and Lisa M. Powell. "Direct and Indirect Effects of Teenage Body Weight on Adult Wages." Presented: Chicago, IL, Academy Health Annual Research Meeting, June 28-30, 2009.
5. Powell, Lisa M.
Fast Food Costs and Adolescent Body Mass Index: Evidence from Panel Data.
Journal of Health Economics 28,5 (September 2009): 963-970.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167629609000678
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Family Influences; Heterogeneity; Nutritional Status/Nutrition/Consumption Behaviors; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

This study draws on four waves of the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and external data to examine the relationship between adolescent body mass index (BMI) and fast food prices and fast food restaurant availability using panel data estimation methods to account for individual-level unobserved heterogeneity. Analyses also control for contextual factors including general food prices and the availability of full-service restaurants, supermarkets, grocery stores, convenience stores and commercial physical activity-related facilities. The longitudinal individual-level fixed effects results confirm cross-sectional findings that the price of fast food but not the availability of fast food restaurants has a statistically significant effect on teen BMI with an estimated price elasticity of -0.08. The results suggest that the cross-sectional model over-estimates the price of fast food BMI effect by about 25%. There is evidence that the weight of teens in low- to middle-socioeconomic status families is most sensitive to fast food prices.
Bibliography Citation
Powell, Lisa M. "Fast Food Costs and Adolescent Body Mass Index: Evidence from Panel Data." Journal of Health Economics 28,5 (September 2009): 963-970.
6. Powell, Lisa M.
Bao, Yanjun
Food Prices, Access to Food Outlets and Child Weight
Economics and Human Biology 7,1 (March 2009): 64-72.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1570677X09000070
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Growth; Child Health; Data Linkage (also see Record Linkage); Geocoded Data; Geographical Variation; Modeling, Random Effects; Mothers, Education; Obesity; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

This study examines the importance of food prices and restaurant and food store outlet availability for child body mass index (BMI). We use the 1998, 2000 and 2002 waves of the child–mother merged files from the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth combined with fruit and vegetable and fast food price data obtained from the American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association and outlet density data on fast food and full-service restaurants and supermarkets, grocery stores and convenience stores obtained from Dun & Bradstreet. Using a random effects estimation model, we found that a 10% increase in the price of fruits and vegetables was associated with a 0.7% increase in child BMI. Fast food prices were not found to be statistically significant in the full sample but were weakly negatively associated with BMI among adolescents with an estimated price elasticity of -0.12. The price estimates were robust to whether we controlled for outlet availability based on a per capita or per land area basis; however, the association between food outlets and child BMI differed depending on the definition. The associations of fruit and vegetable and fast food prices with BMI were significantly stronger both economically and statistically among low- versus high-socioeconomic status children. The estimated fruit and vegetable and fast food price elasticities were 0.14 and -0.26, respectively, among low-income children and 0.09 and -0.13, respectively, among children with less educated mothers.
Bibliography Citation
Powell, Lisa M. and Yanjun Bao. "Food Prices, Access to Food Outlets and Child Weight." Economics and Human Biology 7,1 (March 2009): 64-72.
7. Powell, Lisa M.
Bao, Yanjun
Food Prices, Access to Food Outlets and Child Weight Outcomes: A Longitudinal Analysis
Working Paper, Department of Economics, University of Illinois at Chicago, May 2007
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Economics, University of Illinois at Chicago
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Health; Data Linkage (also see Record Linkage); Geocoded Data; Geographical Variation; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Nutritional Status/Nutrition/Consumption Behaviors; Obesity; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines the importance of food prices and restaurant and food store outlet availability for child body mass index (BMI) and ordered categorical weight outcomes. We use child-mother merged files from the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth combined with fast food and fruit and vegetable price data obtained from the American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association and outlet density data on fast food and full-service restaurants and supermarkets, grocery stores and convenience stores obtained from Dun & Bradstreet. We estimate naïve ordinary least squares, random-effects and child fixed-effects BMI models and generalized ordered probit and random-effects generalized ordered probit models of underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obesity for children aged 6 to 17. We also estimate separate models by children's age and race, family income, and mother's education status. Accounting for unobserved heterogeneity using random-effects estimation models, we find that a 10% increase in the price of fruits and vegetables increases BMI by 0.5% and lowers the prevalence of obesity by 4%. The price of fast food and the availability of restaurants and food stores are not found to be statistically significantly related to children's BMI or obesity. However, higher fast food prices are found to be weakly statistically significantly related to lower BMI among older children. Further analyses by sub-groups find the BMI of children in lower income families and those with lower educated mothers to be particularly sensitive to the price of fruits and vegetables suggesting that targeted subsidies for healthful foods may be an effective policy instrument for addressing child obesity in low-socioeconomic status families.
Bibliography Citation
Powell, Lisa M. and Yanjun Bao. "Food Prices, Access to Food Outlets and Child Weight Outcomes: A Longitudinal Analysis." Working Paper, Department of Economics, University of Illinois at Chicago, May 2007.
8. Powell, Lisa M.
Han, Euna
Chaloupka, Frank J.
Economic Contextual Factors, Food Consumption, and Obesity among U.S. Adolescents
The Journal of Nutrition 140,6 (June 2010): 1175-1180.
Also: http://jn.nutrition.org/content/140/6/1175.full?sid=460e971c-932f-4e86-87d2-2cb4ea418844
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: American Society for Nutritional Sciences
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Body Mass Index (BMI); Nutritional Status/Nutrition/Consumption Behaviors; Obesity; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Taxes; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Adolescents have poor dietary behaviors and high overweight prevalence. Economic contextual factors such as food prices and food store and restaurant availability are hypothesized and increasingly being explored empirically as contributors to the obesity epidemic. Evidence showed that healthful compared with less healthful foods increasingly cost more and that fast food restaurants are increasingly available. In addition, racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities have been documented in access to food outlets, particularly chain supermarkets, and such disparities have been shown to be increasing recently. Empirical evidence based on nationally representative U.S. adolescent data revealed that lower fruit and vegetable prices, higher fast food prices, and greater supermarket availability were related to higher fruit and vegetable consumption and lower BMI, in particular for BMI among teens who are overweight or at risk for overweight and who are low- to middle-socioeconomic status. The availability of fast food restaurants was not associated with youth BMI. Overall, this research implies that pricing interventions of taxes on energy-dense foods such as fast food and/or subsidies to healthful foods such as fruits and vegetables and policy efforts to improve access to supermarkets may help to improve adolescent weight outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Powell, Lisa M., Euna Han and Frank J. Chaloupka. "Economic Contextual Factors, Food Consumption, and Obesity among U.S. Adolescents." The Journal of Nutrition 140,6 (June 2010): 1175-1180.
9. Powell, Lisa M.
Wada, Roy
Krauss, Ramona C.
Wang, Youfa
Ethnic Disparities in Adolescent Body Mass Index in the United States: The Role of Parental Socioeconomic Status and Economic Contextual Factors
Social Science and Medicine 75,3 (August 2012): 469-476.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S027795361200278X
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Ethnic Differences; Household Income; Neighborhood Effects; Parental Influences; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Background; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Weight

This paper examined the importance of household and economic contextual factors as determinants of ethnic disparities in adolescent body mass index (BMI). Individual-level data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 for the years 1997 through 2000 were combined with economic contextual data on food prices, outlet density and median household income. The Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method was used to examine the factors that could help explain ethnic disparities in BMI. Ethnic differences in household demographic, parental socioeconomic status (SES), and economic contextual factors explained the majority of the male black-white (63%), male Hispanic-white (78%) and female Hispanic-white (62%) BMI gaps but less than one half of the female black-white BMI gap (44%). We found that adding the economic contextual factors increased the explained portion of the ethnic BMI gap for both female and male adolescents: the economic contextual factors explained 28% and 38% of the black-white and Hispanic-white BMI gaps for males and 13% and 8% of the black-white and Hispanic-white BMI gaps for females, respectively. Parental SES was more important in explaining the Hispanic-white BMI gap than the black-white BMI gap for both genders, whereas neighborhood economic contextual factors were more important in explaining the male BMI gap than the female BMI gap for both black-white and Hispanic-white ethnic disparities. A significantly large portion of the ethnic BMI gap, however, remained unexplained between black and white female adolescents.
Bibliography Citation
Powell, Lisa M., Roy Wada, Ramona C. Krauss and Youfa Wang. "Ethnic Disparities in Adolescent Body Mass Index in the United States: The Role of Parental Socioeconomic Status and Economic Contextual Factors." Social Science and Medicine 75,3 (August 2012): 469-476.
10. Powell, Lisa M.
Zhao, Zhenxiang
Wang, Youfa
Food Prices and Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among Young American Adults
Health and Place 15,4 (December 2009): 1064-1070.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1353829209000513
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Education; Geocoded Data; Mothers, Education; Nutritional Status/Nutrition/Consumption Behaviors; Socioeconomic Factors

Multivariate negative binomial count models were estimated to examine associations between young adults' fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption and the prices of FV, other food at home grocery items, and fast food and the availability of restaurants and food stores. This study used the 2002 wave of data collected from US young adults aged 18-23 years in the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth merged by geocode identifiers with food prices and restaurant and food store availability. The results showed that higher levels of FV consumption were associated with lower FV prices (price elasticity of -0.32) and that this own-price effect was robust to the inclusion of other food prices and food outlet availability. Lower income and lower educated young adults and those with lower educated mothers and middle-income parents were found to be most price sensitive. No statistically significant cross-price effects on FV consumption were found with other grocery food (meat, dairy and bread) prices or fast food prices. Fiscal policy instruments such as FV subsidies may help to increase FV intake, particularly among young adults of lower socioeconomic status.
Bibliography Citation
Powell, Lisa M., Zhenxiang Zhao and Youfa Wang. "Food Prices and Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among Young American Adults." Health and Place 15,4 (December 2009): 1064-1070.