Search Results

Author: Phipps, Shelley
Resulting in 11 citations.
1. Burton, Peter
Phipps, Shelley
Zhang, Lihui
From Parent to Child: Emerging Inequality in Outcomes for Children in Canada and the U.S.
Child Indicators Research 6,2 (June 2013): 363-400.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12187-012-9175-1/fulltext.html
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Children, Poverty; Comparison Group (Reference group); Cross-national Analysis; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Educational Attainment; Family Income; Income Distribution; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper, we ask whether there are Canada/U.S. differences in the extent to which children who were rich versus poor during their early years have developed differences in outcomes by the time they reach adolescence or early adulthood. Using comparable longitudinal data for each country, separate analyses are first conducted for rich compared to poor children living in Canada and rich compared to poor children living in the United States. We then pool data sets to test whether any rich/poor child outcome gaps that have emerged are greater (or smaller) in Canada compared to the U.S. Our data source for Canada is the Statistics Canada National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth and for the U.S. we use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 79, Child-Young Adult supplement. Key findings include: 1) rich child/poor child outcome gaps are evident for all outcomes in both countries; 2) larger gaps between rich and poor children are evident in the U.S. for math scores and high school completion.
Bibliography Citation
Burton, Peter, Shelley Phipps and Lihui Zhang. "From Parent to Child: Emerging Inequality in Outcomes for Children in Canada and the U.S." Child Indicators Research 6,2 (June 2013): 363-400.
2. Corak, Miles
Curtis, Lori
Phipps, Shelley
Economic Mobility, Family Background, and the Well-Being of Children in the United States and Canada
IZA Discussion Paper Series No. 4814, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), March 2010.
Also: http://ftp.iza.org/dp4814.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Canada, Canadian; Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY); Children, Well-Being; Cross-national Analysis; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Family Background; Family Income; Mobility, Economic; National Survey of American Families (NSAF); Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID); The International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMMS)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This comparative study of the relationship between family economic background and adult outcomes in the United States and Canada addresses three questions. First, is there something to explain? We suggest that the existing literature finds that there are significant differences in the degree of intergenerational economic mobility between these two countries, relative mobility being lower in the United States. This is the result of lower mobility at the very top and the very bottom of the earnings distribution. Second, does this reflect different underlying values of the citizens in these countries? Findings from comparable public opinion polls suggest that this is not the case. The citizens of both countries have a similar understanding of a successful life, one that is rooted in individual aspirations and freedom. They also have similar views on how these goals should be attained, but with one important exception: Americans differ in that they are more likely to see the State hindering rather than helping the attainment of these goals. Finally, how do the investments these countries make in the future of their children through the family, the labour market, and public policy actually differ? Using a number of representative household surveys we find that the configuration of all three sources of investment and support for children differs significantly, disadvantaged American children living in much more challenging circumstances, and the role of public policy not as strong in determining outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Corak, Miles, Lori Curtis and Shelley Phipps. "Economic Mobility, Family Background, and the Well-Being of Children in the United States and Canada." IZA Discussion Paper Series No. 4814, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), March 2010.
3. Phipps, Shelley
Comparing the Economic Well-Being of Children in Lone-Mother Families in Canada, Norway and the U.S.
Policy Options 19 (September 1998): 10-13
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Research on Public Policy
Keyword(s): Accidents; Benefits; Birthweight; Canada, Canadian; Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY); Child Health; Children; Children, Well-Being; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Cross-national Analysis; Economic Well-Being; Household Composition; Injuries; Norway, Norwegian; Obesity; Parents, Single; Poverty; State Welfare; Statistics Norway Health Survey; Taxes; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In Canada, we know that children living with lone parents are, on average, worse off than other children, both in financial terms and in terms of outcomes such as psychiatric disorders, school performance and social problems. Is this also true in other countries? Are children living with lone parents always worse off? Are they as much worse off as they are in Canada? This paper compares policies and outcomes for children living with lone parents in Canada, the United States and Norway. The US is a country with programs that are relatively similar to those available in Canada while Norway is a country with programs that are quite different -- both in terms of the total expenditure and in terms of nature of the programs offered. Evidence presented in this paper is drawn from a much larger study prepared for Canadian Policy Research Network and Human Resources Development Canada entitled "The Best Mix of Policies for Canada's Children: An International Comparison of Policies and Outcomes for Young Children." The "Best Mix" project used micro data from the Statistics Canada National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth, the Statistics Norway Health Survey, the US National Survey of Children and micro data from the Luxembourg Income Study.
Bibliography Citation
Phipps, Shelley. "Comparing the Economic Well-Being of Children in Lone-Mother Families in Canada, Norway and the U.S." Policy Options 19 (September 1998): 10-13.
4. Phipps, Shelley
Does Policy Affect Outcomes for Young Children? An Analysis with International Microdata
Working Paper W-00-1E, Applied Research Branch Strategic Policy, Human Resources Development Canada, Hull, Quebec, August 1999.
Also: http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/cs/sp/sdc/pkrf/publications/research/1999-000166/w-00-1e.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Human Resources Development Canada
Keyword(s): Behavior; Canada, Canadian; Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY); Child Health; Children, Well-Being; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Cross-national Analysis; Depression (see also CESD); Household Composition; Injuries; Mothers, Education; Norway, Norwegian; Obesity; Parents, Single; Poverty; Regions; Siblings; State Welfare; Statistics Norway Health Survey; Weight; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines the hypothesis that outcomes for young children are influenced both by micro-level socioeconomic characteristics (e.g., family structure, age/gender of the child) and also by general macroeconomic conditions (e.g., the regional unemployment rate); social context (e.g., percentage of the population who are immigrants); and, centrally, by social policy (e.g., social spending per capita). In order to investigate this hypothesis, the study pools microdata from three countries (the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth; the Mother-Child component of the United States National Survey of Youth and the Statistics Norway Health Survey), as well as exploiting variation which exists across regions within Canada and the U.S.

The three countries chosen for the analysis are similarly affluent, but have in place quite different programmes for children. For example, social spending is much higher in Norway than in Canada, though social spending is higher in Canada than in the U.S. A larger proportion of healthcare is publicly funded in Norway than in Canada, though a much higher proportion of healthcare is publicly funded in Canada than in the U.S. Unemployment rates are much the highest in Canada, as are levels of immigration. There is also significant variation in these measures across regions within Canada or the U.S. Results provide support for the hypothesis that policy matters for children in ways which cannot entirely be captured through standard micro-level variables. However, it is hard to pin down their associations.

Bibliography Citation
Phipps, Shelley. "Does Policy Affect Outcomes for Young Children? An Analysis with International Microdata." Working Paper W-00-1E, Applied Research Branch Strategic Policy, Human Resources Development Canada, Hull, Quebec, August 1999.
5. Phipps, Shelley
Health Outcomes for Children in Canada, England, Norway and the United States
Social Indicators Research 80,1 (January 2007): 179–221.
Also: http://springerlink.metapress.com/content/644w3r872888u325/fulltext.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Accidents; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Birthweight; Body Mass Index (BMI); Canada, Canadian; Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY); Child Health; Children, Well-Being; Cross-national Analysis; England, English; Health Survey for England (HSE); Health Survey for Norway (NHS); Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Injuries; Norway, Norwegian; Obesity; Parents, Single; Poverty; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper thus uses nationally representative microdata surveys to provide a broad descriptive over-view of selected health outcomes for children (aged 2–13) living in Canada, England, Norway and the United States in the late 1990s – over-all and for potentially vulnerable children. If there are significant differences in patterns of child health status across similarly affluent countries with different levels and kinds of state spending, this will point to the need for future research directed at better understanding connections between policy and child health. Section "Comparing Child Health Outcomes" of the paper describes the health surveys employed and provides a comparison of over-all health status for children in the four countries. A range of child health outcomes, including aspects of both physical and emotional health are included. While second section compares health status for all children in the four countries, third section compares the health status of potentially 'vulnerable' children in each country (e.g., low-income children, children living in lone-mother or teen-mother families).
Bibliography Citation
Phipps, Shelley. "Health Outcomes for Children in Canada, England, Norway and the United States." Social Indicators Research 80,1 (January 2007): 179–221. A.
6. Phipps, Shelley
The Well-Being of Young Canadian Children in International Perspective
Working Paper No. 197, Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, Syracuse University, March 1999.
Also: http://www.lisproject.org/publications/liswps/197.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: The Maxwell School of Syracuse University
Keyword(s): Asthma; Birthweight; Bullying/Victimization; Canada, Canadian; Children, Well-Being; Cross-national Analysis; Income Distribution; Injuries; Norway, Norwegian

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The goal of this paper is to compare the well-being of young children in Canada, Norway and the United States. Many economic models focus on children's eventual well-being by adopting an investment perspective. While this is important, children's well-being today should also count when we assess social welfare -- after-all, children constitute nearly one quarter of the Canadian population. To assess the well-being of young children, Sen's (1992) "functionings" perspective is employed. While income is a vital input to well-being, it is probably not the best measure, particularly of children's well-being. Yet, lack of suitable data has meant that little cross-national evidence about indicators of children's well-being beyond income exists. The principal goal of this paper is to begin to fill this gap. We compare children cross-nationally in terms of ten "functionings" (low-birth-weight; asthma; accidents; activity limitation; trouble concentrating; disobedience at school; bullying; anxiety; lying; hyperactivity). Results indicate that young children in Norway are better off than children in Canada or the US. It is not clear whether young children are, on average, better off in Canada or the US. However, children at the bottom of the Canadian income distribution are more likely to be better off than children at the bottom of the US income distribution.
Bibliography Citation
Phipps, Shelley. "The Well-Being of Young Canadian Children in International Perspective." Working Paper No. 197, Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, Syracuse University, March 1999.
7. Phipps, Shelley
The Well-Being of Young Canadian Children in International Perspective: A Functionings Approach
Review of Income and Wealth 48,4 (December 2002): 493-516.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1475-4991.00065/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: International Association for Research in Income and Wealth (I.A.R.I.W.)
Keyword(s): Asthma; Birthweight; Canada, Canadian; Children, Well-Being; Cross-national Analysis; Income Distribution; Injuries; Norway, Norwegian

The goal of this paper is to compare the well-being of young children in Canada, Norway and the United State's using Sen's (1972) 'functionings' perspective. We compare children cross-nationally in terms of ten 'functionings' (low-birth-weight; asthma, lying, hyperactivity). If we compare young children in Canada and the US in terms of their functionings, there is not a clear ranking overall. Canadian children are better off for 4 of 9 comparable outcomes; US children are better off for 2 outcomes; Canadian and US children are statistically indistinguishable for 3 outcomes. If we compare child functionings in Canada or the US with those experienced in Norway, it is clear that Norwegian children fare better. There is not a single case in which children in either Canada or the US have better outcomes than Norwegian children.
Bibliography Citation
Phipps, Shelley. "The Well-Being of Young Canadian Children in International Perspective: A Functionings Approach." Review of Income and Wealth 48,4 (December 2002): 493-516.
8. Phipps, Shelley
Values, Policies and the Well-Being of Young Children: A Comparison of Canada, Norway and the United States
In: Child Well-Being, Child Poverty and Child Policy in Modern Nations: What Do We Know? K. Vleminckx and T. M Smeeding, eds. Bristol, UK: The Policy Press, 2001: pp. 79-98
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: The Policy Press
Keyword(s): Canada, Canadian; Children, Well-Being; Cross-national Analysis; Family Structure; Health Care; Immigrants; Norway, Norwegian; Socioeconomic Factors

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This book brings together economists, sociologists and social policy analysts from America, Australia, and Europe, who have been studying the extent of child poverty, its consequences for children, and the effectiveness of social policy in preventing child poverty. The approach is multidisciplinary and international in scope. Main themes addressed are:
  • the extent and trend of child poverty in industrialised nations;
  • outcomes for children;
  • country studies and emerging issues;
  • child and family policies.
All the contributions underline the need for a comprehensive policy to reduce child poverty rates and to improve the well-being of children. Clear findings are presented which allow for easy identification of focus points for policy makers committed to the reduction of child poverty. This book is therefore important reading for everyone interested in poverty and inequalities, welfare and social exclusion, and child and family welfare.

Part 2. Outcomes for children: Values, policies and the well-being of young children: a comparison of Canada, Norway and the United States Shelley Phipps (Canada); Child well-being in the EU - and enlargement to the East John Micklewright (Italy) and Kitty Stewart (Italy); The relationship between childhood experiences, subsequent educational attainment and adult labour market performance Paul Gregg (UK) and Stephen Machin (UK); The impact of poverty on children's school attendance - evidence from West Germany Felix Buechel (Germany), Joachim R. Frick (Germany), Peter Krause (Germany) and Gert G. Wagner (Germany); Inequalities in the use of time by teenagers and young adults Anne H. Gauthier (Canada) and Frank F. Fuerstenberg (USA); Gender inequality in poverty in affluent nations: the role of single motherhood and the state Karen Christopher (USA), Paula England (USA), Sara McLanahan (USA), Katherin Ross(USA) and Timothy M. Smeeding (USA);

Bibliography Citation
Phipps, Shelley. "Values, Policies and the Well-Being of Young Children: A Comparison of Canada, Norway and the United States" In: Child Well-Being, Child Poverty and Child Policy in Modern Nations: What Do We Know? K. Vleminckx and T. M Smeeding, eds. Bristol, UK: The Policy Press, 2001: pp. 79-98
9. Phipps, Shelley
Burton, Peter
Lethbridge, Lynn
Osberg, Lars
Measuring Obesity in Young Children
Canadian Public Policy / Analyse de Politiques 30, 4 (December 2004): 349-364.
Also: http://economics.ca/cgi/jab?journal=cpp&article=v30n4p0349
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Britain, British; Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY); Cross-national Analysis; Norway, Norwegian; Obesity; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Child obesity is currently an important policy problem in Canada. Making the best evidence-based policy choices in response requires having the best possible evidence. Yet, we point out how easy it can be to make serious mistakes when measuring child obesity, particularly for young children. We demonstrate that parental reports of child height and weight very likely overestimate obesity prevalence for very young children. Given the importance of child obesity as a policy issue, our main conclusion is that it is critical for national surveys in Canada to provide interviewers with appropriate equipment and ask them to weigh and measure children very accurately. While this would certainly increase survey costs, the costs to society of making less than the best policy choices are likely to be even higher.
Bibliography Citation
Phipps, Shelley, Peter Burton, Lynn Lethbridge and Lars Osberg. "Measuring Obesity in Young Children ." Canadian Public Policy / Analyse de Politiques 30, 4 (December 2004): 349-364.
10. Phipps, Shelley
Curtis, Lori
Poverty and Child Well-Being in Canada and the United States: Does it Matter How We Measure Poverty?
Working Paper, Human Resources Development Canada, September 2000.
Also: http://www11.sdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/arb/publications/research/2000-001273/page01.shtml
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Canadian International Labor Network (CILN)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Body Mass Index (BMI); Canada, Canadian; Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY); Child Health; Children, Poverty; Children, Well-Being; Cross-national Analysis; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Poverty; Schooling; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper we examine the robustness of conclusions about the association between poverty and children's well-being to alternative choices about how we measure poverty. In particular, we focus upon the influence of data set chosen, sample selected and poverty line used. Throughout, the analysis is conducted for children in both Canada and the US, both to emphasize that the issues are not unique to the Canadian situation and to point out the influence of these measurement choices upon our understanding of Canada/US comparisons of children's poverty and/or well-being. We find that estimates of the incidence of child poverty are very sensitive to measurement choices. For example, we can come to conclusions as diverse as: 1) the incidence of child poverty is 10 percentage points higher in the US than in Canada; 2) there is no difference in the incidence of child poverty in the two countries. Reassuringly, however, these quite differences in estimates of the level of child poverty do not carry over so dramatically to estimates of the association between child poverty and child outcomes. In almost all cases, child poverty, regardless of how it is measured, is associated with worse outcomes for children (we consider body mass index, Peabody Picture Vocabulary scores, trouble concentrating and hyperactivity); these associations are stronger in the United States than in Canada. While estimated magnitudes of these associations are not the same across alternative measures of poverty, we argue that they are not generally significantly different in either a statistical or economic sense. The exception to this conclusion is that if poverty is measured using official US poverty lines, there is sometimes no relationship apparent between children's outcomes and poverty.
Bibliography Citation
Phipps, Shelley and Lori Curtis. "Poverty and Child Well-Being in Canada and the United States: Does it Matter How We Measure Poverty?" Working Paper, Human Resources Development Canada, September 2000.
11. Phipps, Shelley
Curtis, Lori
Social Exclusion of Children in North America
Working Paper, Dalhousie University, August 2000.
Also: http://www.econ.nyu.edu/iariw/papers/SOCEX1.PDF
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Economics, Dalhousie University
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Income Level; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parenting Skills/Styles; Social Emotional Development; Social Environment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Much of the social exclusion literature takes an adult-focused rather than a child-focused perspective (see Phipps, 1999). Of course, some dimensions of exclusion seem relevant in either case (e.g., low-income or social isolation). However, being excluded from productive employment or from political participation is something which an adult rather than a child might experience, though the parent's experience may of course affect the child. More relevant from a child's perspective might be feeling socially isolated at school or being excluded from 'extracurricular' activities such as clubs or sports teams. In the first major section of our paper, we build upon Phipps, 1999a and b to provide a conceptual discussion of what it means for a child to be 'socially excluded' and how we might measure this. In the second major section of the paper, we make use of 1996 data from the Statistics Canada Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) and the US National Survey of Youth -- Mother Child Survey to provide an exploratory empirical investigation of the extent of social exclusion among young children (age 6 to 13) in North America, where the concept has not yet gained the same prevalence as in Europe (though see, for example, Hatfield, 2000).

We want to assess, first, the extent of correlation across various aspects of the social exclusion of a child. How strong are the correlations? How many children experience exclusion in multiple dimensions? How does this compare across Canada and the US? We are also particularly interested in the link between parental social exclusion and childhood social exclusion. That is, if the parent is socially excluded, is her child likely also to be excluded? To examine such associations, we estimate tobit models of the number of exclusions experienced by the child as functions of measures of various measures of adult exclusion, controlling for other relevant sociodemographic characteristics. The final section of the paper offers some conclusions as well as suggestions for further research.

Bibliography Citation
Phipps, Shelley and Lori Curtis. "Social Exclusion of Children in North America." Working Paper, Dalhousie University, August 2000.