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Author: Petterson, Stephen Mark
Resulting in 5 citations.
1. Petterson, Stephen Mark
Are Young Black Men Really Less Willing to Work?
American Sociological Review 62,4 (August 1997): 605-613.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2657429
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Racial Differences; Unemployment; Wages, Reservation; Work Attachment; Work Attitudes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

I argue against the popular view that young Black men experience more joblessness than their White counterparts because they have priced themselves out of the labor market. The seemingly excessive reservation wages of jobless young Black men, what they report as the lowest acceptable wage offer, are best understood as measures of self-worth, not of willingness (or lack of willingness) to work. Using self-reported reservation wages available in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, I find no race difference in the wages sought by young jobless men. Moreover, these statements of reservation wages are not binding: Job-seekers of either race who report higher reservation wages are no more likely to experience long spells of joblessness than are job-seekers who report lower reservation wages.
Bibliography Citation
Petterson, Stephen Mark. "Are Young Black Men Really Less Willing to Work?" American Sociological Review 62,4 (August 1997): 605-613.
2. Petterson, Stephen Mark
Black-White Differences in Joblessness Among Young Men: The Limits of Cultural Explanations
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1994
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Demography; Discrimination, Job; Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Employment, Youth; Ethnic Studies; Labor Market Demographics; Labor Market Outcomes; Racial Studies; Wages, Reservation; Work Attitudes

This dissertation considers the merits and limits of the claim that "attitudes contrary to work" account for the employment difficulties of young black men. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), the determinants of race differences in measures of several work related attitudes, including fatalism, self- reliance, and willingness to work are examined. The effects of these measures on subsequent joblessness experienced by white and black men throughout their twenties is then assessed. The evidence and arguments advanced in this dissertation offer little support for the claim that high rates of joblessness among young black men are due to attitudinal differences across race. In addition, there are no meaningful disparities in self- reported reservation wages. Joblessness among young black men is mainly involuntary. The results of this dissertation support the counter argument that labor market discrimination remains crucial for understanding the employment gap. White and black men with similar attitudes and similar work histories experience different labor market outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Petterson, Stephen Mark. Black-White Differences in Joblessness Among Young Men: The Limits of Cultural Explanations. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1994.
3. Petterson, Stephen Mark
Black-White Differences in Reservation Wages and Joblessness A Replication
Journal of Human Resources 33,3 (Summer 1998): 758-770.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/146341
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): Black Studies; Racial Differences; Unemployment; Wage Gap; Wages, Reservation

Examining self-reported reservation wages from the 1979-80 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), Holzer concludes that 26 to 42 percent of the race difference in the length of jobless spells is due to the higher wages sought by young Black men. This replication uses NLSY reservation wage data from 1979 through 1986. Although I find a Black-White difference in reservation wages, I fail to find a positive effect of these measures on the duration of jobless spells. Thus, evidence from the NLSY does not support the claim that reservation wage differences explain the race employment gap.
Bibliography Citation
Petterson, Stephen Mark. "Black-White Differences in Reservation Wages and Joblessness A Replication." Journal of Human Resources 33,3 (Summer 1998): 758-770.
4. Petterson, Stephen Mark
Enemy Within: Black-White Differences in Fatalism and Joblessness
Journal of Poverty 3,3 (Fall 1999): 1-32
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Haworth Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Attitudes; Black Youth; Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Education; Family Background; Labor Market Outcomes; Racial Differences; Unemployment

There is an emergent consensus that the disposition of Black young men is an important determinant of their labor market troubles. The problem we are told is not labor market discrimination but the fatalistic attitudes (the "enemy within") held by many Black youth. This article uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine race differences in fatalism and joblessness. I find that the greater fatalism of Blacks is explained by their more disadvantaged background and subsequent problems in schools and the labor market, not to their distinctive cultural orientations. I also find a modest effect of measures of fatalism on subsequent joblessness and a more pronounced effect for more disadvantaged White and Black young men.
Bibliography Citation
Petterson, Stephen Mark. "Enemy Within: Black-White Differences in Fatalism and Joblessness." Journal of Poverty 3,3 (Fall 1999): 1-32.
5. Petterson, Stephen Mark
Friel, Lisa V.
Psychological Distress, Hopelessness and Welfare
Women and Health 32,1-2 (2001): 79-99.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1300/J013v32n01_04
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Haworth Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); CESD (Depression Scale); Mothers; Parents, Single; Pearlin Mastery Scale; Welfare

This article assesses the validity of the claim that welfare in itself has deleterious psychological consequences for single mothers. The analysis compares single mothers who are recipients of AFDC with single mothers who are not recipients in terms of their depressive symptoms (as measured by the CES-D) and hopelessness (as measured by Pearlin Mastery Scale). The analysis uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the National Survey of Families and Households. The authors find that higher levels of both depression and hopelessness among welfare recipients can be explained by their material hardship rather than the stigma attached to welfare. They show that AFDC recipients report similar levels of depression and hopelessness as jobless non-recipients as well as low-wage non-recipients. An additional finding is that long-term welfare recipients do not experience greater emotional problems than short-term welfare recipients. Finally, the paper shows that feelings of hopelessness mediate the relationship between material deprivation and psychological distress for both recipients and non-recipients.
Bibliography Citation
Petterson, Stephen Mark and Lisa V. Friel. "Psychological Distress, Hopelessness and Welfare." Women and Health 32,1-2 (2001): 79-99.