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Author: Pak, Sunjin
Resulting in 3 citations.
1. Kramer, Karen
Pak, Sunjin
Relative Earnings and Depressive Symptoms among Working Parents: Gender Differences in the Effect of Relative Income on Depressive Symptoms
Sex Roles 78, 11-12 (June 2018): 744-759.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11199-017-0848-6
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Depression (see also CESD); Family Income; Fathers; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Gender Differences; Modeling, Structural Equation; Mothers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The relationship between income and psychological well-being is well established. Yet, most of this research is conducted at the individual level without taking into account the role played by relative earnings at the couple level. In the present study we estimate the effect of share of family income on depressive symptoms of individuals. Specifically, we examine whether within-person change in the share of family income has differential effects on the level of depressive symptoms of mothers and fathers. Using data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth (NLSY79), we follow the same individuals over 4 years and analyze their data using a cross-lagged structural equation model. Controlling for net income, we find that an increase in one's share of family income is related to an increased level of depressive symptoms among mothers and a decreased level of depressive symptoms among fathers. When looking at a subsample of stay-at-home parents, we find that a change from providing some share of the family income to stay-at-home parent status over time is related to higher level of depressive symptoms among fathers but not mothers. Furthermore, we find that egalitarian gender ideology moderates this relationship for mothers but not for fathers. We discuss potential implications of our findings to the work-family and gender literature and to counselors and therapists who specialize in treating depression.
Bibliography Citation
Kramer, Karen and Sunjin Pak. "Relative Earnings and Depressive Symptoms among Working Parents: Gender Differences in the Effect of Relative Income on Depressive Symptoms." Sex Roles 78, 11-12 (June 2018): 744-759.
2. Kramer, Karen
Pak, Sunjin
Relative Earnings in Families and Depression
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Depression (see also CESD); Earnings, Husbands; Earnings, Wives; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Maternal Employment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The relationship between income and psychological well-being is well established. Yet almost all research on income and well-being is conducted at the individual level or household level, without taking into account the role played by relative earnings within the context of couples. In this study I estimate the effect of relative earnings of mothers and fathers on their depression levels over time. Specifically, I examine whether non-traditional division of paid labor (stay-at-home or secondary-earner father, and primary- or sole-earner mother) is associated with higher levels of depression than traditional division of paid labor (Primary- or sole-earner father, and stay-at-home or secondary-earner mother). Using longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth (NLSY79) I find support for the overarching hypothesis that non-traditional division of paid labor is associated with higher depression levels for both mothers and fathers. Furthermore, I find that gender ideology does not seem to moderate this relationship.
Bibliography Citation
Kramer, Karen and Sunjin Pak. "Relative Earnings in Families and Depression." Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017.
3. Kramer, Karen
Pak, Sunjin
Park, So Young
Paid Parental Leave Duration, Number of Children, and Income Growth: A Longitudinal Analysis
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Births, Repeat / Spacing; Gender Differences; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Wage Growth; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

There is a growing awareness in the literature that work-family policies, while allowing employees to better balance work and life outside work, may also result in penalties, or lower rewards for employees who use such policies. In this paper we explore this proposition by examining the effect of paid parental leave use on salary growth of men and women after the birth of their first and second child. In addition, we explore whether the age gap between the first and second child is related to salary growth over time. Using the commitment hypothesis model and the ideal workers norms framework, we hypothesize that parents will be penalized for having children, that they will be further penalized for using paid parental leave, and that men will be penalized more for taking leave. We use the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth for 1979 and 1997 to test our hypotheses with a sample of individuals who worked continuously (returned to work after taking their paid leave). We find that both men and women are penalized in term of their salary growth for having their first child, but only women are penalized for having a second child. Further, we find that taking parental leave results in a significant reduction in the slope of wage growth and that it takes women five to seven years to catch up with the salary growth of employees who did not take parental leave, while for men it takes almost 12 years to catch up. Age gap between children is not significantly related to salary growth. We conclude with implication to theory and future research.
Bibliography Citation
Kramer, Karen, Sunjin Pak and So Young Park. "Paid Parental Leave Duration, Number of Children, and Income Growth: A Longitudinal Analysis." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018.