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Author: Leupp, Katrina M.
Resulting in 11 citations.
1. Leupp, Katrina M.
Bargaining Bonus or Breadwinning Burden? Relative Earnings, Gender, Parenthood and Mental Health
Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Bargaining Model; Depression (see also CESD); Earnings, Husbands; Earnings, Wives; Gender Differences; Health, Mental; Income; Modeling, Fixed Effects

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A body of research tests the specialization and bargaining perspectives for explaining gendered behavior within the home. Though relative income across households is a key explanatory component in the socioeconomic gradient in health and mortality, it is unclear how relative earnings within households impact health. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 in fixed effects models, the paper tests the relevancy of household bargaining, specialization, and equity models for understanding the relationship between relative spousal earnings and depression. Results indicate that increases in relative earnings decrease depressive symptoms, but only for individuals who earn less than their spouse. The beneficial effect of increased relative earnings differs by gender and parental status: relative to men without children, mothers benefit the least from gains in income share while fathers benefit the most. These findings lend greater support to bargaining and exchange perspectives than to the specialization model, and highlight the roles of equity and gender display in determining when increases in bargaining power have consequences for mental health.
Bibliography Citation
Leupp, Katrina M. "Bargaining Bonus or Breadwinning Burden? Relative Earnings, Gender, Parenthood and Mental Health." Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2013.
2. Leupp, Katrina M.
Bargaining Bonus or Breadwinning Burden? Wives' Relative Earnings, Childrearing, and Depression
Sociological Perspectives 63,1 (1 February 2020): 69-93.
Also: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0731121419842132
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Depression (see also CESD); Earnings, Wives; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Maternal Employment; Motherhood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines the relevancy of household bargaining processes, childrearing demands, and traditionally gendered breadwinning norms for explaining the implications of married women's earnings relative to those of their spouse for depression. Drawing on 1992-2014 data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 Cohort, results indicate that shared breadwinning is negatively associated with depression among wives without minor children. Yet despite the salubriousness of employment, shared breadwinning is linked to worse depression for wives with a youngest child aged 0 to 12 or with two or more children 18 and younger. Contrary to expectations from the gender performance perspective, there is minimal evidence that greater relative earnings worsen depression among wives who out-earn their spouse. Results imply that when childrearing demands are high, mothers' contributions to couples' earnings function as an additional demand rather than a resource for their own well-being.
Bibliography Citation
Leupp, Katrina M. "Bargaining Bonus or Breadwinning Burden? Wives' Relative Earnings, Childrearing, and Depression." Sociological Perspectives 63,1 (1 February 2020): 69-93.
3. Leupp, Katrina M.
Benefits of the Balancing Act: Motherhood, Employment and Mental Health
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, University of Washington, 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Depression (see also CESD); Gender Attitudes/Roles; Health, Mental; Maternal Employment; Motherhood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Variant findings on the benefits and strains of combining employment and family roles encourage investigation into the mechanisms and conditions under which employment improves the well-being of individuals who perform the greatest amounts of family caregiving labor-- mothers caring for children. In this dissertation, I explore the effects of employment on depressive symptoms in light of gendered parental responsibilities. Two possible mechanisms through which employment may confer mental health benefits are explored: identity accumulation, and for married women, gains in relative spousal resources. First, motivated by symbolic interaction perspectives on identity, I examine how the mental health effects of employment for mothers vary according to their attitudes about the compatibility of employment and childrearing. Secondly, I draw on household bargaining and resource perspectives to examine whether the increase in relative spousal earnings generated by employment are associated with fewer depressive symptoms among married women. Finally, I approach the social roles of parenthood and employment from a life course perspective, considering their effects on the distribution of depressive symptoms by age for men and women. These analyses enrich understandings of how and when employment improves mental well-being, and highlight the force of gendered parental responsibilities in shaping the effects of work and family roles.
Bibliography Citation
Leupp, Katrina M. Benefits of the Balancing Act: Motherhood, Employment and Mental Health. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, University of Washington, 2014.
4. Leupp, Katrina M.
Depression, Work and Family Roles, and the Gendered Life Course
Journal of Health and Social Behavior 58,4 (December 2017): 422-441.
Also: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0022146517737309
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Depression (see also CESD); Gender Attitudes/Roles; Gender Differences; Health, Mental; Life Course; Maternal Employment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite the importance of employment for shaping mental health over the life course, little is known about how the mental health benefits of employment change as individuals age through their prime employment and child-rearing years. This study examines the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 Cohort (N = 8,931), following respondents from their late 20s to mid-50s. Results suggest that among women, the aging of children is especially salient for shaping the mental health consequences of employment. Young children diminish the protective effect of mothers' full- and part-time employment, but the salubrious effects of paid work increase as children get older. The benefit of employment for men’s mental health also changes over time, but it is the aging of men themselves rather than their children that alters the magnitude of full-time employment’s protective effect. Findings suggest the contribution of employment to life course mental health remains tethered to traditional gender roles.
Bibliography Citation
Leupp, Katrina M. "Depression, Work and Family Roles, and the Gendered Life Course." Journal of Health and Social Behavior 58,4 (December 2017): 422-441.
5. Leupp, Katrina M.
Even Supermoms Get the Blues: Employment, Gender Attitudes and Depression
Presented: Las Vegas NV, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Depression (see also CESD); Employment; Health Factors; Labor Force Participation; Motherhood; Mothers; Mothers, Behavior; Mothers, Health

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Popular culture indicates that the cultural model of intensive mothering, which prizes full-time, maternal care for children, remains salient despite women’s high employment rates (Douglas & Michaels 2004). This saliency suggests that women’s experiences of work-family conflict are shaped by cultural pressures to devote themselves to family care as much, or more so, than practical difficulties of juggling employment and family care. This paper examines the impact of attitudes towards women’s employment, employment status, and interactions between the two on depressive symptoms among married women. Results indicate that employment reduces risk of depression, and among employed women, an attitude of complete support for women’s employment is associated with a lower risk of depression than is an attitude of only moderate support. Yet at the same time, women who hold little or no faith in the ability of women to simultaneously meet employment and family care responsibilities have the lowest risk of depression among women who are employed.
Bibliography Citation
Leupp, Katrina M. "Even Supermoms Get the Blues: Employment, Gender Attitudes and Depression." Presented: Las Vegas NV, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2011.
6. Leupp, Katrina M.
Even Supermoms Get the Blues: Employment, Gender Attitudes, and Depression
Society and Mental Health 9,3 (1 November 2019): 316-333.
Also: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2156869318785406
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Depression (see also CESD); Gender Attitudes/Roles; Maternal Employment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines how gender attitudes moderate the relationship between employment and depressive symptoms using data from the 1987 to 2006 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Cohort. Results indicate that at age 40, the association of employment with reduced symptoms of depression is greatest for mothers who had previously expressed support for traditional gender roles. This finding was robust to controls for prior depressive symptoms. In contrast, the association of employment and depressive symptoms at age 40 does not vary by earlier gender attitudes among childless women. Results suggest that in light of women's disproportionate share of domestic responsibilities and limited employer supports for parents, skepticism over mothers' ability to "do it all" may mitigate the stress of work-family role strain and allow mothers with more traditional gender attitudes to receive greater protection against depressive symptoms from employment.
Bibliography Citation
Leupp, Katrina M. "Even Supermoms Get the Blues: Employment, Gender Attitudes, and Depression." Society and Mental Health 9,3 (1 November 2019): 316-333.
7. Leupp, Katrina M.
Getting Better with Age: Employment, Gender Attitudes, and Depression
Presented: San Francisco CA, Population Association of America Meetings, May 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Depression (see also CESD); Employment; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Labor Force Participation; Maternal Employment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper considers the effect of mother’s employment, their attitudes about combining employment and family care, and the interaction between the two, on their risk of experiencing depressive symptoms at three time points across key childrearing years. At ages 40 and 50, the interaction between employment status and attitudes suggests that older mothers suffer from a mismatch between their expectations that women should be able to combine career and family, and their lived experiences of work-family conflict. This finding is set against the backdrop of an increasingly protective effect of employment on mental health as women approach mid-life. Results suggest that in light of women’s continued disproportionate share of domestic responsibilities and limited employer supports for parents, skepticism over women’s ability to manage employment and family care may mitigate the negative mental health implications of work-family conflict as mothers approach mid-life.
Bibliography Citation
Leupp, Katrina M. "Getting Better with Age: Employment, Gender Attitudes, and Depression." Presented: San Francisco CA, Population Association of America Meetings, May 2012.
8. Leupp, Katrina M.
Married Moms, Money and Mental Health
Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Depression (see also CESD); Gender Attitudes/Roles; Health, Mental; Household Income; Husbands, Income; Maternal Employment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Research indicates that employment improves mental health, yet we know less about the mechanisms linking employment and well-being, particularly for married mothers. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, this study tests the relevancy of resource and bargaining perspectives for understanding the relationships among married spouses' employment status, relative earnings and depression. Findings indicate that though employment is associated with improved mental health for all, there is little evidence that greater spousal earnings shares are a mechanism for the benefits of employment. Among mothers, having greater earnings relative to one's spouse is detrimental for mental health. In contrast, fathers' and childless men's mental health improves with greater earnings relative to their spouse. Results suggest that gendered parental roles alter the meaning of money, and limit mothers' ability to leverage earnings as a source of household bargaining power to benefit their well-being.
Bibliography Citation
Leupp, Katrina M. "Married Moms, Money and Mental Health." Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016.
9. Leupp, Katrina M.
Mental Health, Social Roles and the Gendered Life Course
Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Depression (see also CESD); Employment; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Gender Differences; Health, Mental; Life Course; Parenthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines variations in the effects of work and family roles on mental health as men and women age through the life course. Results indicate that as women age towards midlife, parenthood shifts from being positively to negatively associated with symptoms of depression. In contrast, the effect of parenthood on men's depression does not vary as they grow older. Though men and women both receive greater mental health benefits from employment as they approach midlife, the effects of combining employment with parenthood vary by gender and the age of children. These findings highlight gender differences in the saliency of parenthood and employment for shaping the age-gradient in depressive symptoms during adulthood, and suggest that mental health over the life course remains tethered to traditionally gendered roles.
Bibliography Citation
Leupp, Katrina M. "Mental Health, Social Roles and the Gendered Life Course." Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015.
10. Leupp, Katrina M.
More Traditional Each Year? Earnings and Married Mothers' Employment Hours over the Childrearing Years
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Earnings, Husbands; Earnings, Wives; First Birth; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Maternal Employment; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The tendency for socio-economic privilege to increase women's labor force participation calls for greater attention to the employment hours of married mothers, for whom spouses' earnings may reduce the financial incentives to employment. This study examines how women's own earnings and the earnings of their spouse prior to the parenthood shape employment hours for married women with children, and whether the link between mother's employment hours and pre-parenthood earnings changes as their children age. Results from 1979 to 2007 data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort indicate that women's own earnings and the earnings of their spouse prior to their first birth have competing effects on mothers' employment hours. As their firstborn child ages from zero to nine, the effects of mothers' own pre-birth earnings on their employment hours weaken. In contrast, the effects of their husband' pre-birth earnings magnify the longer they are parents. Results suggest that the determinants of mothers' employment hours become increasingly gender-traditional over their first ten years of parenthood. Follow-up analyses will compare results from the NLSY79 cohort to the employment hours of the NLSY97 cohort to assess the relevancy of findings to the cohort currently embarking on their parenting years.
Bibliography Citation
Leupp, Katrina M. "More Traditional Each Year? Earnings and Married Mothers' Employment Hours over the Childrearing Years." Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017.
11. Leupp, Katrina M.
Why Do Women Opt Out? The Ideological and Economic Determinants of Women's Employment Status
Presented: Dallas, TX, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2010
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Employment; First Birth; Household Income; Housework/Housewives; Income; Maternal Employment; Motherhood; Mothers; Mothers, Behavior; Mothers, Income

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Popular culture indicates that the cultural model of intensive mothering, which prizes full-time, maternal care for children, remains salient despite women's high employment rates (Douglas & Michaels 2004). This paper examines the conceptual relevance of perspectives implied by 1) cultural ideologies about mothering, and 2) financial resources, for understanding mothers' return to employment after a first birth. Results indicate that holding an intensive mothering ideology, and family income other than women's own earnings, decrease the risk of return to employment. Yet at the same time, mothers' incomes have significant, positive effects on employment returns. In sum, the competing effects of own income and other family income suggest a more complicated relationship between class privilege, employment, and mothering practices than is commonly described.
Bibliography Citation
Leupp, Katrina M. "Why Do Women Opt Out? The Ideological and Economic Determinants of Women's Employment Status." Presented: Dallas, TX, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2010.