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Author: Lee, Dohoon
Resulting in 5 citations.
1. Lee, Dohoon
Age Trajectories of Poverty During Childhood and High School Graduation
Sociological Science 1 (September 2014): 344-365.
Also: https://www.sociologicalscience.com/articles-vol1-21-344/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Sociological Science
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Children, Poverty; Educational Attainment; High School Completion/Graduates; High School Diploma; Life Course; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Latent Class Analysis/Latent Transition Analysis; Racial Differences; Regions; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem); Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article examines distinct trajectories of childhood exposure to poverty and provides estimates of their effect on high school graduation. The analysis incorporates three key insights from the life course and human capital formation literatures: (1) the temporal dimensions of exposure to poverty, that is, timing, duration, stability, and sequencing, are confounded with one another; (2) age-varying exposure to poverty not only affects, but also is affected by, other factors that vary with age; and (3) the effect of poverty trajectories is heterogeneous across racial and ethnic groups. Results from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth show that any extended exposures to poverty substantially lower children's odds of graduating from high school. Persistent, early, and middle-to-late childhood exposures to poverty reduce the odds of high school graduation by 77 percent, 55 percent, and 58 percent, respectively, compared to no childhood exposure to poverty. The findings thus suggest that the impact of poverty trajectories is insensitive to observed age-varying confounders. These impacts are more pronounced for white children than for black and Hispanic children.
Bibliography Citation
Lee, Dohoon. "Age Trajectories of Poverty During Childhood and High School Graduation." Sociological Science 1 (September 2014): 344-365.
2. Lee, Dohoon
Childhood Disadvantage, Nonmarital Childbearing, and Birth Intendedness
Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Childhood; Family Influences; First Birth; Parenting Skills/Styles; Poverty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Scholarship on family change in the United States has advanced our understanding of the causes and consequences of nonmarital fertility. However, it has paid limited attention to differential nonmarital childbearing behavior by birth intendedness. Building on a variety of socialization theories, this paper proposes childhood disadvantage as a key determinant of women's intended and unintended nonmarital childbearing. This study hypothesizes that childhood disadvantage is associated with intended nonmarital childbearing through social learning and detachment processes, while it is associated with unintended nonmarital childbearing through social control, insecure bonding, and self-regulation processes. Results from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data show that family instability, low quality parenting, and a lower level of cognitive development increase the risk of an intended nonmarital first birth, whereas exposure to poverty, a lower level of cognitive stimulation, and a lower level of socioemotional development increase the risk of an unintended nonmarital first birth. Various domains of childhood disadvantage thus represent distinct socialization processes that are linked to unmarried women's birth intention and eventual childbearing. Given these findings, this paper suggests the need to take into account the differential roles of childhood disadvantage in increasingly heterogeneous fertility behavior.
Bibliography Citation
Lee, Dohoon. "Childhood Disadvantage, Nonmarital Childbearing, and Birth Intendedness." Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015.
3. Lee, Dohoon
Three Essays on the Micro Basis of Socioeconomic Inequality: The Role of Cognitive and Noncognitive Skills
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2008
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Childbearing, Adolescent; Cognitive Development; Dating; Educational Attainment; Gender Differences; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Mobility, Economic; Mothers, Adolescent; National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth); Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem); Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Self-Esteem; Socioeconomic Background; Socioeconomic Factors; Variables, Independent - Covariate; Wage Differentials; Wage Equations

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This dissertation explores the effect of cognitive and noncognitive skills on three socioeconomic outcomes: wage differentials, individual patterns of educational assortative mating, and the socioeconomic consequences of teen motherhood. Although research has been keen on identifying early predictors of socioeconomic attainment, a systematic view of the linkages between individuals' own attributes formed in childhood and adolescence and subsequent outcomes has yet to come. In this project, I seek to fill this gap by identifying cognitive and noncognitive skills as a micro basis of socioeconomic inequality. Correlated but distinct from cognitive skills, noncognitive skills are conceptualized as enduring dispositions that represent a form of cultural capital. Because both types of skills are highly dependent on socioeconomic background, I hypothesized that individual-level skill differences function as a key channel through which intergenerational mobility is associated with various forms of socioeconomic inequality.

This study begins by examining the impact of both cognitive and noncognitive skills on between- and within-education group wage inequality, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) and quantile regressions. While the economic return to education has been proposed as a parsimonious explanation for rising wage inequality and its currently high level, this account focuses mainly on between-education group wage inequality and the demand for cognitive skills. Results from my analysis shows that (1) while the economic return to education is the robust explanation for wage inequality, both cognitive and noncognitive skills contribute significantly to reducing the college wage premium and wage dispersions within college graduates; (2) noncogntive skills play a more pronounced role in wage inequality among college graduates; and (3) the wage effect of both skills as an early predictor of earnings strengthens as workers reach their prime ages in the labor market. These findings suggest that the family may be an important institutional actor responsible for wage inequality.

In the subsequent chapter, I use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and the NLSY79 to investigate the role of cognitive and noncognitive skills in individual patterns of educational assortative mating in adolescence and adulthood. This paper argues that to the extent that skill differences are associated with education-based mate selection, intergenerational mobility operates at an intimate level of the mate selection process. Multinomial logistic regression results show that cognitive and noncognitive skills are positively associated with the probability of transitioning into marrying college graduates and, to a lesser degree, with that of dating college-bound partners. I also find a gender difference in the role of skill differences: noncognitive skills play a more salient role in education-based mate sorting for women, whereas it is cognitive skills that primarily do so for men, indicating a normative attitude toward mate selection that regards "smartness" as more attractive to women than to men. These findings imply that the intergenerational transmission of familial resources affects children's mate selection by not simply investing in their educational attainment but also strengthening their cognitive and noncognitive skills.

Finally, I reevaluate the socioeconomic effect of teenage childbearing. Despite a 30-year debate about the consequences of adolescent fertility, finding its "true" effect still has been elusive. This concern stems from (1) theoretical considerations of early motherhood as a harmful event and/or its higher likelihood among disadvantaged young women and (2) methodological challenges against selection bias. Alternative models have been developed, but tend to rely on strong assumptions and unrepresentative samples. This paper exten ds the extant literature by taking a counterfactual approach using propensity score matching, conducting a sensitivity analysis employing the Rosenbaum bounds to address selection bias on unobserved covariates, and using data from Add Health. Results show that while teen mothers' preexisting socioeconomic disadvantages and their lower level of cognitive and noncognitive skills play a nontrivial role, teen motherhood has significantly negative effects on early socioeconomic outcomes with the exception of public assistance receipt. The sensitivity analysis suggests that selection bias due to unobserved covariates would have to be very powerful to nullify these findings.

Bibliography Citation
Lee, Dohoon. Three Essays on the Micro Basis of Socioeconomic Inequality: The Role of Cognitive and Noncognitive Skills. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2008.
4. Lee, Dohoon
England, Paula A.
Family Background, Childhood Disadvantage, and Unintended Fertility
Presented: Busan, Republic of Korea, IUSSP International Population Conference, August 2013
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP)
Keyword(s): Age at Birth; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Birthweight; Family Background; Fertility; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Wantedness

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In the U.S., most research on unintended fertility tends to address differences by family background and the sociodemographic contexts in which unintended births occur. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which family background is associated with unintended childbearing. In this study, we propose childhood disadvantage as a key mediating factor that explains the family background gradient on unintended fertility. Drawing upon the life course and human capital formation literature, we identify four dimensions of childhood disadvantage: economic resources, family structure, parenting quality, and self-regulation. Using data from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and event history models, this study examines the relative role that each dimension of childhood disadvantage plays in linking family background to unintended fertility.
Bibliography Citation
Lee, Dohoon and Paula A. England. "Family Background, Childhood Disadvantage, and Unintended Fertility." Presented: Busan, Republic of Korea, IUSSP International Population Conference, August 2013.
5. Lee, Hedwig
Lee, Dohoon
Guo, Guang
Harris, Kathleen Mullan
Trends in Body Mass Index in Adolescence and Young Adulthood in the United States: 1959–2002
Journal of Adolescent Health 49,6 (December 2011): 601-608.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1054139X11001522
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Gender Differences; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); National Health Interview Survey (NHIS); National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth); Racial Differences; Weight

Purpose: This study examined trends in body mass index (BMI) during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood by gender and race, using national data from the United States spanning for >40 years from 1959 and 2002. Although past research has investigated BMI trends separately in childhood/adolescence and adulthood, this study uniquely focused on the transition to adulthood (12–26 years) to identify the emergence of the obesity epidemic during this critical life-stage.

Methods: Longitudinal and cross-sectional data were obtained from four nationally representative surveys: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, National Health Interview Survey, and National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth (NLSY79 and NLSY97). The analysis tracked age trends in BMI by time, which allowed for the examination of how BMI changed during the transition to adulthood and whether the patterns of change varied by period. Data best suited for trend analysis were identified. Age trends in BMI by gender and race were graphed and regression analysis was used to test for significant differences in the trends using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.

Results: BMI increased sharply in the adolescent ages, beginning in the 1990s and among young adults around 2000. This age pattern of BMI increase was more dramatic among females and blacks, particularly black females.

Conclusions: BMI increased during the transition to adulthood and these increases have grown larger over time. Obesity prevention efforts should focus on this high-risk transition period, particularly among minority populations.

Bibliography Citation
Lee, Hedwig, Dohoon Lee, Guang Guo and Kathleen Mullan Harris. "Trends in Body Mass Index in Adolescence and Young Adulthood in the United States: 1959–2002." Journal of Adolescent Health 49,6 (December 2011): 601-608.