Search Results

Author: Johnson, Kenneth A.
Resulting in 10 citations.
1. Jennison, Karen M.
Johnson, Kenneth A.
Alcohol Dependence in Adult Children of Alcoholics: Longitudinal Evidence of Early Risk
Journal of Drug Education 28,1 (1998): 19-37.
Also: http://baywood.metapress.com/app/home/contribution.asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue,2,5;journal,55,163;linkingpublicationresults,1:300320,1
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Baywood Publishing Co.
Keyword(s): Addiction; Adolescent Behavior; Alcohol Use; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Family Characteristics; Gender Differences; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Modeling

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study investigates familial alcoholism effects and the comparative probability of risk for alcohol dependence in adult children of alcoholics (ACAs) with a control group of non-ACAs. A cohort of 12,686 young adults from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) is examined over a five-year period and conventional and lineal intergenerational models of alcoholism transmission are assessed. The results of multivariate logistic regression analyses indicate that the risk is relatively greater for male ACAs; sons of alcoholics drink significantly more heavily, experience problems earlier, and develop alcohol dependence more extensively than female ACAs or non-ACAs of either gender. The extent of dependence found in subjects with a lineal history of alcoholism on the father's side of the family, as well as heavy drinking, cigarette smoking and drinking onset in adolescence should be considered as critical predisposing factors of high risk for dependence at later ages. These observations corroborate clinical studies and support a growing body of biopsychosocial research literature. (AUTHOR)
Bibliography Citation
Jennison, Karen M. and Kenneth A. Johnson. "Alcohol Dependence in Adult Children of Alcoholics: Longitudinal Evidence of Early Risk." Journal of Drug Education 28,1 (1998): 19-37.
2. Jennison, Karen M.
Johnson, Kenneth A.
Drinking Problems in Adult Children of Alcoholics: Evidence from a National Survey
Presented: Miami, FL, American Sociological Association Annual Meetings, August 1993
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Family History; Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Psychological Effects; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Surveys of Youth (NLSY) are used to predict DSM-III-R defined alcohol dependence severity in 1989. The sample consisted of 5,051 family history positives (FHPs) and 5,263 family history negatives (FHNs), which were subsequently reclassified into four mutually exclusive groups: those with 1) alcoholism in first-degree family members only (N=1,762), 2) alcoholic second-degree relatives only (N=1,969), 3) both first and second-degree alcoholic family members (N=1,320), and FHNs as controls. The results indicate, as previous research suggests, that ACOAs drink more heavily, experience earlier onset of problems, and develop greater severity of alcohol dependence than non-ACOAs. Sons of alcoholics are at greater risk than daughters of alcoholics, and that alcoholism in first and second-degree relatives rather than in first or second-degree relatives alone predicts greater likelihood of developing severe alcohol dependence.
Bibliography Citation
Jennison, Karen M. and Kenneth A. Johnson. "Drinking Problems in Adult Children of Alcoholics: Evidence from a National Survey." Presented: Miami, FL, American Sociological Association Annual Meetings, August 1993.
3. Jennison, Karen M.
Johnson, Kenneth A.
Drinking-Induced Blackouts Among Young Adults: Results from a National Longitudinal Survey
International Journal of the Addictions 29,1 (January 1994): 23-51
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Marcel Dekker
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This is a revised version of a paper presented at the 87th Annual Meeting of the American Sociological Association, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, August 20-24, 1992. Amnesia drinking episodes among a national probability sample of 12,686 young adults are examined at two points in their lives: when they were ages 19 to 26 in 1984 and 23 through 30 in 1988. Prospective blackout patterns of early onset, late onset, chronicity, and remission were analyzed using logistic regression statistical models. Results indicate that the relative risk of short-term memory loss while drinking is significantly associated with increased alcohol consumption, age of drinking onset, the number of alcoholic relatives, and, principally, with the individual's capacity to control drinking behavior. It is concluded that the blackout remission rate observed among a substantial proportion (68%) of young adults may not fit the progressive, irreversible model of alcoholism. The study draws upon the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY).
Bibliography Citation
Jennison, Karen M. and Kenneth A. Johnson. "Drinking-Induced Blackouts Among Young Adults: Results from a National Longitudinal Survey." International Journal of the Addictions 29,1 (January 1994): 23-51.
4. Jennison, Karen M.
Johnson, Kenneth A.
If You're Smoking You've Just Got to Have a Drink: Cigarette Smoking by American Women and Interactions with Alcohol Use in a Longitudinal Study
Presented: Washington, DC, American Sociological Association Annual Meetings, August 1995
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Addiction; Alcohol Use; Behavior; Behavioral Problems; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Health Factors; Rehabilitation; Substance Use; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

To explore whether drinking may be a risk factor for tobacco use as well as a barrier that impedes the reduction of smoking prevalence among women, examined is cigarette smoking and drinking covariance within diverse subgroups of 6,283 young adult women in the general population using data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth (NLSY), Multivariate repeated analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicates that women smokers as a group differ significantly from nonsmokers in higher alcohol consumption patterns, at baseline and over time, with specific convergence in the quantity of drinks ingested per day and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Although women smokers tend to be drinkers and to drink in greater volume than nonsmokers, as women reach middle age their smoking is more likely to be associated with quantity and less likely with frequency of drinking. Findings suggest that the smoking factor should be addressed in alcohol rehabilitation for women and that the implications of alcohol use be made an explicit part of smoking cessation programs. (Copyright 1995, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Jennison, Karen M. and Kenneth A. Johnson. "If You're Smoking You've Just Got to Have a Drink: Cigarette Smoking by American Women and Interactions with Alcohol Use in a Longitudinal Study." Presented: Washington, DC, American Sociological Association Annual Meetings, August 1995.
5. Jennison, Karen M.
Johnson, Kenneth A.
Impact of Familial Alcoholism Density, Environmental Exposure, and Depression on Recurrent Use of Alcohol and Illicit Drugs in the General Population
Presented: Toronto, Canada, American Sociological Association Annual Meetings, August 1997
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Drug Use; Family Environment; Family Influences; Fathers; Gender Differences; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth (N=9,000+ young adults, ages 23-35) are used to test several hypotheses concerning familial alcoholism. Investigated at 2 points in time within a 4-year interval was the impact of familial alcoholism density (FAD), familial environmental exposure to alcohol (FEA), & depression on high-risk drinking practices & lifetime illicit drug use. Results of two-stage least squares analyses indicate that the cross-lagged effects of both FAD & FEA stressors persist into adulthood & are sequentially associated with respondents' substance use & psychosocial functioning at the second time period. Higher levels of depressive symptoms & negative moods had a greater mediating influence on all classes of substance use relationships than lower levels of depressive symptoms. Males were more affected by FAD, specifically of the alcoholic father type & the father's alcoholic relatives, than were females. Women, particularly in regard to alcohol use, were more affected by FEA than men, suggesting that women may be differentially more sensitive to the effects of living with an alcoholic parent or close relative than men. Other findings & implications of the study are discussed, & directions for future research are suggested. (Copyright 1997, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Jennison, Karen M. and Kenneth A. Johnson. "Impact of Familial Alcoholism Density, Environmental Exposure, and Depression on Recurrent Use of Alcohol and Illicit Drugs in the General Population." Presented: Toronto, Canada, American Sociological Association Annual Meetings, August 1997.
6. Jennison, Karen M.
Johnson, Kenneth A.
Parental Alcoholism as a Risk Factor for DSM-IV Alcohol Abuse and Dependence in American Women: Another Look at the Moderating Effects of Dyadic Cohesion in Marital Communication Using Latent Structural Models
Presented: Chicago, IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meetings, August 1999
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Family Environment; Family History; Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Marital Satisfaction/Quality; Marriage; Parental Influences; Siblings; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Important trends in research over the past decade indicate that women are equally or even more greatly affected by familial alcoholism than are men. Although it is increasingly recognized that the adverse drinking outcomes predicted for adult children of alcoholics (COAs) are not inevitable and only a small percentage develop alcohol dependence or grow up to be alcoholic, currently relative little knowledge exists regarding moderating factors which reduce their vulnerability. This study identifies a multiple mediator latent structural model of the intergenerational transmission of risk for DSM-IV assessed alcohol abuse and dependence among women COAs in adulthood. The effects of both parental alcoholism and family environment are estimated at three time points spanning ten years across 5 year intervals: 1984, 1989 and 1994 using data from a subsample of 4,449 women in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Dyadic cohesion in marital communication (greater marital cohesion, harmony and less verbal disagreement, discord and conflict) is a proposed moderating factor that may operate in adulthood to lower the risk of female COAs developing alcohol abuse and dependence. Maximum likelihood estimates of the effects of alcohol mediators measured over time indicate that direct parental effects for adverse outcomes decline when COAs are in their late twenties and early thirties. Indirect parental effects through environmental influences dramatically increase the risk for abuse and dependence among COAs at this time, however, if they have one or more alcoholic siblings, especially an alcoholic sister. Dyadic cohesion and positive interpersonal communication patterns were found to effectively moderate the relationship that existed between parental alcoholism, environmental influences and adverse alcohol consequences. COAs with satisfactory marital communication also evidenced higher levels of intimacy with their partners, perceived the division of housework to be fairer, shared more responsibilities and burdens of the household, and had less conflict over in-laws and other domestic issues than other women COAs. The protective benefits of a good marriage against the risks of alcoholism remained when applied to younger and older subjects, and across all ethnic backgrounds, even after adjusting for other factors such as employment status.
Bibliography Citation
Jennison, Karen M. and Kenneth A. Johnson. "Parental Alcoholism as a Risk Factor for DSM-IV Alcohol Abuse and Dependence in American Women: Another Look at the Moderating Effects of Dyadic Cohesion in Marital Communication Using Latent Structural Models." Presented: Chicago, IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meetings, August 1999.
7. Jennison, Karen M.
Johnson, Kenneth A.
Parental Alcoholism as a Risk Factor for DSM-IV-Defined Alcohol Abuse and Dependence in American Women: The Protective Benefits of Dyadic Cohesion in Marital Communication
American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 27,2 (May 2001): 349-374.
Also: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1081/ADA-100103714
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Informa Healthcare
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Family Environment; Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Parents, Behavior; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Important trends in research over the past decade indicate that women are as greatly affected by familial alcoholism as are men. Although it is increasingly recognized that the adverse drinking outcomes predicted for adult children of alcoholics (COAs) are not inevitable, and only a small percentage develop alcohol dependence or grow up to be alcoholic, relatively little knowledge exists regarding moderating factors that reduce their vulnerability. This study identifies a multiple mediator latent structural model of the intergenerational transmission of risk for DSM-IV-assessed alcohol abuse and dependence among women COAs in adulthood. The effects of both parental alcoholism and family environment are estimated at three time points spanning 10 years across 5-year intervals (1984, 1989, and 1994) using data from a subsample of 4,449 women in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Dyadic cohesion in marital communication (greater marital cohesion, harmony, and less verbal disagreement, discord, and conflict) is a proposed moderating factor that may operate in adulthood to lower the risk of female COAs developing alcohol abuse and dependence. Maximum likelihood standardized estimates of the effects of alcohol mediators measured over time indicate that direct parental effects for adverse outcomes decline when COAs are in their late 20s and early 30s. Indirect parental effects through environmental influences dramatically increase the risk of abuse and dependence among COAs at this time if they have one or more alcoholic siblings, especially an alcoholic sister. Dyadic cohesion and positive interpersonal communication patterns were found to moderate effectively the relationship that existed among parental alcoholism, environmental influences, and adverse alcohol consequences. COAs with satisfactory marital communication also evidenced higher levels of intimacy with their partners, perceived the division of housework to be fairer, shared more responsibilities and burdens of the household, and had less conflict over critical domestic issues than other women COAs. The protective benefits of a good marriage against the risks of alcoholism remained when applied to younger and older subjects, across diverse backgrounds, and after adjusting for other factors such as employment status.
Bibliography Citation
Jennison, Karen M. and Kenneth A. Johnson. "Parental Alcoholism as a Risk Factor for DSM-IV-Defined Alcohol Abuse and Dependence in American Women: The Protective Benefits of Dyadic Cohesion in Marital Communication." American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 27,2 (May 2001): 349-374.
8. Jennison, Karen M.
Johnson, Kenneth A.
Resilience to Drinking Vulnerability in Women with Alcoholic Parents: The Moderating Effects of Dyadic Cohesion in Marital Communication
Presented: New York, NY, American Sociological Association, August 1996
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Addiction; Alcohol Use; Family History; Marital Satisfaction/Quality; Marital Stability; Resilience/Developmental Assets; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Although adult children of alcoholics (ACAs) are at high risk for subsequent alcohol abuse & drinking problems in later life, not all are adversely affected by their family history. Many exhibit resilience & function normally despite exposure to severe alcoholism & family discord during childhood. Yet, there exists relatively little knowledge of the moderating factors that reduce the risk of drinking vulnerability for ACAs. Based on a subset of questions from the Dyadic Adjustment Scale from the 1988 & 1992 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, dyadic cohesion in marital communication (frequency of interaction & agreement on substantive issues that affect couples) was examined in 4,235 women as a resilience factor that could potentially mitigate adverse drinking outcomes for women ACAs. The results of a 2-stage least squares regression analysis indicated that the transmission of risk for drinking vulnerability was effectively moderated by positive interpersonal communication patterns indicative of supportive dyadic interaction. The importance of dyadic cohesion as a resilience factor in women ACAs suggest that the enhancement & development of effective communication skills for couples in therapy for alcohol problems, in one or both partners, should remain a major aspect of therapeutic & treatment goals. (Copyright 1996, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Jennison, Karen M. and Kenneth A. Johnson. "Resilience to Drinking Vulnerability in Women with Alcoholic Parents: The Moderating Effects of Dyadic Cohesion in Marital Communication." Presented: New York, NY, American Sociological Association, August 1996.
9. Jennison, Karen M.
Johnson, Kenneth A.
Resilience to Drinking Vulnerability in Women with Alcoholic Parents: The Moderating Effects of Dyadic Cohesion in Marital Communication
Substance Use and Misuse 32,11 (September 1997): 1461-1489.
Also: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/10826089709055873
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Marcel Dekker
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Marital Satisfaction/Quality; Marital Stability; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parental Influences; Resilience/Developmental Assets; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data from a subsample of women (N = 4,235) in two waves of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth (NLSY) are used to examine the relationship between parental alcoholism and alcohol use in adult life. Dyadic cohesion in marital communication (frequency of interaction and agreement on substantive issues that affect couples) is investigated as a resilience factor that could potentially mitigate adverse drinking outcomes in adult children of alcoholics (ACAs). A moderated mediation model is estimated using a Two-Stage Least Squares (2SLS) regression analysis. The results indicated that an imputed transmission of risk for drinking vulnerability in women ACAs, controlling for nonACA status, was effectively moderated by positive dyadic interaction. (AUTHOR)
Bibliography Citation
Jennison, Karen M. and Kenneth A. Johnson. "Resilience to Drinking Vulnerability in Women with Alcoholic Parents: The Moderating Effects of Dyadic Cohesion in Marital Communication." Substance Use and Misuse 32,11 (September 1997): 1461-1489.
10. Jennison, Karen M.
Johnson, Kenneth A.
White Collar Occupational Stress, Heavy Drinking-Smoking in Later Life, and the Moderating Effects of Social Support: A Longitudinal Study of Older Men
Presented: Los Angeles, CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meetings, August 1994
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Addiction; Alcohol Use; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Occupational Status; Stress; Support Networks; White Collar Jobs

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The identification of risk factors has been established as a critical need in studies of problem drinking among older adults. This analysis is a cohort-based prospective study of risk factors in the workplace based on the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS) of older men. The nationally representative NLS sample (5,020 men aged 45-59 when first surveyed in 1966) consists of re-interviews in 1990 with 2,092 survivors then aged 69 to 84, 1,341 widows of decedents, and, in the absence of a living widow, 865 proxy relatives of decedents. Three central issues are examined in the white-collar occupational group (N=795): (1) heavy drinking and cigarette smoking may be synergistically interrelated; (2) their combined prevalence among older men may be largely attributed to addictive patterns established earlier in life in response to self-perceived occupational stress (pace, pressure, and fatigue); (3) instrumental or emotional forms of social support provided in later years may moderate the residual effects of work stress on addictive behavior. A series of multivariate statistical analyses supported all three hypotheses. Heavy drinking and smoking concurrence was significantly more likely among survivors, and also in widow's accounts of decedents, who reported a history of chronic occupational stress, particularly the work pace variety experienced in the middle to late pre-retirement years. With little exception, the social support variable which was found to comprehensively moderate the direct effects of occupational stress among older men was a spouse who was designated a special confidant in a trusting, helping personal relationship.
Bibliography Citation
Jennison, Karen M. and Kenneth A. Johnson. "White Collar Occupational Stress, Heavy Drinking-Smoking in Later Life, and the Moderating Effects of Social Support: A Longitudinal Study of Older Men." Presented: Los Angeles, CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meetings, August 1994.