Search Results

Author: Hill, M. Anne
Resulting in 10 citations.
1. Hill, Elizabeth M.
Hill, M. Anne
Resources and Reproductive Effort: The Positive Effect of Doing Relatively Well
Presented: Baltimore, MD, Population Association of America Meetings, 1989
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Earnings; Fertility; Income; Marriage; Maternal Employment; Work Histories

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Assuming some congruence between ecological resources and the economic resources available for ourselves, the authors tested whether prediction of some measures of reproductive effort for a contemporary U.S. sample would be enhanced by using several resource measures, along the lines of life history models. Fertility and work history information was analyzed for one cohort of young men in the large public data base, the NLSY. The probabilities of marriage, having any children, and having a new child in the 1986 were estimated by the following predictors: (1) the previous year's actual earnings; (2) earnings relative to that "expected" from indicators like education, job experience, parents' SES; (3) the interaction between absolute and relative earnings. "Expected earnings" was estimated two ways to reflect (a) long-term and (b) short-term variance. The results supported the importance of "relative" income. Better earnings than expected generally had a positive effect on r eproductive effort. However, in the short-term analysis, the positive effect of relative earnings decreased as absolute earnings increased. The effect of absolute earnings varied. Thus, this study provides evidence for the different effects of absolute versus relative income. In particular, these results suggest further economic research on the interaction between absolute and relative resources.
Bibliography Citation
Hill, Elizabeth M. and M. Anne Hill. "Resources and Reproductive Effort: The Positive Effect of Doing Relatively Well." Presented: Baltimore, MD, Population Association of America Meetings, 1989.
2. Hill, M. Anne
Intercohort Differences in Women's Labor Market Transitions
American Economic Review 80,2 (May 1990): 289-292.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2006586
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Labor Force Participation; Labor Supply; Racial Differences; Wages; Women; Work Histories

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The extent to which the labor force behavior of recent cohorts of women has actually changed was analyzed by comparing the early labor force experience of women who were between the ages of 16 and 21 in 1968 with that of women between the ages of 16 and 21 in 1979. The data consisted of 8-year samples from the NLS of Young Women and NLSY. The data include both completed work spells, the duration of which is known, and censored spells, for which the end of the labor force spell is not yet observed. The results showed that the length of censored work spells has risen nearly one year for both white and black women. The human capital variables, in particular, the level of labor market experience and schooling, increase the duration of work spells and hasten the exit from a nonwork spell. These effects appear stronger for the younger cohort of women, especially black women. The intercohort differences in responses to demographic variables were mixed. [ABI/INFORM]
Bibliography Citation
Hill, M. Anne. "Intercohort Differences in Women's Labor Market Transitions." American Economic Review 80,2 (May 1990): 289-292.
3. Hill, M. Anne
O'Neill, June E.
A Dynamic Model of Women's Work
Working Paper, Center for the Study of Business and Government, Baruch College, New York NY, 1989
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: City University of New York
Keyword(s): Education; Fertility; Life Cycle Research; Marital Status; Women; Work Attachment; Work Histories

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This analysis uses data from the NLS of Young Women to examine changes in life-cycle work patterns across cohorts of women born between 1944 and 1954. The authors examine intercohort changes in schooling, births, marital status and ask how the timing and duration of spells in and out of the labor force have changed across cohorts. Multiple spell hazard rate modelling and rich longitudinal data allowed the authors to distinguish among secular, cohort, and duration effects on labor force behavior.
Bibliography Citation
Hill, M. Anne and June E. O'Neill. "A Dynamic Model of Women's Work." Working Paper, Center for the Study of Business and Government, Baruch College, New York NY, 1989.
4. Hill, M. Anne
O'Neill, June E.
A Study of Intercohort Change in Women's Work patterns and Earning
NLS Discussion Paper No. 92-10, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington DC, December 1990.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/ore/abstract/nl/nl900040.htm
Cohort(s): Mature Women, NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Divorce; Labor Force Participation; Life Cycle Research; Marriage; Schooling; Skills; Wage Differentials; Wage Gap; Wages, Men; Wages, Women; Work Experience; Work Reentry

After remaining virtually constant during the poet-World War II period, the ratio of women's earnings to men'a increased sharply during the 1980'a, rising from 59.7 percent in 1979 to 68.5 percent in 1989. The failure of the overall wage gap to narrow during the 1950-1980 period has been something of a puzzle. This research utilizes data from the three continuing panels of the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS) -- the mature women, the young women' and the youth cohort -- to measure accumulated years of work experience and to examine changes in life-cycle work patterns across successive cohorts of women born between 1923 and 1964. This study has investigated how these successive cohorts of women have changed with respect to their accumulation of work-related skills, in terms of level of schooling, career orientation, and attachment to the labor force. We consider how the nature of entry into and exit from the labor force changed across cohorts and how the response of women's labor force participation decisions to life-cycle events (e.g., marriage, the birth of a child, divorce) may have changed. Intercohort changes in women' a returns to work experience, schooling, and other human capital investments are also considered. This research has yielded important insights into the nature and determinants of the work patterns and earnings of American women.
Bibliography Citation
Hill, M. Anne and June E. O'Neill. "A Study of Intercohort Change in Women's Work patterns and Earning." NLS Discussion Paper No. 92-10, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington DC, December 1990.
5. Hill, M. Anne
O'Neill, June E.
Family Endowments and the Achievement of Young Children with Special Reference to the Underclass
Journal of Human Resources 29,4 (Autumn 1994): 1064-1100.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/146134
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Cognitive Ability; Cognitive Development; Educational Attainment; Family Resources; Grandmothers; Income; Income Level; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mothers, Education; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Underclass; Welfare; Work Hours

A study investigates the factors underlying cognitive achievement among young children using a Becker-Tomes model of intergenerational transmission adapted to incorporate transmission of a family's cultural orientation toward achievement. The model relates the child's achievement to parental income and cognitive skills as well as to grandparent's income and education. Using data on Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) scores for children born to women in the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth, large and significant positive effects are found for the mother's Armed Forces Qualification Test score, her schooling, and the grandparents' schooling. It is found that increases in the mother's hours at work bear significant negative effects on her child's achievement. The effect is only partially compensated for by higher money income among these young children. The mother's welfare dependence is associated with a reduction in the child's PPVT score, an effect that is not explained by poverty persistence. (ABI/Inform)
Bibliography Citation
Hill, M. Anne and June E. O'Neill. "Family Endowments and the Achievement of Young Children with Special Reference to the Underclass." Journal of Human Resources 29,4 (Autumn 1994): 1064-1100.
6. Hill, M. Anne
O'Neill, June E.
Intercohort Change in Women's Labor Market Status
Final Report, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, 1991
Cohort(s): Mature Women, NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Earnings; Fertility; Labor Force Participation; Life Cycle Research; Marital Status; Schooling; Wage Gap; Women; Work Attachment; Work Experience

This research utilizes data from the three continuing panels of the NLS--the Mature Women, the Young Women, and the NLSY--to measure accumulated years of work experience and to examine changes in life-cycle work patterns across successive cohorts of women born between 1923 and 1964. This study first investigated how these successive cohorts of women have changed with respect to their accumulation of work-related skills, in terms of level of schooling, career orientation, and attachment to the labor force. The authors considered how the nature of entry into and exit from the labor force changed across cohorts and how the response of women's labor force participation decisions to life-cycle events (e.g., marriage, the birth of a child, divorce) may have change Intercohort changes in women's returns to work experience, schooling, and other human ca also considered. Increases and declines of labor force participation is measured for black and white women.
Bibliography Citation
Hill, M. Anne and June E. O'Neill. "Intercohort Change in Women's Labor Market Status." Final Report, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, 1991.
7. Hill, M. Anne
O'Neill, June E.
Intergenerational Transmission of Achievement, with Special Reference to the Underclass
Progress Report to NICHD, Center for the Study of Business and Government, Baruch College, CUNY, July 1991
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: City University of New York
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior; Behavioral Problems; Census of Population; General Assessment; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Modeling; Motor and Social Development (MSD); Neighborhood Effects; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Public Housing; Underclass

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study explores the extent to which a child's own and maternal family backgrounds exert an effect on the child cognitive achievement and social development and further tries to identify the effects of underclass neighborhood characteristics and resources provided by the community. The research utilizes a large national sample of children merged with: (a) extensive data on their mothers and grandparents (the NLSY 1979-1988) and (b) information on the social and economic characteristics of their neighborhoods drawn from the 1980 Census ZIP Code files. The first model relates the child's scores on various assessments conducted in 1986 and 1988 to the child's own family structure a well as the mother's schooling and cognitive skills, the extent of her underclass behavior and residence in an underclass neighborhood. This model yields disturbing results. The second model is intergenerational and relates child's scores to a limited set of child characteristics and an extensive set of variables describing the mother's family (family structure, family income, family welfare receipt in 1979) and her 1979 residence (public housing, underclass neighborhood, region, and SMSA size). These empirical results are equally provocative. Other child out measures examined include assessments of motor development, behavior problems, and math skills.
Bibliography Citation
Hill, M. Anne and June E. O'Neill. "Intergenerational Transmission of Achievement, with Special Reference to the Underclass." Progress Report to NICHD, Center for the Study of Business and Government, Baruch College, CUNY, July 1991.
8. Hill, M. Anne
O'Neill, June E.
The Transmission of Cognitive Achievement Across Three Generations
Working Paper, New York: Queens College and Center for Business and Government, Baruch College, City University of New York, June 1993
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: City University of New York
Keyword(s): Achievement; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Cognitive Ability; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Neighborhood Effects; Parental Influences; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Transfers, Family; Underclass

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The concern of this paper is with the determinants of cognitive skills. Of particular interest are the extent to which low levels of achievement are transferred from generation to generation and the role played by such factors as the absence of the father, parental welfare dependence, and residence in an underclass neighborhood. To examine the intergenerational persistence of various parental and environmental influences we first relate children's achievement (generation 3) to the characteristics of their grandparents (generation 1) and compare these results with a similar analysis of the effect of the same grandparent characteristics on their own daughter's achievement (generation 2, mothers of the young children). The mothers of the young children are women from the National Longitudinal Survey Youth (NLSY). Information on generation 1 (i.e., the grandparents) is also provided in the NLSY. We then proceed to analyze in greater detail the cognitive outcomes of the young children (generation 3) relating them to the endowment and behaviors of their immediate parents.
Bibliography Citation
Hill, M. Anne and June E. O'Neill. "The Transmission of Cognitive Achievement Across Three Generations." Working Paper, New York: Queens College and Center for Business and Government, Baruch College, City University of New York, June 1993.
9. Hill, M. Anne
O'Neill, June E.
Underclass Behaviors in the United States: Measurement and Analysis of Determinants
Working Paper, Baruch College/City University of New York, 1990
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: City University of New York
Keyword(s): Behavior; Childbearing; Educational Attainment; Illegal Activities; Labor Force Participation; Underclass; Welfare; Work Attachment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study utilizes the NLSY and the 1980 Census Zip Code File to develop measures of the incidence of underclass behaviors and to examine how this incidence varies by race, ethnicity, geographic area, and whether or not the individual came from an underclass background. The underclass behaviors to be studied include low labor force attachment, welfare dependence, out- of-wedlock child-bearing, criminal involvement, and low educational attainment.
Bibliography Citation
Hill, M. Anne and June E. O'Neill. "Underclass Behaviors in the United States: Measurement and Analysis of Determinants." Working Paper, Baruch College/City University of New York, 1990.
10. O'Neill, June E.
Hill, M. Anne
Gaining Ground, Moving Up: The Change in the Economic Status of Single Mothers Under Welfare Reform
Civic Report 35, Center for Civic Innovation, Manhattan Institute for Policy Research, March 2003.
Also: http://www.manhattan-institute.org/html/cr_35.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Manhatten Institute
Keyword(s): Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); Ethnic Differences; Fertility; Maternal Employment; Minimum Wage; Parents, Single; Poverty; Racial Differences; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In Section I, we examine poverty rates for single mothers and their families, before and after welfare reform. We find that poverty declined to record lows in the post-welfare reform period for all groups of single mothers, including those from racial and ethnic minorities and those with limited education who had sharply reduced their welfare participation from relatively high levels. Using panel data restricted to welfare leavers, we also find that poverty declined among single mothers who left welfare after welfare reform, and that a woman?s likelihood of being poor continued to decline with the passage of time. In short, the poverty data show that single mothers substantially increased their incomes by leaving welfare and going to work.

In Section II, we detail changes in the work participation of single mothers and find that both the percentage employed and the intensity of employment increased dramatically in the post-reform period. We update and expand our earlier analysis of the determinants of work participation to include additional variables (such as the Earned Income Tax Credit) and again find that welfare reform was the most important factor explaining the rise in employment in the post-reform years, accounting for more than 40% of the employment gains.

In Section III, we examine the annual and hourly earnings of all single mothers as well as those who left welfare. We find that single mothers, on average, earned $11.60 per hour in 2001, considerably more than the minimum wage. In fact, only 4% of working single mothers earned at or below the minimum; and even among those who are high school dropouts, only 8% were at or below the minimum. More importantly, we find that mothers who leave welfare, like workers generally, earn more per hour for each year they remain at work, and their hourly pay is further enhanced for each year they stay with the same employer.

Finally, in Section IV, we examine inflation-adjusted changes in total income and its components for single mother households from 1993?2000. We find that the gain from increased earnings far outweighed the loss in welfare benefits, resulting in a 29% rise in single mothers? own cash income between 1993 and 2000, even after averaging in those reporting zero cash income. Similar gains were experienced by single mothers at all levels, even those who had dropped out of high school.

Bibliography Citation
O'Neill, June E. and M. Anne Hill. "Gaining Ground, Moving Up: The Change in the Economic Status of Single Mothers Under Welfare Reform." Civic Report 35, Center for Civic Innovation, Manhattan Institute for Policy Research, March 2003.