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Author: Harkness, S. Suzan Jane
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1. Harkness, S. Suzan Jane
Women and Work: Dynamics of the Glass Ceiling and Public Policy Perspectives
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Hawaii, 2000. DAI-A 61/10, p. 4158-A-4159-A, Apr 2001
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Discrimination, Sex; Gender Differences; Human Capital; Job Satisfaction; Marital Status; Mobility, Occupational; Training, On-the-Job; Wage Gap

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was enacted to provided legal entitlements for working women; however, women continue to confront glass ceilings. The findings of my analysis indicate that three complex principles impact women's career mobility: They consist of social factors, legal/policy factors, and corporate factors. The findings suggest that organizational discrimination was evident and that Title VII has done little to ensure equal opportunity within organizations. Gender was found to have a significant impact upon career opportunity and mobility. The data revealed that slightly more women moved into higher level occupations in 1978, but that there was still a disproportionate amount found within the lower-level administrative ranks. Furthermore, women's level of on-the-job training lagged behind men's such that women remain outside of the internal structures necessary for upward mobility. The data also revealed that marital status impacted career mobility. The purposes of this research were (1) to investigate whether men and women had equal opportunity in career advancement and (2) to determine to what degree equal employment laws impacted women's career opportunities between 1969 and 1978. The analysis focused upon organizational factors such as career advancement, salary levels, on-the-job training, and other human capital investments beneficial to career success in correlation to antidiscrimination legislation using National Longitudinal Survey data. The study found that some women did make headway. The analysis documented that the wage gap closed slightly, that women were more likely to work within the professional occupations by 1978, and that women were armed with strong human capital investments and aware of how important they were to career mobility. Furthermore, single women reported greater opportunities in earning potential and job satisfaction than married women. The analysis found that legislation enacted during the early 1960s and amended during the 1970s has had a very limited impact upon issues of equity within corporate environments, and that much of the inequity stems from discriminatory organizational factors and policies. Women's overall opportunities will continue to be limited as long as the opportunities within corporations remain hampered, unequal, and unaccommodating to the variety of women's growing presence.
Bibliography Citation
Harkness, S. Suzan Jane. Women and Work: Dynamics of the Glass Ceiling and Public Policy Perspectives. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Hawaii, 2000. DAI-A 61/10, p. 4158-A-4159-A, Apr 2001.