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Author: Gough, Margaret
Resulting in 6 citations.
1. Gough, Margaret
Birth Spacing, Human Capital, and the Motherhood Penalty at Midlife in the United States
Demographic Research 37, Article 13 (July-December 2017): 363-416.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/26332200
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Births, Repeat / Spacing; Human Capital; Labor Market Outcomes; Motherhood; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The objective [of this article] is to estimate the effects of birth spacing on midlife labor market outcomes and assess the extent to which these effects vary by education and age at first birth.
Bibliography Citation
Gough, Margaret. "Birth Spacing, Human Capital, and the Motherhood Penalty at Midlife in the United States." Demographic Research 37, Article 13 (July-December 2017): 363-416.
2. Gough, Margaret
Consequences of Family Events: Three Papers on Family Change and Subsequent Outcomes
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan, 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Births, Repeat / Spacing; Labor Market Outcomes; Maternal Employment; Motherhood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In Chapter 3, I shift my focus away from the effect of labor market changes on the household to consider the effect of family events on labor market outcomes. Specifically, I examine how birth spacing, along with birth timing, affects mothers' long-term labor market outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Gough, Margaret. Consequences of Family Events: Three Papers on Family Change and Subsequent Outcomes. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan, 2012.
3. Gough, Margaret
Dorius, Cassandra J.
Rethinking Shotgun Marriage
Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Age at First Marriage; Births, Repeat / Spacing; Childbearing, Adolescent; Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Teenage childbearing has been linked to negative outcomes for women, but little is known about how teenage mothers' relationship experiences might exacerbate long-term health vulnerabilities, net of early disadvantage. We examine how women fare when they "double down" and have subsequent births with the same man (e.g., through post-conception marriage). We ask whether these women have better health outcomes at midlife than women who break up with their partner and form new childbearing relationships later, and whether they have equivalent outcomes to non-teenage mothers. Using NLSY79 data we estimate inverse probability of treatment models of single-partner fertility on midlife physical health and depression risk. Accounting for exposure to early disadvantage, teenage mothers who committed to their partners early have worse physical health at midlife than other mothers, and the effect seems to worsen with age. These mothers also have much higher odds of depression than other single-partner fertility mothers.
Bibliography Citation
Gough, Margaret and Cassandra J. Dorius. "Rethinking Shotgun Marriage." Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018.
4. Gough, Margaret
Killewald, Alexandra
Does Spacing Matter? The Effect of Child Spacing on the Cumulative Labor Force Outcomes of Mothers
Presented: Dallas, TX, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2010
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Births, Repeat / Spacing; Family History; Family Planning; Family Size; Fertility; Labor Force Participation; Maternal Employment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The role of first-birth timing for mothers' economic outcomes has interested researchers for some time, yet research that considers the implications of the spacing of children, in addition to the timing, is sparse. Longer birth intervals may disadvantage women by prolonging the child-rearing period and extending time out of full-time employment, or, alternatively, may advantage women by diminishing the intensity of the child-rearing period, facilitating ongoing labor force attachment. We use longitudinal data from NLSY79 and employ a matching strategy to estimate the long-term effect of long birth intervals on mothers' labor force outcomes. By doing so, we contribute to the literature on the intersection between women's fertility and their labor force outcomes, filling a gap in the literature that has disproportionately ignored the implications of decisions about higher-parity births.
Bibliography Citation
Gough, Margaret and Alexandra Killewald. "Does Spacing Matter? The Effect of Child Spacing on the Cumulative Labor Force Outcomes of Mothers." Presented: Dallas, TX, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2010.
5. Killewald, Alexandra
Gough, Margaret
Does Specialization Explain Marriage Penalties and Premiums?
American Sociological Review 78,3 (June 2013): 477-502.
Also: http://asr.sagepub.com/content/78/3/477.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Housework/Housewives; Marriage; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Motherhood; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty; Wages, Men; Wages, Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Married men’s wage premium is often attributed to within-household specialization: men can devote more effort to wage-earning when their wives assume responsibility for household labor. We provide a comprehensive evaluation of the specialization hypothesis, arguing that, if specialization causes the male marriage premium, married women should experience wage losses. Furthermore, specialization by married parents should augment the motherhood penalty and the fatherhood premium for married as compared to unmarried parents. Using fixed-effects models and data from the NLSY79, we estimate within-gender differences in wages according to marital status and between-gender differences in the associations between marital status and wages. We then test whether specialization on time use, job traits, and tenure accounts for the observed associations. Results for women do not support the specialization hypothesis. Childless men and women both receive a marriage premium. Marriage augments the fatherhood premium but not the motherhood penalty. Changes in own and spousal employment hours, job traits, and tenure appear to benefit both married men and women, although men benefit more. Marriage changes men’s labor market behavior in ways that augment wages, but these changes do not appear to occur at the expense of women’s wages.
Bibliography Citation
Killewald, Alexandra and Margaret Gough. "Does Specialization Explain Marriage Penalties and Premiums?" American Sociological Review 78,3 (June 2013): 477-502.
6. Killewald, Alexandra
Gough, Margaret
Estimating the Impact of Marriage on Women's Wages
Presented: Dallas, TX, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2010
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Coresidence; Cost-Benefit Studies; Gender; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Gender Differences; Income; Income Distribution; Marriage; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Sex Equality; Unions; Wage Gap; Wages; Wives, Work; Women's Roles

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The costs and benefits of marriage for women are influenced in part by the effect of marriage on women's earnings potential, yet the wage premium or penalty for married women has been relatively ignored. The theory of within-household specialization predicts that women's wages will fall upon entry into coresidential unions as their time in household labor rises and their labor market effort falls. If this is the case, marriage contributes to sex stratification by exacerbating the gender gap in pay and reducing wives' bargaining power within the household. We use data from the NLSY79 and fixed-effects models to assess the marriage premium or penalty for women. In contrast to the specialization model, we find that women have higher wages in the years after their entry into marriage, suggesting that marriage need not be a zero-sum game between spouses in terms of their labor market rewards.
Bibliography Citation
Killewald, Alexandra and Margaret Gough. "Estimating the Impact of Marriage on Women's Wages." Presented: Dallas, TX, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2010.