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Author: Goldin, Claudia
Resulting in 8 citations.
1. Goldin, Claudia
Career And Family: College Women Look To The Past
NBER Working Paper No. 5188, National Bureau of Economic Research, July 1995.
Also: http://nber.nber.org/papers/W5188
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Demography; Family Studies; Fertility; Labor Force Participation

Recent college graduate women express frustration regarding the obstacles they will face in combining career and family. Tracing the demographic and labor force experiences of four cohorts of college women across the past century allows us to observe the choices each made and how the constraints facing college women loosened over time. No cohort of college graduate women in the past had a high success rate in combining family and career. Cohort I (graduating c. 1910) had a 50% rate of childlessness. Whereas cohort III (graduating c. 1955) had a high rate of childbearing, it had initially low labor force participation. Cohort IV (graduating c. 1972) provides the most immediate guide for today's college women and is close to the end of its fertility history. It is also a cohort that can be studied using the N.L.S. Young Women. In 1991, when the group was 37 to 47 years old, 28% of the sample's college graduate (white) women had yet to have a first birth. The estimates for career vary from 24% to 33% for all college graduate women in the sample. Thus only 13% to 17% of the group achieved "family and career" by the time it was about 40 years old. Among those who attained career, 50% were childless. Cohort IV contains a small group of women who have combined family with career, but for most the goal remains elusive.
Bibliography Citation
Goldin, Claudia. "Career And Family: College Women Look To The Past." NBER Working Paper No. 5188, National Bureau of Economic Research, July 1995.
2. Goldin, Claudia
Exploring the "Present Through the Past": Career and Family Across the Last Century
American Economic Review 87,2 (May 1997): 396-399.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2950952
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Census of Population; College Education; Family History; Family Studies; Women's Education; Women's Studies

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Cliometric's development is divided into 3 decades: 1965- 1975, 1975-1985, and 1985-present. The US wing of the discipline is emphasized. The example used for examining the present through the past is a discussion regarding whether women, particularly those who have graduated from 4-year colleges, are able to combine career and family. Even though the educational and employment barriers faced by previous generations of women have been substantially reduced, many college women today are concerned. Using US federal census population data, alumnae and Women's Bureau surveys, and the National Longitudinal Survey of young women, the career and family histories of college women during the past century are pieced together.
Bibliography Citation
Goldin, Claudia. "Exploring the "Present Through the Past": Career and Family Across the Last Century." American Economic Review 87,2 (May 1997): 396-399.
3. Goldin, Claudia
From the Valley to the Summit: A Brief History of the Quiet Revolution that Transformed Women's Work
Regional Review 14,Q1 (2005): 5-12.
Also: http://www.bos.frb.org/economic/nerr/rr2005/q1/section1a.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
Keyword(s): Age at First Marriage; Career Patterns; Job Aspirations; Labor Force Participation; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Throughout recorded history, individual women have reached summits, and their accomplishments have been touted as evidence that women could achieve greatness. But it has taken considerably longer for substantial numbers of women--more than a token few— to reach the peaks. Until recently, the vast majority of women--even college graduates--occupied the valleys, not the summits. They had jobs, not careers. The only reason we can have a meaningful discussion today about “women at the top” is because a quiet revolution took place about 30 years ago. It followed on the heels of a noisier revolution, although the quiet one had greater longrun impact. The revolution was accomplished by many who were unaware they were part of a grand transformation that would deeply affect women and their families for decades to come. They were the unwitting foot soldiers of an upheaval that transformed women's employment and the workforce.
Bibliography Citation
Goldin, Claudia. "From the Valley to the Summit: A Brief History of the Quiet Revolution that Transformed Women's Work." Regional Review 14,Q1 (2005): 5-12.
4. Goldin, Claudia
From the Valley to the Summit: A Brief History of the Quiet Revolution that Transformed Women's Work
In: Inequality and Society: Social Science Perspectives on Social Stratification. J. Manza and M. Sauder, eds.New York, NY: W. W. Norton and Company, April 2009.
Also: http://books.wwnorton.com/books/detail-contents.aspx?ID=10589
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: W.W. Norton and Company
Keyword(s): Age at First Marriage; Career Patterns; Job Aspirations; Labor Force Participation

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Chapter 35.
[Publisher's blurb] Designed for undergraduate courses on inequality, this reader is the first and only one to incorporate political inequality into the discussion of social stratification. With the ideal balance of classic essays and more contemporary studies, Inequality and Society covers the standard themes of poverty and inequality while bringing political institutions into the analysis.
See also:
GOLDIN, CLAUDIA
From the Valley to the Summit: A Brief History of the Quiet Revolution that Transformed Women's Work
Regional Review 14, Q1 (2005): 5-12. Also: http://www.bos.frb.org/economic/nerr/rr2005/q1/section1a.pdf
Bibliography Citation
Goldin, Claudia. "From the Valley to the Summit: A Brief History of the Quiet Revolution that Transformed Women's Work" In: Inequality and Society: Social Science Perspectives on Social Stratification. J. Manza and M. Sauder, eds.New York, NY: W. W. Norton and Company, April 2009.
5. Goldin, Claudia
From the Valley to the Summit: The Quiet Revolution That Transformed Women's Work
NBER Working Paper No. 10335, National Bureau of Economic Research, March 2004.
Also: http://www.economics.harvard.edu/~goldin/papers/valleytosummit.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Age at First Marriage; Career Patterns; Job Aspirations; Labor Force Participation

Meaningful discussions about "women at the top" can take place today only because a quiet revolution occurred about thirty years ago. The transformation was startlingly rapid and was accomplished by the unwitting foot soldiers of an upheaval that transformed the workforce. It can be seen in a number of social and economic indicators. Sharp breaks are apparent in data on labor market expectations, college graduation rates, professional degrees, labor force participation rates, and the age at first marriage. Turning points are also evident in most of the series for college majors and occupations. Inflection or break points in almost all of these series occur from the late 1960s to the early 1970s and for cohorts born during the 1940s. Whatever the precise reasons for change, a great divide in college-graduate women's lives and employment occurred about 35 years ago. Previously, women who reached the peaks often made solo climbs and symbolized that women, contrary to conventional wisdom, could achieve greatness. But real change demanded a march by the masses from the "valley to the summit." That march began with cohorts born in the late 1940s.
Bibliography Citation
Goldin, Claudia. "From the Valley to the Summit: The Quiet Revolution That Transformed Women's Work." NBER Working Paper No. 10335, National Bureau of Economic Research, March 2004.
6. Goldin, Claudia
The Long Road to the Fast Track: Career and Family
NBER Working Paper No. 10331, National Bureau of Economic Research, 2004.
Also: http://www.nber.org/papers/w10331.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; College Graduates; Family Formation; Women

The career and family outcomes of college graduate women suggest that the twentieth century contained five distinct cohorts.' Each cohort made choices concerning career and family subject to different constraints. The first cohort, graduating college from the beginning of the twentieth century to the close of World War I, had either family or career.' The second, graduating college from around 1920 to the end of World War I, had job then family.' The third cohort the college graduate mothers of the baby boom' graduated college from around 1946 to the mid-1960s and had family then job.' The fourth cohort graduated college from the late 1960s to the late 1970s. Using the NLS Young Women I demonstrate that 13 to 18 percent achieved career then family' by age 40. The objective of the fifth cohort, graduating from around 1980 to 1990, has been career and family,' and 21 to 28 percent (using the NLS Youth) have realized that goal by age 40. I trace the demographic and labor force experiences of these five cohorts of college graduates and discuss why career and family' outcomes changed over time.
Bibliography Citation
Goldin, Claudia. "The Long Road to the Fast Track: Career and Family." NBER Working Paper No. 10331, National Bureau of Economic Research, 2004.
7. Goldin, Claudia
The Long Road to the Fast Track: Career and Family
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 596,1 (November 2004): 20-35.
Also: http://ann.sagepub.com/content/596/1/20.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; College Graduates; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Family Studies; Labor Market Demographics; Women's Education; Women's Roles

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The career and family outcomes of college graduate women suggest that the twentieth century contained five distinct cohorts. The first cohort, graduating college from 1900 to 1920, had either "family or career." The second, graduating from 1920 to 1945, had "job then family." The third cohort, the college graduate mothers of the baby boom, graduated from 1946 to the mid1960s and had "family then job." Among the fourth cohort, graduating college from the late 1960s to 1980 and whose stated goal was "career then family," 13 to 18 percent achieved both by age forty. The objective of the fifth cohort, graduating from around 1980 to 1990, has been "career and family," and 21 to 28 percent have realized that goal by age forty. The author traces the demographic and labor force experiences of these five cohorts of college graduates and discusses why "career and family" outcomes changed over time. Copyright: 2004 American Academy of Political & Social Science
Bibliography Citation
Goldin, Claudia. "The Long Road to the Fast Track: Career and Family ." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 596,1 (November 2004): 20-35.
8. Goldin, Claudia
Katz, Lawrence F.
The Power of the Pill: Oral Contraceptives and Women's Career and Marriage Decisions
Journal of Political Economy 110,4 (August 2002): 730-770.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/340778
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Age at First Marriage; Career Patterns; College Graduates; Contraception; Employment; Marital Status; Marriage; Women

The fraction of U.S. college graduate women entering professional programs increased substantially just after 1970, and the age at first marriage among all U.S. college graduate women began to soar around the same year. We explore the relationship between these two changes and the diffusion of the birth control pill ("the pill") among young, unmarried college graduate women. Although the pill was approved in 1960 by the Food and Drug Administration and spread rapidly among married women, it did not diffuse among young, single women until the late 1960s after state law changes reduced the age of majority and extended "mature minor" decisions. We present both descriptive time series and formal econometric evidence that exploit cross-state and cross-cohort variation in pill availability to young, unmarried women, establishing the "power of the pill" in lowering the costs of long-duration professional education for women and raising the age at first marriage.
Bibliography Citation
Goldin, Claudia and Lawrence F. Katz. "The Power of the Pill: Oral Contraceptives and Women's Career and Marriage Decisions." Journal of Political Economy 110,4 (August 2002): 730-770.