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Author: Garrison, S. Mason
Resulting in 3 citations.
1. Garrison, S. Mason
Rodgers, Joseph Lee
Casting Doubt on the Causal Link between Intelligence and Age at First Intercourse: A Cross-generational Sibling Comparison Design Using the NLSY
Intelligence 59 (November-December 2016): 139-156.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289616300162
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Age at First Intercourse; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Digit Span (also see Memory for Digit Span - WISC); Intelligence; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Siblings

In this study, we use an intergenerational sibling comparison design to investigate the causal link between intelligence and AFI, using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and the NLSY-Children/Young Adult data. We measured maternal IQ using the AFQT, child IQ using PPVT, PIAT, and Digit Span, and AFI, using respondent self-report. Our analytic method used Kenny's (2001) reciprocal standard dyad model. This model supported analyses treating the data as only between-family data (as in most past studies), and also allowed us to include both between- and within-family comparisons. These analyses included two forms, first a comparison of offspring of mothers in relation to maternal IQ, then a comparison of offspring themselves in relation to offspring IQ.

When we evaluated the relationship between maternal/child intelligence and AFI, using a between-family design, we replicated earlier results; smart teens do appear to delay sex. In the within-family analyses, the relationship between intelligence and AFI vanishes for both maternal intelligence and child intelligence. The finding is robust across gender and age. These results suggest that the cause of the intelligence-AFI link is not intelligence per se, but rather differences between families (parental education, SES, etc.) that correlate with family-level (but not individual-level) intelligence.

Bibliography Citation
Garrison, S. Mason and Joseph Lee Rodgers. "Casting Doubt on the Causal Link between Intelligence and Age at First Intercourse: A Cross-generational Sibling Comparison Design Using the NLSY." Intelligence 59 (November-December 2016): 139-156.
2. Garrison, S. Mason
Rodgers, Joseph Lee
Decomposing the Causes of the Socioeconomic Status-Health Gradient with Biometrical Modeling
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 116,6 (2019): 1030-1047.
Also: https://psycnet.apa.org/fulltext/2018-56705-001.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Kinship; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

The consistent relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and health has been widely covered in the media and scientific journals, which typically argue that physical-health inequalities are caused by material disadvantage directly or indirectly (e.g., chronic environmental-stress, health care resources, etc.). Such explanations do not explain the finely stratified health differences across the entire range of SES. Recent theories have helped address such limitations, but implicate multiple different explanatory pathways. For example, differential epidemiology articles have argued that individual differences are the "fundamental cause" of the gradient (Gottfredson, 2004). Alternatively, variants of allostatic load theory (McEwen & Stellar, 1993), such as the Risky Families model (Repetti, Taylor, & Seeman, 2002) implicate the early home-environment. These theory-driven pathways align with interpretations associated with biometrical models; yet, little research has applied biometrical modeling to understanding the sources of the gradient. Our study presents several innovations and new research findings. First, we use kinship information from a large national family dataset, the NLSY79, whose respondents are approximately representative of United States adolescents in 1979. Second, we present the first biometrical analysis of the relationships between SES and health that uses an overall SES measure. Third, we separate physical and mental health, using excellent measurement of each construct. Fourth, we use a bivariate biometrical model to study overlap between health and SES. Results suggest divergent findings for physical and mental health. Biometrical models indicate a primarily genetic etiology for the link between SES and physical health, and a primarily environmental etiology for the link between SES and mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Bibliography Citation
Garrison, S. Mason and Joseph Lee Rodgers. "Decomposing the Causes of the Socioeconomic Status-Health Gradient with Biometrical Modeling." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 116,6 (2019): 1030-1047.
3. Rodgers, Joseph Lee
Garrison, S. Mason
O'Keefe, Patrick
Bard, David E.
Hunter, Michael D.
Beasley, William H.
van den Oord, Edwin J. C. G.
Responding to a 100-Year-Old Challenge from Fisher: A Biometrical Analysis of Adult Height in the NLSY Data Using Only Cousin Pairs
Behavior Genetics 49,5 (September 2019): 444-454. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10519-019-09967-6
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Behavior Genetics Association
Keyword(s): Family, Extended; Height; Kinship

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In 1918, Fisher suggested that his research team had consistently found inflated cousin correlations. He also commented that because a cousin sample with minimal selection bias was not available the cause of the inflation could not be addressed, leaving this inflation as a challenge still to be solved. In the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (the NLSY79, the NLSY97, and the NLSY-Children/Young Adult datasets), there are thousands of available cousin pairs. Those in the NLSYC/YA are obtained approximately without selection. In this paper, we address Fisher's challenge using these data. Further, we also evaluate the possibility of fitting ACE models using only cousin pairs, including full cousins, half-cousins, and quarter-cousins. To have any chance at success in such a restricted kinship domain requires an available and highly-reliable phenotype; we use adult height in our analysis. Results provide a possible answer to Fisher's challenge, and demonstrate the potential for using cousin pairs in a stand-alone analysis (as well as in combination with other biometrical designs).
Bibliography Citation
Rodgers, Joseph Lee, S. Mason Garrison, Patrick O'Keefe, David E. Bard, Michael D. Hunter, William H. Beasley and Edwin J. C. G. van den Oord. "Responding to a 100-Year-Old Challenge from Fisher: A Biometrical Analysis of Adult Height in the NLSY Data Using Only Cousin Pairs." Behavior Genetics 49,5 (September 2019): 444-454. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10519-019-09967-6.