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Author: Gardner, Margo
Resulting in 2 citations.
1. Gardner, Margo
Martin, Anne
Petitclerc, Amelie
Mothers' Postsecondary Entry during Early Childhood: Short- and Long-term Effects on Children
Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 62 (May-June 2019): 11-25.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0193397318300856
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Academic Development; Education, Adult; Mothers, Education; Parental Influences; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

This study explored the implications of low-income mothers' entry into post-secondary education (PSE) during their children's first five years of life. Using propensity score matching to analyze data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth of 1979, we examined associations between maternal entry into PSE during early childhood and children's short- and long-term (ages 7 and 13, respectively) academic and socioemotional outcomes. We found that mothers' entry into PSE during early childhood had no short-term effects on children. There were, however, long-term positive effects on academic outcomes among children with a coresident father figure, and negative effects on behavior. We also tested explanatory mechanisms and found that maternal PSE entry had positive long-term effects on household income, but income did not mediate effects on long-term child outcomes. Further, maternal PSE had no effects on the home learning environment, mothers' educational expectations for children, maternal presence at home, or family climate.
Bibliography Citation
Gardner, Margo, Anne Martin and Amelie Petitclerc. "Mothers' Postsecondary Entry during Early Childhood: Short- and Long-term Effects on Children." Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 62 (May-June 2019): 11-25.
2. Martin, Anne
Gardner, Margo
College Expectations for All? The Early Adult Outcomes of Low-Achieving Adolescents Who Expect to Earn a Bachelor's Degree
Applied Developmental Science 20,2 (2016): 108-120.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10888691.2015.1080596
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Keyword(s): Achievement; College Degree; Depression (see also CESD); Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Educational Attainment; Income; National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth)

Critics of the college-for-all ethos argue that it encourages low-achieving adolescents to develop unrealistically high expectations. This argument posits that low-achievers waste time and money, and risk disappointment and self-recrimination, pursuing college when they are unlikely to complete it. The present study uses two national data sets--Add Health and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979--to test the proposition that expecting to earn a bachelor's degree (BA) puts low-achieving students at risk of disadvantageous early adult outcomes. Youth reported their educational expectations in high school, and their income-to-needs ratios and depressive symptoms were measured approximately a decade later. Results in both data sets suggest that the expectation of a BA was advantageous for all students, regardless of achievement level. Low-achievers who expected to earn a BA had higher educational attainment, higher income-to-needs ratios, and fewer depressive symptoms than low-achievers who did not expect to earn a BA.
Bibliography Citation
Martin, Anne and Margo Gardner. "College Expectations for All? The Early Adult Outcomes of Low-Achieving Adolescents Who Expect to Earn a Bachelor's Degree." Applied Developmental Science 20,2 (2016): 108-120.