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Author: Francesconi, Marco
Resulting in 5 citations.
1. Francesconi, Marco
A Dynamic Model of Female Labor Supply And Fertility: The Role of Part-Time Work
Ph.D. Dissertation, New York University, 1995
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Economics of Gender; Fertility; Labor Supply; Life Cycle Research; Modeling; Part-Time Work; Schooling; Women's Studies

This dissertation focuses on one aspect of the interaction between female labor supply and fertility: the role of part- time work for married women over the life cycle. Policy questions that are addressed by this research include: Is high persistence in employment a common feature to both part- timers and full-timers? How would the patterns of women's employment and fertility behavior vary with changes in exogenous variables, such as schooling level, or the shape of the earnings profiles; and Is part-time work a viable strategy for women to keep their "hands in" the labor market while raising children? The decisions to stay at home or work part time/full time and to have a child are modeled as the sequential choice of married women solving a stochastic dynamic programming problem. At each discrete period, the forward-looking individual chooses whether to be employed in a part- time/full-time job and whether to have a child based on expected utility maximization. Allowing for uncertainty, decisions made at each period depend on the random shocks to sector-specific (part- time and full-time) wages and the stochastic realization of individual taste for children. The discrete-choice optimization problem takes place over a finite horizon, defined by the length of the fertile cycle of a couple. The decision-making process continues, with the same alternatives, until the end of the fertile cycle. The model is estimated using data from the young women's cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience for survey years 1968-1991. The estimation method involves solving a stochastic dynamic programming problem and embedding the solution in a maximum likelihood procedure. The structural parameters of the model that maximize the likelihood function can be found using a numerical optimization algorithm by simulation of thesolution of the dynamic program and of the underlying choice probabilities. Structural estimation permits to perform policy experiments relating to fertility and labor markets. The estimates allow for predictions of the change in number of years worked later on in life that would arise with exogenous changes in the wife's schooling level, age at marriage, earnings profiles and disutility of work. Effects of such policies on the number of children ever born over the fertile cycle of wives are also obtained. Finally, the quantitative effect of work interruption and opportunity cost of children in terms of lifetime earnings are evaluated.
Bibliography Citation
Francesconi, Marco. A Dynamic Model of Female Labor Supply And Fertility: The Role of Part-Time Work. Ph.D. Dissertation, New York University, 1995.
2. Francesconi, Marco
A Joint Dynamic Model of Fertility and Work of Married Women
Journal of Labor Economics 20,2 (April 2002): 336-380.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/338220
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Fertility; Heterogeneity; Human Capital; Labor Force Participation; Life Cycle Research; Part-Time Work; Transfers, Skill; Wives; Wives, Work

This article estimates a dynamic model of fertility and labor supply of married women drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women, 1968-91. It distinguishes part-time and full-time employment sectors, which differ by pecuniary and nonpecuniary returns and transferability of human capital. The model with unobserved heterogeneity in earning ability and preferences for children fits the data and produces reasonable forecasts of labor force participation in decisions. The estimates unpack important features of the persistence in labor market decisions, intertemporal substitution of leisure over the life cycle, and the effect of work interruptions, due to childbirth, on lifetime utility.
Bibliography Citation
Francesconi, Marco. "A Joint Dynamic Model of Fertility and Work of Married Women." Journal of Labor Economics 20,2 (April 2002): 336-380.
3. Francesconi, Marco
A Joint Dynamic Model of Fertility and Work of Married Women
ISER Working Paper 1998-02, Institute for Social and Economic Research -- University of Essex, February 1998
Also: http://www.iser.essex.ac.uk/publications/working-papers/iser/1998-02
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Institute for Social and Economic Research (ISER) -- University of Essex
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Employment, Part-Time; Fertility; Heterogeneity; Human Capital; Labor Force Participation; Labor Supply; Life Cycle Research; Wives

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper estimates a dynamic structural model of fertility and labor supply of married women using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women, 1968--91. We distinguish two employment sectors, part-time and full-time work, which are found to differ by pecuniary and nonpecuniary returns and transferability of human capital. The model with unobserved heterogeneity in preferences for children and earning ability is shown to fit the data quite well in several ways, and produces reasonable forecasts of future labor force participation decisions. The estimation of the model reveals important features of the observed persistence in labor force states, intertemporal substitution of leisure over the life-cycle, and the effect of work interruptions, due to childbirth, on lifetime utility.
Bibliography Citation
Francesconi, Marco. "A Joint Dynamic Model of Fertility and Work of Married Women." ISER Working Paper 1998-02, Institute for Social and Economic Research -- University of Essex, February 1998.
4. Francesconi, Marco
Labor Force Transitions of Married Women in the United States
ISER Working Paper 1995-23, Institute for Social and Economic Research (ISER) -- University of Essex, December 1995
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Social and Economic Research (ISER) -- University of Essex
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Employment, Part-Time; Fertility; Heterogeneity; Human Capital; Labor Force Participation; Labor Supply; Life Cycle Research; Wives; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper provides an empirical examination of the labour market transitions of married women over time by analysing spells of nonwork, part-time work and full-time work. Using data from the young cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey 1968-1991, it estimates two-way competing risk models for each of the three labor market states. The results document that the determinants of spell lengths and of the reasons for spell terminations vary across labor market states. In addition, both the labor market state of the spell and the labor market state that ends the spell are relevant in shaping the spell length.
Bibliography Citation
Francesconi, Marco. "Labor Force Transitions of Married Women in the United States." ISER Working Paper 1995-23, Institute for Social and Economic Research (ISER) -- University of Essex, December 1995.
5. Francesconi, Marco
Labour Force Transitions among Married Women in the USA
Labour: Review of Labour Economics and Industrial Relations 13,4 (December 1999): 775-796.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1467-9914.00115/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Absenteeism; Demography; Economics of Gender; Employment, Part-Time; Family Structure; Human Capital Theory; Life Cycle Research; Marital Dissolution; Marriage; Occupational Choice; Training, Occupational; Training, On-the-Job; Work Hours

This paper describes the patterns of labour market transitions for a cohort of married women in the USA drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey and observed between 1968 and 1991. The empirical analysis of labour market movements is motivated by human capital theory augmented by demographic and life-cycle considerations. These movements are investigated by estimating competing risk models of labour force spell duration. The results show that the determinants of spell lengths and the determinants of the reasons for spell terminations vary across labour market states. More importantly, both the labour market state in which an individual is observed over her work cycle and the labour market state to which she moves are relevant in shaping her spell length and her tradable characteristics in the labour market.
Bibliography Citation
Francesconi, Marco. "Labour Force Transitions among Married Women in the USA." Labour: Review of Labour Economics and Industrial Relations 13,4 (December 1999): 775-796.