Search Results

Author: Cheng, Tyrone C.
Resulting in 13 citations.
1. Cheng, Tyrone C.
Impact of Family Stability on Children's Delinquency: An Implication for Family Preservation
Journal of Family Social Work 8,1 (2004): 47-60.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1300/J039v08n01_03
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Haworth Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Family Structure; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Composition; Mothers, Behavior; Parenting Skills/Styles; Parents, Behavior

Employing for analysis a set of secondary data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the present study sought signs of theoretical support for this emphasis on family preservation. Specifically,the research examined the effects on childhood delinquency of the following variables: family stability; parenting style; parental supervision; and structural factors. Binomial logistic regression conducted with the data showed that children's likelihood of becoming delinquent drops noticeably in the following circumstances: they are female; they do not live in poverty; the mother is older or is African-American; they receive stringent parental supervision; and/or they spend many years in residence with biological parents and/or step-parents. Some implications for family preservation efforts are suggested by the study results.
Bibliography Citation
Cheng, Tyrone C. "Impact of Family Stability on Children's Delinquency: An Implication for Family Preservation." Journal of Family Social Work 8,1 (2004): 47-60.
2. Cheng, Tyrone C.
Lo, Celia C.
An Analysis of Welfare Participation: Rational-Choice Perspective and Group-Threat Hypothesis
Journal of Social Service Research 40,2 (March 2014): 189-200.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/01488376.2013.865580
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Group
Keyword(s): Benefits, Fringe; Child Care; Child Support; Geocoded Data; Human Capital; Poverty; Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF); Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This secondary data analysis examined the impacts of human capital, child care, fringe benefits, child support, ethnicity, county economy, and county minority-population size on participation in Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) by parents living at or below the federal poverty threshold. Longitudinal records of 1,789 such parents were extracted from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1996–2008). Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression showed that having personal/family problems, being African American, and residing in a county with widespread unemployment were associated positively with TANF receipt. TANF receipt was associated negatively with employment offering a retirement plan, full-time employment, part-time employment, and residence in a county with a large Hispanic population. Future research might explore the relationship between subpopulations’ sizes and states’ TANF policies.
Bibliography Citation
Cheng, Tyrone C. and Celia C. Lo. "An Analysis of Welfare Participation: Rational-Choice Perspective and Group-Threat Hypothesis." Journal of Social Service Research 40,2 (March 2014): 189-200.
3. Cheng, Tyrone C.
Lo, Celia C.
Heavy Alcohol Use, Alcohol and Drug Screening and their Relationship to Mothers' Welfare Participation: A Temporal-ordered Causal Analysis
Journal of Social Policy 39,4 (October 2010): 543-559.
Also: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=7873718&fulltextType=RA&fileId=S004727941000022X
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Child Care; Drug Use; Human Capital; Mothers; Social Environment; Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF); Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This longitudinal study examined the association between heavy alcohol use, alcohol and drug-screening requirements, and social support network variables and mothers' welfare participation in the United States. The study was a secondary data analysis of 3,517 mothers. The sample was extracted from National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data gathered in 1994-2004. Results of logistic regression show welfare participation is not associated with heavy alcohol use or alcohol- and drug-screening requirements, but is associated with a history of reported heavy alcohol use, informal help with childcare, and scant human capital. Results also indicate that alcohol- and drug screening required under TANF may not exclude heavy drinking mothers from TANF participation, and that social support networks do not cancel heavy drinking's association with participation. Policy implications are discussed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Cheng, Tyrone C. and Celia C. Lo. "Heavy Alcohol Use, Alcohol and Drug Screening and their Relationship to Mothers' Welfare Participation: A Temporal-ordered Causal Analysis." Journal of Social Policy 39,4 (October 2010): 543-559.
4. Cheng, Tyrone C.
Lo, Celia C.
Weber, Joe
Racial Disparities in Welfare Dependence and Financial Independence: Links to Human Capital, Local Economy, and State Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Policies
Journal of Social Service Research 43,1 (2017): 69-84.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/01488376.2016.1235070
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Keyword(s): Economics, Regional; Ethnic Differences; Geocoded Data; Human Capital; Local Labor Market; Racial Differences; Racial Equality/Inequality; Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF); Welfare

This secondary data analysis examined racial disparities in associations between welfare dependence/financial independence and human capital, local economy, and state TANF policies. A sample of 6,737 parents was extracted from the public-use data set titled "National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." Results showed that restrictive TANF policies reduced African Americans' likelihood of welfare use and increased likelihood of their financial independence. Multinomial logistic results also showed that, among Hispanics, employment growth in neighboring counties promoted welfare use; whereas among Caucasians such growth promoted financial independence. County poverty increased (a) Caucasians' likelihood of welfare use and (b) Hispanics' likelihood of being working poor; it decreased Caucasians' and African Americans' likelihood of financial independence. Across ethnic groups, education reduced likelihood of welfare use and working poor status; across minority groups, education increased likelihood of financial independence, but among Caucasians it decreased such likelihood. Across ethnic groups, occupational skills hindered dependence and improved odds of employment (regardless of welfare or poverty status). This study concluded the studied TANF policies and job markets were not color-blind. Interventions this study implies include less-restrictive TANF policies, generous support services, TANF staff cultural-competence training, and anti-discrimination rules. Research investigating particular TANF policies' and services' effects by ethnicity might prove useful.
Bibliography Citation
Cheng, Tyrone C., Celia C. Lo and Joe Weber. "Racial Disparities in Welfare Dependence and Financial Independence: Links to Human Capital, Local Economy, and State Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Policies." Journal of Social Service Research 43,1 (2017): 69-84.
5. Cheng, Tyrone C.
McElderry, Cathy Gilbert
How Do Drug Use and Social Relations Affect Welfare Participation?
Social Service Review 81,1 (March 2007): 155-165.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/pss/10.1086/510803
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Drug Use; Marital Status; Religious Influences; Welfare

This study analyzes whether welfare use is longitudinally related to drug use and various measures of social relations. It conducts secondary analyses on data from a sample of 382 women. The data' which stem from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, were gathered between 1984 and 2002. The results suggest that use of marijuana or cocaine does not affect women's welfare participation to a statistically significant degree. Attending religious services and receiving low levels of child support are associated with statistically significant declines in welfare participation. Changes in marital status are linked to increases in welfare participation. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

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Bibliography Citation
Cheng, Tyrone C. and Cathy Gilbert McElderry. "How Do Drug Use and Social Relations Affect Welfare Participation?" Social Service Review 81,1 (March 2007): 155-165.
6. Lo, Celia C.
Ash-Houchen, William
Gerling, Heather M.
Cheng, Tyrone C.
Data Spanning Three Decades Illustrate Racial Disparities in Likelihood of Obesity
Ethnicity and Health published online (4 March 2018): DOI: 10.1080/13557858.2018.1447650.
Also: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13557858.2018.1447650
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Routledge ==> Taylor & Francis (1998)
Keyword(s): Ethnic Differences; Obesity; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Factors

Obesity rates have risen significantly in recent decades, with underprivileged Americans associated with higher rates of the condition. Risks associated with obesity, furthermore, appear unequally distributed across different racial/ethnic groups, according to the literature. The present study examined racial disparities in obesity as a function of socioeconomic factors, using a sample of American adults from a 32-year longitudinal study. We accounted for the time factor as we evaluated obesity's associations with selected socioeconomic factors; we also examined race/ethnicity's moderating role in obesity-socioeconomic status associations over time. We used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to obtain a final sample of 118,749 person-waves for analysis. A subsample of person-waves numbering 65,702 represented data from White respondents; one numbering 31,618 represented data from Black respondents; and one numbering 21,429 represented data from Hispanic respondents. Needing to consider repeated measures of the same variables over time, we chose generalized estimated equations (GEE) for use in the data analysis. Speaking generally, the obtained results suggested that for the two smaller subsamples, minority race/ethnicity could have introduced disadvantages that helped explain links between obesity and race/ethnicity. Results also showed that White-Black disparities in obesity have widened slightly in the past three decades, while White-Hispanic disparities have stabilized during the same time period.
Bibliography Citation
Lo, Celia C., William Ash-Houchen, Heather M. Gerling and Tyrone C. Cheng. "Data Spanning Three Decades Illustrate Racial Disparities in Likelihood of Obesity." Ethnicity and Health published online (4 March 2018): DOI: 10.1080/13557858.2018.1447650.
7. Lo, Celia C.
Ash-Houchen, William
Gerling, Heather M.
Cheng, Tyrone C.
From Childhood Victim to Adult Criminal: Racial/Ethnic Differences in Patterns of Victimization-Offending among Americans in Early Adulthood
Victims and Offenders: An International Journal of Evidence-based Research, Policy, and Practice published online (17 April 2020): DOI: 10.1080/15564886.2020.1750517.
Also: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15564886.2020.1750517
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Group
Keyword(s): Bullying/Victimization; Crime; Ethnic Differences; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A sample of Americans in early adulthood was surveyed to determine (1) whether and how victimization shapes future offending among non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, and Hispanics and to examine (2) whether and how a victimization-offending relationship differs by race/ethnicity. Study data came from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort. Violent victimization was indicated by experiencing bullying or by having seen a person suffer a gunshot; each variable was measured once for childhood and once for adolescence. Criminal offending was indicated by arrest(s) occurring after a respondent's immediate past interview with a researcher, covering 2004-2015, and we used a final sample numbering 58,783 person-waves for our study. Needing to consider repeat measures of the same variables over time, we used generalized estimating equations (GEE) in our data analysis. Generally, the results showed that an experience of violent victimization in childhood increased the likelihood of crime commission in early adulthood, across all racial/ethnic groups. Yet for each distinct group, we also observed a distinct pattern(s) in the victimization-offending relationship. Minimizing offending thus will require exploiting what is known (and what is learned in the future) about race/ethnicity's role in victimization.
Bibliography Citation
Lo, Celia C., William Ash-Houchen, Heather M. Gerling and Tyrone C. Cheng. "From Childhood Victim to Adult Criminal: Racial/Ethnic Differences in Patterns of Victimization-Offending among Americans in Early Adulthood." Victims and Offenders: An International Journal of Evidence-based Research, Policy, and Practice published online (17 April 2020): DOI: 10.1080/15564886.2020.1750517.
8. Lo, Celia C.
Bones, Paul D. C.
Cheng, Tyrone C.
What SES May Explain about Work-related Health Limitations: A Temporal-ordered Model
The Social Science Journal published online (27 February 2020): DOI: 10.1080/03623319.2020.1727244.
Also: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/03623319.2020.1727244
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Keyword(s): Disabled Workers; Health, Chronic Conditions; Injuries, Workplace; Occupations; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

While health's relationship to SES is well established by research, relevant studies in the literature display little uniformity in their conceptualization of SES. The present study sought a temporal-ordered model reflecting longitudinal data and explaining work-related health limitations (health conditions that limit the amount or type of work an individual can perform) in the period 2008-2015. The data came from the 1997 cohort of the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, a panel study originating in the United States. From it we developed a longitudinal record for each of 5,487 respondents, yielding 23,951 person-waves in the final sample. Specifically, we examined how SES impacts work-related health limitations among working young adults as they transition to midlife. Our analyses employed generalized estimating equations (GEE). Our results linked higher likelihood of work-related health limitations to self-employment, to being a laborer (versus a professional/manager), and to working in entertainment/accommodation/food services, educational/health/social services, professional and related services, and other industry (versus construction/agriculture/manufacturing). Overall, our longitudinal study indicated that SES measured relatively early in the lifecourse helps explain work-related health limitations among working young adults, net of lifestyle, and health-care-use variables.
Bibliography Citation
Lo, Celia C., Paul D. C. Bones and Tyrone C. Cheng. "What SES May Explain about Work-related Health Limitations: A Temporal-ordered Model." The Social Science Journal published online (27 February 2020): DOI: 10.1080/03623319.2020.1727244.
9. Lo, Celia C.
Cheng, Tyrone C.
Onset Drinking: How It Is Related Both to Mother's Drinking and Mother-Child Relationships.
Substance Use and Misuse 45,6 (May 2010): 888-900.
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Marcel Dekker
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Alcohol Use; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Mothers, Behavior; Neighborhood Effects; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Risk-Taking

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Employing the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) as a sample of adolescents and their mothers, the present study connected the onset of adolescents' drinking to certain posited risk and protective factors characterizing their families. Via event history analysis and the discrete-time method, the data analysis involved more than 6,331 pair-interview-year units. The results show that both peer influences and mother's daily alcohol consumption enhance the risk that an adolescent aged between 10 and 14 years will begin drinking. At the same time, the quality of a mother's relationship with her child is an important posited protective factor delaying onset drinking.
Bibliography Citation
Lo, Celia C. and Tyrone C. Cheng. "Onset Drinking: How It Is Related Both to Mother's Drinking and Mother-Child Relationships." Substance Use and Misuse 45,6 (May 2010): 888-900.
10. Lo, Celia C.
Cheng, Tyrone C.
Race, Employment Disadvantages, and Heavy Drinking: A Multilevel Model
Presented: New Orleans LA, American Public Health Association Annual Meeting and Expo, November 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Labor Force Participation; Modeling, Multilevel; Racial Differences; Unemployment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Methods: Study data came from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, a prospective study that has followed a representative sample of youth since 1979. We used specifically that data collected 1982-2010 (11 years), because it included heavy-drinking measures; our final sample numbered 10,171 respondents, which generated 75,394 person-waves for data analysis. We let state unemployment rate, number of weeks unemployed, and number of weeks out of the labor force indicate time-varying employment disadvantages. Frequency of heavy drinking was measured as number of times in past month at least 6 drinks were consumed on a single occasion.

Results: Both of our hypotheses were supported by results of mixed-effects linear regression capturing the time-varying nature of the 3 employment disadvantages and of the heavy-drinking outcome. The results show that more-frequent heavy drinking was associated with employment disadvantages, and that disadvantages effect on drinking was stronger for Blacks and Hispanics than for Whites.

Bibliography Citation
Lo, Celia C. and Tyrone C. Cheng. "Race, Employment Disadvantages, and Heavy Drinking: A Multilevel Model." Presented: New Orleans LA, American Public Health Association Annual Meeting and Expo, November 2014.
11. Lo, Celia C.
Cheng, Tyrone C.
Race, Employment Disadvantages, and Heavy Drinking: A Multilevel Model
Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 47,3 (2015): 221-229.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02791072.2015.1047541
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Group
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Employment; Modeling, Multilevel; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We intended to determine (1) whether stress from employment disadvantages led to increased frequency of heavy drinking and (2) whether race had a role in the relationship between such disadvantages and heavy drinking. Study data came from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, a prospective study that has followed a representative sample of youth since 1979. Our study employed data from 11 particular years, during which the survey included items measuring respondents' heavy drinking. Our final sample numbered 10,171 respondents, which generated 75,394 person-waves for data analysis. Both of our hypotheses were supported by results from multilevel mixed-effects linear regression capturing the time-varying nature of three employment disadvantages and of the heavy-drinking outcome. Results show that more-frequent heavy drinking was associated with employment disadvantages, and that disadvantages' effects on drinking were stronger for Blacks and Hispanics than for Whites. That worsening employment disadvantages have worse effects on minority groups' heavy drinking (compared to Whites) probably contributes to the racial health disparities in our nation. Policies and programs addressing such disparities are especially important during economic downturns.
Bibliography Citation
Lo, Celia C. and Tyrone C. Cheng. "Race, Employment Disadvantages, and Heavy Drinking: A Multilevel Model." Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 47,3 (2015): 221-229.
12. Lo, Celia C.
Cheng, Tyrone C.
Simpson, Gaynell M.
Marital Status and Work-related Health Limitation: A Longitudinal Study of Young Adult and Middle-aged Americans
International Journal of Public Health 61,1 (January 2016): 91-100.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00038-015-0695-6
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Marital History/Transitions; Marital Status; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives: The literature establishes clearly the health benefit of marriage. Much less clear from published data is whether work-related health (dis)advantages accruing to marital transitions persist over time or are limited to the short term. Informed by the marital resources and marital crisis perspectives, this study sought links between marital status measured via three approaches and work-related health limitation, exploring these relationships across genders.

Methods: The study employed data from eight recent waves (1996–2010) of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. It applied generalized estimating equations to estimate the impacts, on work-related health limitation, of current marital status; of marital transition 2 years in the past; and of marital transition 8 years in the past.

Results: Our gender-specific results indicated that lower likelihood of work-related health limitation was associated with a married status, a stable married status, and an entry into marriage.

Conclusions: Results are consistent overall with the marital resources perspective. The use of three different approaches to evaluate the relationship of marital status to work-related health limitation may explain the gender-specific results.

Bibliography Citation
Lo, Celia C., Tyrone C. Cheng and Gaynell M. Simpson. "Marital Status and Work-related Health Limitation: A Longitudinal Study of Young Adult and Middle-aged Americans." International Journal of Public Health 61,1 (January 2016): 91-100.
13. Lo, Celia C.
Gerling, Heather M.
Ash-Houchen, William
Cheng, Tyrone C.
Violent Victimization, Stressful Events, and Depression: A Longitudinal Study of Young Adults in the U.S.
Community Mental Health Journal published online (1 July 2020): DOI: 10.1007/s10597-020-00673-w.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10597-020-00673-w
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Bullying/Victimization; Childhood Adversity/Trauma; Depression (see also CESD); Stress

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We surveyed a sample of young adults in the United States to determine (1) whether/how depression is affected by violent victimization during childhood and/or by recent stressful events, as well as (2) whether any observed links between depression and violent victimization and/or stressful events would be uniform across racial/ethnic groups. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort, we measured respondent depression in 5 interview waves dating 2004-2015. Our final sample for analysis numbered 22,549 person-waves. Our study showed that violent victimization in childhood, and recent stressful events, as well, alike exacerbated depression. Moreover, as we analyzed, in turn, the data for each ethnic subsample, we observed differential patterns in depression's associations with victimization. Childhood violent victimization--and also recently encountered stress--has a significant role in the development of depression in adulthood; this role appears to be moderated by race/ethnicity.
Bibliography Citation
Lo, Celia C., Heather M. Gerling, William Ash-Houchen and Tyrone C. Cheng. "Violent Victimization, Stressful Events, and Depression: A Longitudinal Study of Young Adults in the U.S." Community Mental Health Journal published online (1 July 2020): DOI: 10.1007/s10597-020-00673-w.