Standard Errors & Design Effects

National Longitudinal Survey of Youth - 1979 Cohort

Standard Errors & Design Effects

This section contains information on standard errors and design effects for the NLSY79 sample, briefly discussing how to use these two statistical factors. It then includes tables for the first round and for 1996 through the most recent survey. Users interested in the intervening years should review the NLSY79 Technical Sampling Report and Technical Sampling Report Addendum.

Standard errors have been explicitly computed for a number of statistics based upon the entire NLSY79 sample (total, civilian, and military) and a number of sex or race subclasses. Standard errors for other statistics (defined over the entire sample or the subclasses) may be approximated with use of the DEFT factors given in the linked tables. Users who examine the tables will note that CHRR has calculated standard errors for different variables over time.

Approximate Standard Errors: Percentages

The following formula approximates a standard error of a percentage:

where:

  se(P) = the approximate standard error for the percentage of P
  P = the sample percentage (ranging from 0 to 100)
  n = the actual unweighted sample size for the demographic subclass from which the percentage was developed
  DEFT = the appropriate DEFT factor for the particular demographic subclass and sample type from which the percentage was developed

For example, for 1996 the appropriate DEFT factor for estimating a standard error of the percentage of Hispanic or Latino males who were high school dropouts is 1.17744 (see proportion column, row seven of Table 2). Assuming the calculated sample (P) equals 22.19 percent and the unweighted sample estimate size is 946, then:

 

To approximate the standard error of the corresponding projected population total (NP/100), calculate:

where:

  se(NP/100) = the approximate standard error of the projected population total corresponding to a percentage P within a particular demographic subclass and sample type.
  N = the appropriate projected total population base for the particular demographic subclass and sample type.

For example, if the projected total population base for Hispanic or Latino males is 1,030,861, the projected number of civilian Hispanic or Latino male high school dropouts is equal to NP/100 or 1,030,861 * 22.19/100 = 228,748. Thus, the approximate standard error for the total number of Hispanic or Latino male high school dropouts is:

Note that the 1.5907 came from the previous calculation.

Approximate Standard Errors: Means

One can compute approximate standard errors for means as follows:

where:

  se(X) =  the approximate standard error of the mean
  DEFT = the appropriate DEFT factor for the particular demographic subclass and sample type from which the mean was developed
  S2 = the weighted element variance computed for the demographic subclass and sample type from which the mean was developed
  n = the unweighted sample size for the particular mean.

 

For example, for 1979 the DEFT factor for all Hispanics or Latinos is 1.45699 (see means column, row four of Table 1). To approximate the standard error of the mean number of years of education completed by this subclass, where the weighted element variance is .72955 and the sample size is 77, compute:

Design Effects

Because the samples are multi-stage, stratified random samples instead of simple random samples, respondents tend to come in geographic clusters and clusters of persons tend to be alike in a variety of ways for a variety of reasons. (For more information on the sampling and screening process, users are referred to section on Sample Design & Screening Process in this guide.) For example, there may be cultural differences by locality or ecological differences in labor market conditions.  Depending upon the degree of this homogeneity, the conventionally computed standard deviations for the variables, which assume a simple random sample, may be too small.  However, by controlling the rate at which particular strata are sampled, multi-stage, stratified random samples can improve upon simple random samples. The ratio of the correct standard error to the standard error computed under the assumption of a simple random sample is known as the design effect. The technical sampling report for the NLSY79 (Frankel, Williams, and Spencer 1983) and its addendum (CHRR) provide design effects for the various strata.  

A single design effect that can be broadly applied to regression analysis cannot be constructed. To illustrate the approximate size of design effects in regression analysis, a regression of rate of pay for the CPS job in 1979 was estimated using race, sex, marital status, and education as explanatory variables.  Assuming each of the roughly 200 PSUs has the same number of respondents in the sample of 5,724 persons with observed wages, the design effect was calculated to be 1.52; that is, the true standard errors were larger than the naively computed standard errors by a factor of 1.52. When this exercise was repeated for rate of pay on the CPS job in 1986, the design effect had fallen to 1.37.

This reduction reflects the fact that mobility tends to mix the respondents more uniformly through the country, reducing the clustering of the sample. Many of the persons who started out in the same PSU will have moved to different areas and, hence, no longer share unobservable labor market conditions. These shared unobservable labor market conditions are likely responsible for the spatial correlation of the error terms which generate design effects. Thus, another advantage of longitudinal data is the lessening of design effects over time.

By examining the Geocode data for the NLSY79, it is possible to control for some of the environmental factors generating design effects or, if desired, to compute design effects based upon county or metropolitan area clusters which continue to be present. To facilitate study of design effects, scrambled PSU codes from the 1979 survey are available to persons with authorized access to the NLSY79 Geocode data.

The Technical Sampling Report and Technical Sampling Report Addendum also provide information on design effects.

Table 1. Deft Factors for Round 1, 1979

 
Proportions
Means
All Youth 1.72547 1.71282
Males
1.46605
1.56808
Females
1.58029
1.49720
Hispanics or Latinos
1.44342
1.45699
Blacks
1.35303
1.43730
Non-black/non-Hispanics
1.58686
1.56996
Hispanic or Latino Males
1.24321
1.22329
Hispanic or Latino Females
1.40353
1.25095
Black Males
1.19457
1.21378
Black Females
1.24877
1.25243
Non-black/non-Hispanic Males
1.33775
1.45962
Non-black/non-Hispanic Females
1.46889
1.37581

Table 2. Deft Factors for Round 17, 1996

 
Proportions
Means
All Youth 1.35848 1.967232
Males
1.28523
1.667333
Females
1.24536
1.621727
Hispanics or Latinos
1.28275
1.584298
Blacks
1.19735
1.423025
Non-black/non-Hispanics
1.19087
1.713184
Hispanic or Latino Males
1.17744
1.407125
Hispanic or Latino Females
1.13217
1.264911
Black Males
1.16541
1.174734
Black Females
1.13258
1.319091
Non-black/non-Hispanic Males
1.13217
1.456022
Non-black/non-Hispanic Females
1.09545
1.405347

Table 3. Deft Factors for Round 18, 1998

  Proportions Means
All Youth 1.38301 1.96469
Males 1.30836 1.66433
Females 1.28311 1.60000
Hispanics or Latinos 1.21917 1.52807
Blacks 1.19164 1.40890
Non-black/non-Hispanics 1.17937 1.67481
Hispanic or Latino Males 1.19248 1.37659
Hispanic or Latino Females 1.13418 1.25100
Black Males 1.14336 1.12694
Black Females 1.12088 1.31529
Non-black/non-Hispanic Males 1.18195 1.43353
Non-black/non-Hispanic Females 1.11028 1.37133

Table 4. Deft Factors for Round 19, 2000

  Proportions Means
All Youth 1.36423 1.90919
Males 1.26007 1.61864
Females 1.21244 1.58588
Hispanics or Latinos 1.24544 1.48492
Blacks 1.19954 1.42127
Non-black/non-Hispanics 1.20052 1.62327
Hispanic or Latino Males 1.19722 1.31909
Hispanic or Latino Females 1.09240 1.22474
Black Males 1.20277 1.18322
Black Females 1.08282 1.34907
Non-black/non-Hispanic Males 1.12750 1.39462
Non-black/non-Hispanic Females 1.13908 1.34907

Table 5. Deft Factors for Round 20, 2002

  Proportions Means
All Youth 1.34578 1.82757
Males 1.29701 1.58430
Females 1.18181 1.52807
Hispanics or Latinos 1.24097 1.47986
Blacks 1.20692 1.35647
Non-black/non-Hispanics 1.15085 1.56844
Hispanic or Latino Males 1.12450 1.28841
Hispanic or Latino Females 1.09479 1.21861
Black Males 1.20830 1.12694
Black Females 1.18743 1.33604
Non-black/non-Hispanic Males 1.20468 1.37659
Non-black/non-Hispanic Females 1.06829 1.30958

Table 6. Deft Factors for Round 21, 2004

  Proportions Means
All Youth 1.38789 1.83712
Males 1.27377 1.55563
Females 1.23592 1.55081
Hispanics or Latinos 1.30336 1.46969
Blacks 1.14782 1.35831
Non-black/non-Hispanics 1.18163 1.57003
Hispanic or Latino Males 1.27083 1.31149
Hispanic or Latino Females 1.12750 1.19164
Black Males 1.14455 1.10454
Black Females 1.02896 1.37113
Non-black/non-Hispanic Males 1.09373 1.35647
Non-black/non-Hispanic Females 1.08224 1.32098
 
Notes: Users are cautioned that the figures in the proportion column for the last six categories are becoming much less relevant over time. The proportion DEFT column is based on education, training, marriage, and employment variables. Over time categories, such as black females, have only a few respondents in school or training, which causes the DEFT factors to change from survey to survey. Broader categories, like "All Youth," "Males," and "Females" are more accurate to use.

Table 7. Deft Factors for Round 22, 2006

  Proportions Means
All Youth 1.35881 1.81246
Males 1.23472 1.55563
Females 1.25553 1.52315
Hispanics or Latinos 1.13710 1.48661
Blacks 1.15994 1.33041
Non-black/non-Hispanics 1.14455 1.53460
Hispanic or Latino Males 1.15195 1.31719
Hispanic or Latino Females 1.00995 1.23085
Black Males 1.15247 1.09772
Black Females 1.11221 1.35647
Non-black/non-Hispanic Males 1.09636 1.32288
Non-black/non-Hispanic Females 1.08082 1.30192
 
Notes: Users are cautioned that the figures in the proportion column for the last six categories are becoming much less relevant over time. The proportion DEFT column is based on education, training, marriage, and employment variables. Over time categories, such as black females, have only a few respondents in school or training, which causes the DEFT factors to change from survey to survey. Broader categories, like "All Youth," "Males," and "Females" are more accurate to use.

Table 8. Deft Factors for Round 23, 2008

  Proportions Means
All Youth 1.31106 1.83712
Males 1.25599 1.60468
Females 1.22474 1.52315
Hispanics or Latinos 1.13235 1.43353
Blacks 1.16726 1.38203
Non-black/non-Hispanics 1.10855 1.56365
Hispanic or Latino Males 1.14837 1.27083
Hispanic or Latino Females 1.03870 1.18322
Black Males 1.14182 1.12916
Black Females 1.11467 1.34907
Non-black/non-Hispanic Males 1.09030 1.38564
Non-black/non-Hispanic Females 1.09829 1.28841
 
Notes: Users are cautioned that the figures in the proportion column for the last six categories are becoming much less relevant over time. The proportion DEFT column is based on education, training, marriage, and employment variables. Over time categories, such as black females, have only a few respondents in school or training, which causes the DEFT factors to change from survey to survey. Broader categories, like "All Youth," "Males," and "Females" are more accurate to use.

Table 9. Deft Factors for Round 24, 2010

  Proportions Means
All Youth 1.34024 1.80278
Males 1.26293 1.58745
Females 1.23288 1.48829
Hispanics or Latinos 1.19284 1.46116
Blacks 1.21295 1.36015
Non-black/non-Hispanics 1.12639 1.54434
Hispanic or Latino Males 1.19284 1.28452
Hispanic or Latino Females 1.11867 1.20208
Black Males 1.16458 1.10905
Black Females 1.13137 1.34907
Non-black/non-Hispanic Males 1.07877 1.37659
Non-black/non-Hispanic Females 1.03983 1.26886
 
Notes: Users are cautioned that the figures in the proportion column for the last six categories are becoming much less relevant over time. The proportion DEFT column is based on education, training, marriage, and employment variables. Over time categories, such as black females, have only a few respondents in school or training, which causes the DEFT factors to change from survey to survey. Broader categories, like "All Youth," "Males," and "Females" are more accurate to use.

Table 10. Deft Factors for Round 25, 2012

  Proportions Means
All Youth 1.34604 1.77682
Males 1.26681 1.55921
Females 1.24255 1.48757
Hispanics or Latinos 1.21171 1.46095
Blacks 1.19992 1.35592
Non-black/non-Hispanics 1.17951 1.52438
Hispanic or Latino Males 1.16338 1.24213
Hispanic or Latino Females 1.05880 1.20750
Black Males 1.11229 1.16998
Black Females 1.15019 1.32479
Non-black/non-Hispanic Males 1.14991 1.36160
Non-black/non-Hispanic Females 1.12411 1.25952
 
Notes: Users are cautioned that the figures in the proportion column for the last six categories are becoming much less relevant over time. The proportion DEFT column is based on education, training, marriage, and employment variables. Over time categories, such as black females, have only a few respondents in school or training, which causes the DEFT factors to change from survey to survey. Broader categories, like "All Youth," "Males," and "Females" are more accurate to use.

 

Table 11. Standard Errors For Round 1, 1979

 
All
Male
Female
Hispanic or Latino
Black
Non-black, non-Hisp.
Male
H or L
Female
H or L
Male Black
Female Black
Male NB/NH
Female NB/NH
Prop. HS dropout
0.00471
0.00627
0.00545
0.01385
0.00835
0.00527
0.01744
0.01814
0.01232
0.00928
0.00710
0.00619
Prop. attending HS
0.00735
0.00893
0.01006
0.01554
0.01151
0.00904
0.02176
0.02146
0.01460
0.01628
0.01085
0.01233
Prop attending college
0.00597
0.00729
0.00778
0.01037
0.00784
0.00710
0.01230
0.01460
0.00919
0.01119
0.00862
0.00947
Prop. HS graduate
0.00658
0.00776
0.00905
0.01277
0.01033
0.00785
0.01440
0.01957
0.01217
0.01448
0.00926
0.01094
Mean yrs. of school completed
0.02900
0.04000
0.03800
0.08200
0.05700
0.03400
0.10000
0.10500
0.06100
0.07400
0.04600
0.04400
Mean yrs. of school expected
0.04600
0.05900
0.04700
0.10800
0.06400
0.05500
0.12500
0.11700
0.07900
0.07900
0.07100
0.05500
Prop. living in south
0.02286
0.02353
0.02324
0.05641
0.04264
0.02544
0.04973
0.06060
0.04555
0.04084
0.02610
0.02601
Mean #'s of children expected
0.02400
0.02700
0.03200
0.05800
0.04600
0.02800
0.06500
0.07000
0.05600
0.05500
0.03100
0.03700
Prop. married
0.00454
0.00365
0.00686
0.01023
0.00533
0.00570
0.00923
0.01646
0.00440
0.00884
0.00448
0.00855

Table 12. Standard Errors For Round 17, 1996

 
All
Male
Female
Hispanic or Latino
Black
Non-black, non-Hisp.
Male
H or L
Female
H or L
Male Black
Female Black
Male NB/NH
Female NB/NH
Prop. not on active duty
0.001
0.003
0.001
0.005
0.004
0.002
0.009
0.001
0.007
0.003
0.003
0.001
Prop. high school dropouts
0.006
0.008
0.006
0.014
0.009
0.007
0.018
0.016
0.012
0.010
0.009
0.007
Prop. in high school or less
0.000
0.001
0.001
0.002
0.001
0.001
0.002
0.002
0.001
0.002
0.001
0.000
Prop. attending college
0.003
0.003
0.005
0.006
0.005
0.004
0.008
0.009
0.005
0.007
0.004
0.005
Prop. high school graduate
0.006
0.007
0.006
0.015
0.009
0.007
0.018
0.016
0.012
0.010
0.009
0.007
Prop. living in south
0.034
0.034
0.036
0.052
0.046
0.039
0.049
0.059
0.046
0.048
0.038
0.041
Prop. currently married
0.007
0.010
0.010
0.016
0.013
0.008
0.020
0.021
0.018
0.017
0.011
0.011
Prop. employed at present
0.006
0.007
0.009
0.015
0.009
0.007
0.017
0.020
0.014
0.013
0.007
0.010
Prop. unemployed
0.002
0.003
0.003
0.006
0.005
0.003
0.007
0.009
0.008
0.008
0.004
0.004
Prop. in labor force
0.005
0.005
0.008
0.013
0.008
0.006
0.015
0.018
0.012
0.012
0.006
0.010
Prop. government training
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.003
0.002
0.001
0.003
0.003
0.002
0.004
0.001
0.001
Average number of children
0.023
0.027
0.030
0.054
0.035
0.028
0.067
0.065
0.040
0.050
0.033
0.036
Average highest grade completed
0.060
0.074
0.063
0.109
0.065
0.073
0.137
0.119
0.074
0.081
0.091
0.077
Prop. currently enrolled
0.003
0.004
0.005
0.006
0.005
0.004
0.008
0.008
0.005
0.007
0.004
0.006

Table 13. Standard Errors For Round 18, 1998

  All Male Female Hispanic or Latino Black Non-black, non-Hisp. Male
H or L
Female
H or L
Male Black Female Black Male NB/NH Female NB/NH
Prop. not on active duty 0.001 0.003 0.001 0.005 0.003 0.002 0.008 0.002 0.006 0.003 0.003 0.001
Prop. high school dropouts 0.005 0.007 0.006 0.014 0.009 0.006 0.017 0.016 0.012 0.010 0.009 0.007
Prop. in high school or less 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.001
Prop. attending college 0.003 0.003 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.003 0.005 0.008 0.005 0.007 0.004 0.005
Prop. high school graduate 0.005 0.007 0.006 0.014 0.009 0.006 0.017 0.016 0.012 0.010 0.009 0.007
Prop. living in south 0.035 0.034 0.037 0.051 0.045 0.039 0.047 0.058 0.044 0.047 0.039 0.041
Prop. currently married 0.008 0.010 0.011 0.015 0.012 0.008 0.021 0.021 0.018 0.016 0.011 0.010
Prop. employed at present 0.006 0.007 0.009 0.014 0.009 0.007 0.017 0.020 0.012 0.014 0.008 0.011
Prop. unemployed 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.005 0.005 0.002 0.007 0.008 0.007 0.007 0.003 0.003
Prop. in labor force 0.005 0.006 0.009 0.013 0.008 0.006 0.016 0.019 0.011 0.011 0.006 0.011
Prop. government training 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.003 0.004 0.003 0.004 0.001 0.001
Average number of children 0.024 0.028 0.030 0.050 0.036 0.028 0.061 0.065 0.042 0.050 0.033 0.035
Average highest grade completed 0.061 0.077 0.063 0.114 0.066 0.073 0.147 0.121 0.074 0.082 0.09. 0.074
Prop. currently enrolled 0.003 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.005 0.003 0.005 0.008 0.005 0.007 0.004 0.005

Table 14. Standard Errors For Round 19, 2000

  All Male Female Hispanic or Latino Black Non-black, non-Hisp. Male
H or L
Female
H or L
Male Black Female Black Male NB/NH Female NB/NH
Prop. not on active duty 0.001 0.002 0.000 0.003 0.003 0.001 0.006 0.001 0.005 0.002 0.003 0.000
Prop. high school dropouts 0.005 0.007 0.006 0.014 0.009 0.006 0.017 0.015 0.013 0.010 0.009 0.006
Prop. in high school or less 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.000 0.000 0.000
Prop. attending college 0.003 0.003 0.004 0.006 0.004 0.003 0.008 0.009 0.004 0.007 0.003 0.005
Prop. high school graduate 0.005 0.007 0.006 0.014 0.009 0.006 0.017 0.015 0.013 0.010 0.009 0.006
Prop. living in south 0.035 0.034 0.037 0.052 0.043 0.039 0.049 0.059 0.044 0.046 0.038 0.041
Prop. currently married 0.008 0.010 0.010 0.014 0.012 0.008 0.022 0.021 0.018 0.015 0.011 0.010
Prop. employed at present 0.006 0.006 0.009 0.012 0.009 0.007 0.014 0.018 0.014 0.012 0.007 0.010
Prop. government training 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.003 0.002 0.001 0.003 0.004 0.003 0.003 0.001 0.001
Average number of children 0.024 0.029 0.030 0.048 0.037 0.027 0.061 0.064 0.046 0.051 0.034 0.035
Average highest grade completed 0.061 0.076 0.065 0.114 0.069 0.074 0.146 0.118 0.078 0.089 0.092 0.078
Prop. currently enrolled 0.003 0.003 0.004 0.006 0.004 0.003 0.008 0.009 0.005 0.007 0.003 0.005
 
Notes: Users are cautioned that by round 17 cohort changes have made some categories much less relevant.  In particular, the extremely small subsample sizes for "Proportion government training participant" and "Proportion in high school or less" make these categories statistically suspect.  They have been kept in the table for historical continuity.

Table 15. Standard Errors For Round 20, 2002

  All Male Female Hispanic or Latino Black Non-black, non-Hisp. Male
H or L
Female
H or L
Male Black Female Black Male NB/NH Female NB/NH
Prop. not on active duty 0.001 0.002 0.000 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.004 0.000 0.004 0.002 0.003 0.000
Prop. high school dropouts 0.005 0.007 0.005 0.015 0.008 0.006 0.018 0.016 0.011 0.010 0.009 0.006
Prop. in high school or less 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.000
Prop. attending college 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.002 0.005 0.006 0.005 0.006 0.003 0.004
Prop. high school graduate 0.005 0.007 0.005 0.015 0.008 0.006 0.018 0.016 0.011 0.010 0.009 0.006
Prop. living in south 0.035 0.034 0.036 0.053 0.042 0.039 0.050 0.060 0.043 0.045 0.039 0.041
Prop. currently married 0.009 0.010 0.011 0.015 0.013 0.009 0.023 0.022 0.018 0.015 0.011 0.012
Prop. employed at present 0.007 0.007 0.009 0.012 0.011 0.008 0.016 0.015 0.016 0.014 0.008 0.011
Prop. government training 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.004 0.004 0.002 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.002 0.002
Average number of children 0.023 0.028 0.028 0.051 0.037 0.026 0.062 0.067 0.048 0.053 0.034 0.034
Average highest grade completed 0.061 0.077 0.065 0.120 0.066 0.074 0.150 0.125 0.073 0.091 0.094 0.078
Prop. currently enrolled 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.004 0.004 0.002 0.005 0.006 0.005 0.006 0.003 0.004
 
Notes: Users are cautioned that by round 17 cohort changes have made some categories much less relevant. In particular, the extremely small sample sizes for "Proportion government training participant" and "Proportion in high school or less: make these categories statistically suspect. They have been kept in the table for historical continuity.

Table 16. Standard Errors For Round 21, 2004

  All Male Female Hispanic or Latino Black Non-black, non-Hisp. Male
H or L
Female
H or L
Male Black Female Black Male NB/NH Female NB/NH
Prop. not on active duty 0.001 0.002 0.000 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.004 0.001 0.003 0.002 0.002 0.000
Prop. high school dropouts 0.005 0.007 0.005 0.014 0.009 0.006 0.019 0.015 0.013 0.010 0.009 0.006
Prop. in high school or less 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Prop. attending college 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.006 0.003 0.003 0.006 0.009 0.004 0.006 0.002 0.004
Prop. high school graduate 0.005 0.007 0.005 0.014 0.009 0.006 0.019 0.015 0.012 0.010 0.009 0.006
Prop. living in south 0.034 0.034 0.036 0.053 0.044 0.039 0.051 0.059 0.044 0.045 0.039 0.041
Prop. currently married 0.008 0.010 0.011 0.014 0.012 0.008 0.021 0.020 0.018 0.014 0.010 0.012
Prop. employed at present 0.007 0.007 0.010 0.014 0.009 0.008 0.018 0.018 0.012 0.013 0.008 0.012
Prop. government training 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.001 0.003 0.006 0.004 0.003 0.002 0.002
Average number of children 0.024 0.029 0.031 0.053 0.037 0.028 0.069 0.065 0.049 0.051 0.035 0.036
Average highest grade completed 0.061 0.076 0.065 0.115 0.069 0.074 0.149 0.119 0.074 0.096 0.093 0.077
Prop. currently enrolled 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.006 0.003 0.003 0.006 0.009 0.004 0.006 0.002 0.004
 
Notes: Users are cautioned that cohort changes over time have made some categories much less relevant. In particular, the extremely small sample sizes for education related variables such as "Proportion in high school or less," "Proportion government training participant," "Proportion currently enrolled," and "Proportion attending college" make these categories statistically suspect. They have been kept in the table for historical continuity.

Table 17. Standard Errors For Round 22, 2006

  All Male Female Hispanic or Latino Black Non-black, non-Hisp. Male
H or L
Female
H or L
Male Black Female Black Male NB/NH Female NB/NH
Prop. not on active duty 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.003 0.001 0.002 0.000
Prop. high school dropouts 0.005 0.007 0.005 0.014 0.008 0.005 0.018 0.016 0.012 0.009 0.008 0.006
Prop. in high school or less 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Prop. attending college 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.004 0.002 0.003 0.005 0.005 0.006 0.002 0.004
Prop. high school graduate 0.005 0.007 0.005 0.014 0.008 0.005 0.018 0.016 0.012 0.009 0.008 0.006
Prop. living in south 0.034 0.034 0.036 0.052 0.043 0.039 0.048 0.059 0.043 0.046 0.039 0.041
Prop. currently married 0.009 0.010 0.012 0.014 0.012 0.009 0.022 0.018 0.016 0.015 0.011 0.012
Prop. employed at present 0.007 0.007 0.010 0.014 0.010 0.008 0.020 0.017 0.014 0.015 0.008 0.012
Prop. government training 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.001 0.002 0.004 0.004 0.005 0.002 0.002
Average number of children 0.023 0.029 0.030 0.055 0.037 0.027 0.069 0.068 0.048 0.052 0.034 0.035
Average highest grade completed 0.061 0.076 0.065 0.114 0.067 0.074 0.145 0.126 0.072 0.096 0.093 0.078
Prop. currently enrolled 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.004 0.002 0.003 0.005 0.005 0.006 0.002 0.004
 
Notes: Users are cautioned that cohort changes over time have made some categories much less relevant. In particular, the extremely small sample sizes for education related variables such as "Proportion in high school or less," "Proportion government training participant," "Proportion currently enrolled," and "Proportion attending college" make these categories statistically suspect. They have been kept in the table for historical continuity.

Table 18. Standard Errors For Round 23, 2008

  All Male Female Hispanic or Latino Black Non-black, non-Hisp. Male
H or L
Female
H or L
Male Black Female Black Male NB/NH Female NB/NH
Prop. not on active duty 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.000
Prop. high school dropouts 0.005 0.007 0.005 0.013 0.008 0.005 0.018 0.015 0.011 0.009 0.008 0.006
Prop. in high school or less 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001
Prop. attending college 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.003 0.002 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.006 0.002 0.004
Prop. high school graduate 0.005 0.007 0.005 0.013 0.008 0.005 0.018 0.015 0.011 0.009 0.008 0.006
Prop. living in south 0.032 0.031 0.034 0.050 0.043 0.035 0.046 0.058 0.042 0.046 0.034 0.038
Prop. currently married 0.009 0.010 0.011 0.015 0.012 0.008 0.022 0.020 0.017 0.015 0.011 0.012
Prop. employed at present 0.007 0.008 0.010 0.013 0.011 0.008 0.018 0.017 0.015 0.014 0.008 0.012
Prop. government training 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.001 0.003 0.004 0.003 0.004 0.002 0.002
Average number of children 0.023 0.030 0.030 0.054 0.038 0.027 0.068 0.067 0.049 0.052 0.036 0.035
Average highest grade completed 0.062 0.078 0.066 0.109 0.070 0.075 0.141 0.117 0.076 0.094 0.096 0.079
Prop. currently enrolled 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.004 0.002 0.006 0.006 0.005 0.007 0.002 0.004
 
Notes: Users are cautioned that cohort changes over time have made some categories much less relevant. In particular, the extremely small sample sizes for education related variables such as "Proportion in high school or less," "Proportion government training participant," "Proportion currently enrolled," and "Proportion attending college" make these categories statistically suspect. They have been kept in the table for historical continuity.

Table 19. Standard Errors For Round 24, 2010

  All Male Female Hispanic or Latino Black Non-black, non-Hisp. Male
H or L
Female
H or L
Male Black Female Black Male NB/NH Female NB/NH
Prop. not on active duty 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.000
Prop. high school dropouts 0.005 0.007 0.005 0.013 0.008 0.005 0.019 0.015 0.011 0.009 0.008 0.006
Prop. in high school or less 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Prop. attending college 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.004 0.002 0.005 0.004 0.004 0.007 0.002 0.003
Prop. high school graduate 0.005 0.007 0.005 0.013 0.008 0.005 0.019 0.015 0.011 0.009 0.008 0.006
Prop. living in south 0.034 0.033 0.037 0.051 0.042 0.039 0.047 0.058 0.042 0.044 0.038 0.041
Prop. currently married 0.009 0.010 0.011 0.016 0.012 0.008 0.021 0.023 0.017 0.016 0.010 0.012
Prop. employed at present 0.008 0.009 0.011 0.014 0.011 0.009 0.019 0.020 0.017 0.014 0.011 0.013
Prop. government training 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.002 0.004 0.005 0.004 0.004 0.002 0.002
Average number of children 0.024 0.030 0.030 0.057 0.037 0.027 0.072 0.068 0.049 0.053 0.036 0.035
Average highest grade completed 0.062 0.079 0.064 0.112 0.072 0.075 0.140 0.125 0.077 0.098 0.096 0.077
Prop. currently enrolled 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.004 0.002 0.005 0.004 0.004 0.007 0.002 0.004
 

Notes: Users are cautioned that cohort changes over time have made some categories much less relevant. In particular, the extremely small sample sizes for education related variables such as "Proportion in high school or less," "Proportion government training participant," "Proportion currently enrolled," and "Proportion attending college" make these categories statistically suspect. They have been kept in the table for historical continuity.

Table 20. Standard Errors For Round 25, 2012

  All Male Female Hispanic or Latino Black Non-black, non-Hisp. Male
H or L
Female
H or L
Male Black Female Black Male NB/NH Female NB/NH
Prop. not on active duty 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000
Prop. high school dropouts 0.005 0.007 0.005 0.014 0.009 0.005 0.020 0.015 0.012 0.009 0.009 0.006
Prop. in high school or less NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Prop. attending college 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.003 0.003 0.007 0.004 0.008 0.004 0.004
Prop. high school graduate 0.005 0.007 0.005 0.014 0.008 0.006 0.020 0.015 0.012 0.008 0.008 0.006
Prop. living in south 0.034 0.034 0.036 0.055 0.043 0.039 0.055 0.064 0.044 0.046 0.039 0.041
Prop. currently married 0.009 0.011 0.011 0.016 0.012 0.009 0.022 0.022 0.016 0.015 0.012 0.012
Prop. employed at present 0.008 0.010 0.011 0.015 0.011 0.009 0.020 0.018 0.016 0.015 0.010 0.013
Prop. government training 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.004 0.003 0.001 0.004 0.005 0.004 0.005 0.002 0.002
Average number of children 0.024 0.030 0.031 0.058 0.038 0.027 0.068 0.069 0.053 0.052 0.036 0.036
Average highest grade completed 0.062 0.080 0.065 0.114 0.073 0.076 0.139 0.126 0.084 0.098 0.098 0.078
Prop. currently enrolled 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.004 0.005 0.003 0.003 0.007 0.004 0.008 0.004 0.004
 

Notes: Users are cautioned that cohort changes over time have made some categories much less relevant. In particular, the extremely small subsample sizes for education related variables such as "Proportion government training participant," "Proportion currently enrolled" and "Proportion attending college" make these categories statistically suspect.  They have been kept in the table for historical continuity.  In round 25 the variable "Proportion in high school or less" was labeled "NA" since no NLSY79 respondent was in this category.