Employers & Jobs (Work for Pay)

Employers & Jobs (Work for Pay)

 

Child

Work for Pay

Beginning with the 1988 survey, children age 10-14 are asked if they do any work for pay, not counting jobs around the house. The question posed is phrased as follows:

"Not counting jobs around the house, do you ever do any work for pay (including babysitting, paper route, or yard work for neighbors)?"

Children indicate (1) whether they work for pay outside the house, (2) how often they usually work, (3) how many hours they worked per week in the last three months, and (4) the amount they usually earn in a week.  Starting in 1994, they are asked to describe their work duties, choosing from a list of the following seven categories:

  1. Babysitting
  2. Cleaning house; housework
  3. Yard work; mow lawns
  4. Fast food worker
  5. Waiting tables
  6. Clerk, bag person, cashier
  7. Salesperson

In 1998, the clerk and salesperson categories were combined and two more categories added:

  • Newspaper carrier or paper delivery
  • Pet care, plant care, or house care for neighbors who are away

In 2000, the list of duties was expanded to include 11 categories. Children could choose as many that applied from the following:

  1. Babysitting  
  2. Cleaning house; housework  
  3. Yard work; mow lawns  
  4. Fast food worker  
  5. Waiting tables
  6. Clerk, bag person, cashier, sales person  
  7. Newspaper carrier or paper delivery  
  8. Plant care, pet care, or house care for neighbors who are away  
  9. Farm work, field work, agricultural  
  10. Construction, painting, carpentry, wiring  
  11. Office work, typing, filing, answer phones

These work for pay questions appeared initially in the Child Self-Administered Supplement, for self-report by the child, until 2002 when they were moved into the Child Supplement for administration by the interviewer.  Table 1 lists the lead question for the Work for Pay series in each survey year.

Table 1. Lead question for work for pay series by survey year

Year Question Name Question Title
1988 CS884173 CHILD SELF-ADMINISTERED: DO YOU SOMETIMES WORK FOR PAY
1990 CS906561 CHILD SELF-ADMINISTERED: DO YOU SOMETIMES WORK FOR PAY
1992 CS926747 CHILD SELF-ADMIN: DOES CHILD SOMETIMES WORK FOR PAY SUCH AS BABYSITTING
1994 CS942459 CHILD SELF-ADMIN: DOES CHILD SOMETIMES WORK FOR PAY SUCH AS BABYSITTING
1996 CS960747 CHILD SELF-ADMIN: DOES CHILD SOMETIMES WORK FOR PAY SUCH AS BABYSITTING
1998 CS98035 CHILD SELF-ADMIN: DOES CHILD SOMETIMES WORK FOR PAY SUCH AS BABYSITTING
2000 CSAS035 CHILD SELF-ADMIN: DOES CHILD SOMETIMES WORK FOR PAY SUCH AS BABYSITTING
2002-present CS-WORKFORPAY DOES CHILD DO ANY WORK FOR PAY SUCH AS BABYSITTING, YARD WORK

Work after School

Children in the 10-14 age range also report whether they worked after school. From 1988-2004, questions about work for pay after school were included in the Child Self-Administered supplement, for self-report by the child. Starting in 2006, these items were moved to the regular schooling section of the Child Supplement for administration by the interviewer. Table 2 lists the question name and title for the question about work for pay after school by survey year.

Table 2. Question name and title for question about work after school by survey year

Year Question Name Question Title
1988 CS884155 CHILD SELF-ADMINISTERED: WORK FOR PAY AFTER SCHOOL
1990 CS906519 CHILD SELF-ADMINISTERED: WORK FOR PAY AFTER SCHOOL
1992 CS926635 CHILD SELF-ADMIN: CHILD WORKS FOR PAY AFTER SCHOOL
1994 CS942317 CHILD SELF-ADMIN: CHILD WORKS FOR PAY AFTER SCHOOL
1996 CS960637 CHILD SELF-ADMIN: CHILD WORKS FOR PAY AFTER SCHOOL
1998 CS98025D CHILD SELF-ADMIN: CHILD WORKS FOR PAY AFTER SCHOOL
2000-2004 CSAS025D CHILD SELF-ADMIN: CHILD WORKS FOR PAY AFTER SCHOOL
2006-present SCHL-36D SCHOOL: CHILD WORKS FOR PAY AFTER SCHOOL

Work in the Summer

Starting in 1992, children age 10-14 are also asked about work during the summer:

"Think about how you spend your time on a usual day during the summer. During the summer... ...how often do you work for pay?"

From 1992-2000, questions about usual summer activities were included in the Child Self-Administered Supplement, for self-report by the child. Starting in 2006, these items were moved to the regular schooling section of the Child Supplement for administration by the interviewer.

Table 3.  Question name and title for summer work question by survey year

Year Question Name Question Title
1992 CS926723 CHILD SELF-ADMIN: ON USUAL SUMMER DAY CHILD WORKS FOR PAY
1994 CS942435 CHILD SELF-ADMIN: ON USUAL SUMMER DAY CHILD WORKS FOR PAY
1996 CS960733 CHILD SELF-ADMIN: ON USUAL SUMMER DAY CHILD WORKS FOR PAY
1998 CS98031D CHILD SELF-ADMIN: ON USUAL SUMMER DAY CHILD WORKS FOR PAY
2000 CSAS031D CHILD SELF-ADMIN: ON USUAL SUMMER DAY CHILD WORKS FOR PAY
2002 CSAS031D CHILD SELF-ADMIN: ON USUAL SUMMER DAY CHILD WORKS FOR PAY
2004 CSAS031D CHILD SELF-ADMIN: ON USUAL SUMMER DAY CHILD WORKS FOR PAY
2006-present SCHL-40D SCHOOL: ON USUAL SUMMER DAY CHILD WORKS FOR PAY

 

Survey Instruments Work-related questions are found in the Child Self-Administered Supplement and in the Schooling and Asthma, Work, and Religion sections of the Child Supplement.
Areas of Interest CHILD SELF-ADMINISTERED SUPPLEMENT
CHILD SUPPLEMENT

 

Young Adult

Prior to 2000, employment questions asked of Young Adults were in two distinct sections: On Jobs and Employer Supplements. These two sections were very similar to the corresponding sections in the NLS79 survey, but with key differences. For example, the Young Adult On Jobs section did not bring forward employers from past rounds, and the reference date for each survey round was set at January 1 of the year prior to the year of fielding with the reference date for the 1994 fielding being set to January 1, 1993. Additionally, Young Adults were not asked about severance pay, pensions, and job search methods in the Employer Supplements section as their mothers were. They were, however, asked a short series of additional questions in the first employer supplement to assess certain aspects of their primary job. These questions were developed from similar questions asked of their mothers in the original 1979 survey. 

For the 2000 survey, the jobs and employer supplements sections of the Young Adult questionnaire were extensively redesigned and integrated into one looped section. This enabled all questions concerning a particular employer to be asked before any information about another employer was gathered. Interviewers were instructed to begin with the current or most recent job held by the respondent and to proceed backwards in time. If multiple jobs were currently or most recently held, the interviewer was instructed to probe for the job with the greatest number of hours worked per week to determine which job they should enter first. This looped structure has been maintained in subsequent surveys.

Under this changed interview structure, information is collected on all jobs held since the date of the last interview. The greatest detail is asked of the current or most recent primary job, with a smaller set of questions for all preceding jobs. For jobs lasting less than 10 weeks or jobs where the respondent worked less than ten hours a week, respondents are asked only for employer name, start and stop dates, and hours worked. Beginning in 2000, the number of questions asked about jobs, even about the current or most recent job, was greatly curtailed in order to administer this section over the telephone and ease respondent burden. However, the streamlined questions still allow users to develop a clear employment history with critical job characteristics such as industry, occupation and wages. 

Beginning in 2002, added questions have made it easier to report the kinds of jobs some teenagers have, such as baby-sitting or lawn-mowing. At the beginning of the section, Young Adults under age 19 are asked clarifying questions to determine whether they have worked only these kinds of jobs, only more regular jobs, both kinds, or neither. They are then routed to appropriate questions according to their answers.

In 2004, the basic question identifying the usual shift the respondent worked was reintroduced. In 2008, a series of questions about supervisory responsibilities was added. Since 2010, the names and occupational descriptions for current employers at the most recent interview (limited to those from 2008 onward) are carried forward, and YAs are asked a series of follow-up questions on these jobs.

Since 1994 the Young Adult survey has included a short series of questions designed to collect a small amount of employment information from respondents who are not on active duty in the military and who do not report working at any jobs since their employment reference date. For respondents who are not initially skipped out of this series, the survey ascertains whether they have ever had a job for pay lasting two or more weeks. If so, basic details about this job such as tenure, industry, occupation and wages are asked. These data can be found in the YA Last Job Area of Interest.

Another question series identifies the first job a respondent had after leaving high school if this job is not identifiable from other survey questions. Only first-time Young Adult respondents who have left school prior to the date of last interview (usually defined as the mother's date of last interview) are branched into this series. A respondent had to have held a job for at least 2 months and worked at least 20 hours a week in order to be eligible for detailed questions in this series. A limited number of questions pertaining to job characteristics are asked including: start date, stop date, kind of business or industry, kind of work the respondent did, hours per week, and usual earnings. These data can be found in the YA First Job After High School Area of Interest.

Comparison to Other NLS Surveys:  Information on employment histories and job characteristics has been collected for each cohort. For more information, refer to the appropriate cohort's User's Guide.

Survey Instruments Employment-related questions are found in the Young Adult Instrument, Section 7, Jobs & Employers Supplements. Some are also found in Section 9, Last Job Lasting Two Weeks or More, and Section 10, First Significant Job after Leaving School.
Areas of Interest YA Job Information, YA Jobs, YA First Job After High School, YA Last Job, YA Last Significant Job. Note: For the 1994 through 1998 surveys, data from Section 7 are found in YA Jobs, while data from the Employer Supplements are found in the YA Job Information. Since 2000, all data from the integrated looped section are found in YA Job Information, allowing users to follow the question flow from the CAPI questionnaire.