NLSY79 Appendix 25: Attitudinal Scale Scoring

NLSY79 Appendix 25: Attitudinal Scale Scoring

This appendix contains descriptions of scale score computations for the following attitudinal scales:

Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale

Created Variables:  CES-D Scale Scores

Question Name Title Survey Year
CESD_SCORE_20_ITEM 20-ITEM CES-D SCORE (CESD)   1992
CESD_FLAG FLAG – NUMBER OF MISSING ITEMS FOR 20 ITEM CES-D SCORE (CESD)  1992
CESD_SCORE_7_ITEM 7-ITEM CES-D SCORE (CESD) 1992
CESD_SCORE_7_ITEM 7-ITEM CES-D SCORE (CESD) 1994
H40-CESD_SCORE_7_ITEM H40 7-ITEM CES-D SCORE (CESD) XRND
H50-CESD_SCORE_7_ITEM H50 7-ITEM CES-D SCORE (CESD) XRND
H60-CESD_SCORE_7_ITEM H60 7-ITEM CES-D SCORE (CESD) XRND

Scoring computations are described below.

Please note: Item response theory (IRT) parameter estimates, IRT scores, and their standard errors of measurement for the CES-D variables are also available, along with a custom-weighted z-score and percentile rank. See Appendix 27: IRT Item Parameter Estimates, Scores and Standard Errors for a detailed description and discussion of the IRT scoring for these scales.

The CES-D is a self-report scale that measures the current prevalence of depression symptoms. Respondents rate a series of statements regarding how they felt during the week prior to the interview. While the full 20-item battery was included in the 1992 (round 14) survey, a collapsed 7-item battery was administered to respondents in the 1994 (round 16) survey. A slightly expanded 9-item battery was included in the 40+ Health Module and in all years of the 50+ and 60+ Health Modules. All years of the 40+, 50+ and 60+ (initiated in 2018) Health Modules contained the consistent 7-item scale. Table 1 details the questions asked and the survey years and modules in which they were included.

Table 1: CES-D Scale Questions Including Survey Years and Modules Asked

Item Question Question Name
Survey Years
1 I was bothered by things that usually don't bother me. CESD~000000  1992
2 I did not feel like eating; my appetite was poor.

CESD~000001 

H40-CESD~000001

H50CESD~000001

H60CESD~000001

1992, 1994

XRND

XRND

XRND

3 I felt that I couldn't shake off the blues even with help from my family and friends.

CESD~000002

H40-CESD~000002

H50CESD~000002

H60CESD~000002

1992

XRND

XRND

XRND

4 I felt that I was just as good as other people. CESD~000002A 1992
5 I had trouble keeping my mind on what I was doing.

CESD~000003

H40-CESD~000003

H50CESD~000003

H60CESD~000003

1992, 1994

XRND

XRND

XRND

6 I felt depressed.

CESD~000004

H40-CESD~000004

H50CESD~000004

H60CESD~000004

1992, 1994

XRND

XRND

XRND

7 I felt that everything I did was an effort.

CESD~000005 

H40-CESD~000005

H50CESD~000005

H60CESD~000005

1992, 1994

XRND

XRND

XRND

8 I felt hopeful about the future. CESD~000005A 1992
9 I thought my life had been a failure. CESD~00005B 1992
10 I felt fearful. CESD~00005C 1992
11 My sleep was restless.

CESD~000006

H40-CESD~000006

H50CESD~000006

H60CESD~000006

1992, 1994

XRND

XRND

XRND

12 I was happy. CESD~000006A 1992
13 I talked less than usual. CESD~000006B 1992
14 I felt lonely.

CESD~000007

H40-CESD~000007

H50CESD~000007

H60CESD~000007

1992

XRND

XRND

XRND

15 People were unfriendly. CESD~000007A 1992
16 I enjoyed life. CESD~000007B 1992
17 I had crying spells. CESD~000007C 1992
18 I felt sad.

CESD~000008

H40-CESD~000008

H50CESD~000008

H60CESD~000008

1992, 1994

XRND

XRND

XRND

19 I felt that people dislike me. CESD~000008A (1992) 1992
20 I could not get "going."

CESD~000009

H40-CESD~000009

H50CESD~000009

H60CESD~000009

1992, 1994

XRND

XRND

XRND

Possible responses for all 16 negative-symptom questions are as follows:

0 point : Rarely or none of the time (< 1 day)
1 point : Some or a little of the time (1-2 days)
2 points: Occasionally or a moderate amount of the time (3-4 days)
3 points: Most or all of the time (5-7 days).

Response categories for 4 positive-symptom questions asked only in 1992 (CESD~000002A, CESD~000005A, CESD~000006A, CESD~000007B) are reversed.

Scale scores for 1992 (20-item and 7-item), 1994 and the 40+, 50+, and 60+ Health Modules (7-item) CES-D are all computed by summing the points for each answer across either the 20 items or 7 items in the specific survey year or module. The 20-item scale contains both negative- and positive-symptom questions. No positive-symptom questions are included in the 7-item scales.CES-D 20-item scale score: Points for all 20 items were summed. Possible scores range from 0 to 60, with the higher scores indicating the presence of more depressive symptoms. If more than four items are missing, the scale score is coded as missing. A flag that indicates the number of missing items for CES-D 20-item scale is also present.

CESD 7-item scale score: Points are summed across 7 items (CESD~000001, CESD~000003, CESD~000004, CESD~000005, CESD~000006, CESD~000008, CESD~000009). The possible range of scores is 0 to 21. If one item is missing, the scale score is coded as missing.

References

Radloff, Lenore. S. 1977. "The CES-D Scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population." Applied Psychological Measurement, V.1, No. 3 (Summer): 385-401.

Ross, Catherine E., and John Mirowsky. 1989. "Explaining the Social Patterns of Depression: Control and Problem Solving--or Support and Talking?" Journal of Health and Social Behavior, V.30, No. 2 (June): 206-219.

Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale

Created Variables

Question Name

Title

Survey Years

ROSENBERG_ESTEEM_SCORE

SELF-ESTEEM SCORE

1980

ROSENBERG_ESTEEM_SCORE

ROSENBERG SELF-ESTEEM SCORE

1987

ROSENBERG_ESTEEM_SCORE

SELF-ESTEEM SCORE

2006

Scoring computations are described below.

Please note: Item response theory (IRT) parameter estimates, IRT scores, and their standard errors of measurement for the Rosenberg Self-Esteem variables are also available, along with a custom-weighted z-score and percentile rank. See Appendix 27for a detailed description and discussion of the IRT scoring for these scales.

The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale is designed to measure the self-evaluation that an individual makes and customarily maintains. It has been administered to NLSY79 respondents in survey years 1980, 1987 and 2006. Table 2 lists the questions by survey year.

Table 2: Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale Items (1980, 1987, 2006)

Item Question Question Names
1 I am a person of worth.

ROSENBERG_ESTEEM_000001

2 I have a number of good qualities.

ROSENBERG_ESTEEM_000002

3 I am inclined to feel that I am a failure.

ROSENBERG_ESTEEM_000003

4 I am able to do things as well as most other people.

ROSENBERG_ESTEEM_000004

5 I felt I do not have much to be proud of.

ROSENBERG_ESTEEM_000005

6 I take a positive attitude toward myself.

ROSENBERG_ESTEEM_000006

7 I am satisfied with myself.

ROSENBERG_ESTEEM_000007

8 I wish I could have more respect for myself.

ROSENBERG_ESTEEM_000008

9 I certainly feel useless at times.

ROSENBERG_ESTEEM_000009

10 At times I think I am no good at all.

ROSENBERG_ESTEEM_000010

Possible response categories for items 3, 5, 8, 9, 10 are:

  • 0 points: strongly agree
  • 1 point: agree
  • 2 points: disagree
  • 3 points: strongly disagree

Response categories for items 1, 2, 4, 6, 7 are reversed so that a higher score indicates higher self-esteem.

Points for each of the 10 items were summed to create the scale scores. Scores range from 0 to 30 points. If one item is missing, the scale score is coded as missing.

References       

Rosenberg, Morris. 1965. Society and the Adolescent Self-Image. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Pearlin Mastery Scale

Created Variables

Question Name

Title

Survey Year

PEARLIN_SCORE

PEARLIN MASTERY SCORE

1992

Scoring computations are described below.

Please note: Item response theory (IRT) parameter estimates, IRT scores, and their standard errors of measurement for the Pearlin Mastery variables are also available, along with a custom-weighted z-score and percentile rank. See Appendix 27 for a detailed description and discussion of the IRT scoring for this scale.

The Pearlin Mastery scale is designed to measure self-concept and references the extent to which individuals perceive themselves in control of forces that significantly impact their lives. It was administered in NLSY79 survey year 1992 (round 14). Table 3 lists the Pearlin Mastery questions.

Table 3: Pearlin Mastery Questions

Item Question Question Name
1 No way I can solve some of the problems I have. PEARLIN_1
2 Sometimes I feel that I am being pushed around in life. PEARLIN_2
3 I have little control over the things that happen to me. PEARLIN_3
4 I can do just about anything I really set my mind to. PEARLIN_4
5 I often feel helpless in dealing with the problems of life. PEARLIN_5
6 What happens to me in the future mostly depends on me. PEARLIN_6
7 There is little I can do to change many of the important things in my life. PEARLIN_7

Possible response categories for items 4, 6 are:

  • 4 points: strongly agree
  • 3 points: agree
  • 2 points: disagree
  • 1 point: strongly disagree

Response categories for items 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 are reversed so that higher scores represent greater sense of mastery.

Points for each of the 10 items were summed to create the scale scores. Scores can range from 7 to 28 points. If one item is missing, the scale score is coded as missing.

References

Pearlin, Leonard I.; Lieberman, Morton A.; Menaghan, Elizabeth G.; and Joseph T. Mullan. 1981. “The Stress Process.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior, V.22, No. 4 (December): 337-356.

Rotter Locus of Control Scale

Created Variables

ROTTER_SCORE        ROTTER SCALE SCORE 79

ROTTER_SCORE        ROTTER SCALE SCORE 14

ROTTER_SCORE        ROTTER SCALE SCORE 16

ROTTER_SCORE        ROTTER SCALE SCORE 18

Scoring computations are described below.

The Rotter Locus of Control scale is designed to measure the extent to which individuals believe they have control over their lives through self-motivation or self-determination (internal control) as opposed to the extent that the environment (that is, chance, fate, luck) controls their lives (external control). It was included in the 1979, 2014, 2016 and 2018 (for those not interviewed in 2014 and 2016 respectively) NLSY79 surveys. Table 4 lists the question names and reference numbers in each year.

Table 4: The 1979 NLSY79 Rotter – Locus of Control Questions (1979, 2014, 2016, 2018)

Item Question Question Names
1 Pair 1, statement A: Degree of control r has over direction of own life ROTTER-1A
2 Pair 1, statement B: Degree of control r has over direction of own life ROTTER-1B
3 Pair 2, statement A: Importance of planning ROTTER-2A
4 Pair 2, statement B: Importance of planning ROTTER-2B
5 Pair 3, statement A: Importance of luck  ROTTER-3A 
6 Pair 3, statement B: Importance of luck  ROTTER-3B 
7 Pair 4, statement A: Degree of influence over own life ROTTER-4A
8 Pair 4, statement B: Degree of influence over own life ROTTER-4B

Points for each pair of items are as follows:

Internal control statement:

  • 1 point: Much closer
  • 2 points: Slightly closer

External control statement:

  • 3 points: Much closer
  • 4 points: Slightly closer

Points for each of the 4 pairs were summed to create scale scores. Scores range from 4 to 16 points. If one item is missing, the scale score is coded as missing.

References

Rotter, Julian B. 1966. “Generalized Expectancies for Internal Versus External Control of Reinforcement.” Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 80 (1):1-28.

Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS)

Created Variables

Question Name

Title

Survey Year

H60-DIENER_SWLS_SCORE

H60 DIENER SWLS SCORE

XRND

Scoring computations are described below.

The Satisfication with Life Scale (Deiner, Emmons, Larson and Griffin) seeks to measure individual general satisfaction with one's life. It is included in the NLSY79 60+ Health Module which was initiated in the 2018 survey (round 28) and will be asked of respondents as they approach or reach the age of 60. Table 5 lists the Satisfaction with Life questions.

Table 5: Satisfaction with Life Scale Questions

Item

Question

Question Name

1

If I could live my life over, I would change almost nothing.

H60DIENER~000001

2

So far I have gotten the important things I want in life.

H60DIENER~000002

3

I am satisfied with my life.

H60DIENER~000003

4

The conditions of my life are excellent.

H60DIENER~000004

5

In most ways my life is close to my ideal.

H60DIENER~000005

Possible response categories for all items are:

  • 7 points: strongly agree
  • 6 points: agree
  • 5 points: slightly agree
  • 4 points: neither agree nor disagree
  • 3 points: slightly disagree
  • 2 points: disagree
  • 1 point: strongly disagree

Points for each of the 5 items were summed to create the scale scores. Scores can range from 5 to 35 points, with higher scores indicating greater life satisfaction. If one item is missing, the scale score is coded as missing.

References

Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The Satisfaction with Life Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71-75.

General Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7)

Created Variables

Question Name

Title

Survey Year

H60-GAD-7_SCORE

H60 GAD-7 SCORE

XRND

Scoring computations are described below.

The General Anxiety Disorder Scale (developed by Spitzer, Kroenke, Williams and Lowe) asks respondents how often they have experienced certain feelings associated with anxiety in the past two weeks. It is included in the NLSY79 60+ Health Module, which was initiated in the 2018 survey (round 28) and will be asked of respondents as they approach or reach the age of 60. Table 6 lists the Satisfaction with Life questions.

Table 6: General Anxiety Disorder Questions

Item

Question

Question Name

1

Feeling nervous, anxious or on edge

H60GAD-7~000001

2

Not being able to stop or control worrying.

H60GAD-7~000002

3

Worrying too much about different things

H60GAD-7~000003

4

Trouble relaxing

H60GAD-7~000004

5

Being so restless that it is hard to sit still

H60GAD-7~000005

6

Becoming easily annoyed or irritable

H60GAD-7~000006

7

Feeling afraid as if something awful might happen

H60GAD-7~000007

Possible response categories for all items are:

  • 0 points: not at all
  • 1 point: several days
  • 2 points: more than half the days
  • 3 points: nearly every day

Points for each of the 7 items were summed to create the scale scores. Scores can range from 0 to 21 points, with higher scores indicating greater levels of anxiety. If one item is missing, the scale score is coded as missing.

References

Spitzer RL, Kroenke K, Williams JBW, Löwe B. A Brief Measure for Assessing Generalized Anxiety Disorder: The GAD-7. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(10):1092-1097. doi:10.1001/archinte.166.10.1092.