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Source: Population Studies Center, University of Michigan
Resulting in 6 citations.
1. Bailey, Martha J.
Dynarski, Susan M.
Gains and Gaps: Changing Inequality in U.S. College Entry and Completion
Working Paper No. 17633. National Bureau of Economic Research, December 2011. Also Univ. of Michigan, Population Studies Center, PSC Research Report No. 11-746. December 2011.
Also: http://www.nber.org/papers/w17633
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Population Studies Center, University of Michigan
Keyword(s): College Education; College Enrollment; College Graduates; Educational Attainment; Gender Differences; Income Level

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We describe changes over time in inequality in postsecondary education using nearly seventy years of data from the U.S. Census and the 1979 and 1997 National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth. We find growing gaps between children from high- and low-income families in college entry, persistence, and graduation. Rates of college completion increased by only four percentage points for low-income cohorts born around 1980 relative to cohorts born in the early 1960s, but by 18 percentage points for corresponding cohorts who grew up in high-income families. Among men, inequality in educational attainment has increased slightly since the early 1980s. But among women, inequality in educational attainment has risen sharply, driven by increases in the education of the daughters of high-income parents. Sex differences in educational attainment, which were small or nonexistent thirty years ago, are now substantial, with women outpacing men in every demographic group. The female advantage in educational attainment is largest in the top quartile of the income distribution. These sex differences present a formidable challenge to standard explanations for rising inequality in educational attainment.
Bibliography Citation
Bailey, Martha J. and Susan M. Dynarski. "Gains and Gaps: Changing Inequality in U.S. College Entry and Completion." Working Paper No. 17633. National Bureau of Economic Research, December 2011. Also Univ. of Michigan, Population Studies Center, PSC Research Report No. 11-746. December 2011.Also: http://www.nber.org/papers/w17633.
2. Dorius, Cassandra J.
New Approaches to Measuring Multipartnered Fertility Over the Life Course
PSC Research Report No. 12-769 (August 2012), Population Studies Center, University of Michigan, 2012.
Also: http://www.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/abs/7690
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Studies Center, University of Michigan
Keyword(s): Fertility; Fertility, Multiple Partners; Kinship; Life Course; Motherhood; Record Linkage (also see Data Linkage)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Background: Scholarly work on multipartnered fertility (also known as MPF) has relied on samples and measurement techniques that provide only a partial view of this emerging family form. New research is needed which considers adults who have completed their childbearing and have final MPF statuses—allowing for more accurate assessments of prevalence and a better understanding of the variety of pathways adults may take into MPF over the life course.

Objective: This paper explores new data and measurement techniques for assessing multipartnered fertility with the intention of moving focus away from a dichotomous view of having children with more than one person towards an understanding of MPF salience, timing, and duration. Care is taken to address ongoing problems with measuring multipartnered fertility, including identifying unique birth partners, assessing nonresident fathers, and estimating missing cohabitation and marriage dates.

Methods: The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979-2010 women's sample is used for this example. Women were eligible for inclusion if they were alive at the final survey, were consistently assessed by NLS, and missed fewer than five waves of data collection, N= 3,962.

Conclusions: By utilizing the proposed methods researchers will be able to measure MPF in broader and more dimensional ways and provide nationally representative estimates of multipartnered fertility prevalence, number of birth partners, start dates, duration, and the timing of the MPF experience relative to other key events. This data also provides researchers with the opportunity to link MPF histories with women's and children's self-reported wellbeing over time.

Bibliography Citation
Dorius, Cassandra J. "New Approaches to Measuring Multipartnered Fertility Over the Life Course." PSC Research Report No. 12-769 (August 2012), Population Studies Center, University of Michigan, 2012.
3. Geronimus, Arline T.
Korenman, Sanders D.
Maternal Youth or Family Background? Preliminary Findings on the Health Disadvantages of Infants with Teenage Mothers
Research Report No 91-204. Ann Arbor, MI: Population Studies Center, University of Michigan, March 1991.
Also: http://www.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/abs.shtml?ID=33489
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Studies Center, University of Michigan
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Birth Outcomes; Birthweight; Breastfeeding; Childbearing, Adolescent; Health Factors; Household Composition; Mothers, Behavior; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The health disadvantages of infants with teen mothers are well documented, but the causal mechanisms that mediate associations have not been clearly demonstrated. An important consideration is often overlooked: teenage mothers come disproportionately from disadvantaged and minority populations. Observed differences in infant health between teen mothers and women who postpone childbearing may reflect unmeasured socioeconomic background factors, factors that precede the first pregnancy, rather than the effects of maternal age. Data from the NLSY is analyzed and new estimates of the relationship between maternal age and low birth weight, preterm birth indicators of prenatal care utilization, smoking and alcohol use during pregnancy, breastfeeding, and well-child visits are presented. Pre-pregnancy family background differences between teen and older mothers is controlled by comparing sisters who experienced their first births at different ages. Findings suggest that family background characteristics of mothers, factors that precede their childbearing years, can account for many of the health disadvantages of infant with teenage mothers. For both blacks and whites, sisters comparisons suggested a less adverse effect of teen childbearing than suggested by cross-sectional comparisons. For all family and maternal age groups, absolute levels of poor birth outcomes and inadequate well-child visits were higher for blacks; those for unhealthy behaviors and breastfeeding were markedly lower for blacks. These findings suggest that the processes leading to poor birth outcomes for teen mothers are complex. Theoretical, clinical, programmatic and policy implications are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Geronimus, Arline T. and Sanders D. Korenman. Maternal Youth or Family Background? Preliminary Findings on the Health Disadvantages of Infants with Teenage Mothers. Research Report No 91-204. Ann Arbor, MI: Population Studies Center, University of Michigan, March 1991..
4. Geronimus, Arline T.
Korenman, Sanders D.
The Socioeconomic Consequences of Teen Childbearing Reconsidered
Research Report No. 90-190, Ann Arbor MI: Population Studies Center, University of Michigan, 1990.
Also: http://www.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/abs/837
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Studies Center, University of Michigan
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Behavioral Problems; Birthweight; Childbearing, Adolescent; Family Background; Heterogeneity; Household Composition; Siblings; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Teenagers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Teen childbearing is commonly viewed as an irrational behavior that leads to long-term socioeconomic disadvantage for mothers and their children. Cross- sectional studies that estimate relationships between maternal age at first birth and socioeconomic indicators measured later in life form the empirical basis for this view. However, these studies have failed to account adequately for differences in family background among women who time their births at different ages. The authors present new estimates of the consequences of teen childbearing that take into account observed and unobserved family background heterogeneity, comparing sisters who have timed their first births at different ages. Sibling comparisons suggest that previous estimates have overstated the consequences of early fertility.
Bibliography Citation
Geronimus, Arline T. and Sanders D. Korenman. "The Socioeconomic Consequences of Teen Childbearing Reconsidered." Research Report No. 90-190, Ann Arbor MI: Population Studies Center, University of Michigan, 1990.
5. Geronimus, Arline T.
Korenman, Sanders D.
Hillemeier, Marianne M.
Does Young Maternal Age Adversely Affect Child Development? Evidence from Cousin Comparisons
Research Report No 92-256. Ann Arbor, MI: Population Studies Center, University of Michigan, September 1992.
Also: http://www.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/abs.shtml?ID=33540
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Studies Center, University of Michigan
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at First Birth; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Birthweight; Child Development; Child Health; Family Background; Family Influences; Fertility; First Birth; Heterogeneity; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Marital Status; Mothers; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Siblings; Teenagers; Verbal Memory (McCarthy Scale)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) 1979-1988 to estimate relations between maternal age at first birth and measures of early socioemotional and cognitive development of children. We compare cross-sectional estimates to estimates based on comparisons of first cousins to gauge the importance of bias from family background heterogeneity. Cross-sectional estimates suggest moderate adverse consequences of teen motherhood for child development. However, children of teen mothers appear to score no worse on measures of development than first cousins whose mothers had first births after their teen years. The evidence suggests that differences in far background of mothers (factors that precede their childbearing years) account for the low scores on measures of socioemotional and cognitive development seen in young children of teen mothers.
Bibliography Citation
Geronimus, Arline T., Sanders D. Korenman and Marianne M. Hillemeier. Does Young Maternal Age Adversely Affect Child Development? Evidence from Cousin Comparisons. Research Report No 92-256. Ann Arbor, MI: Population Studies Center, University of Michigan, September 1992..
6. Hernandez, Daphne C.
Pressler, Emily
Dorius, Cassandra J.
Mitchell, Katherine Stamps
Family Instability, Gender, and Overweight Status in Young Adulthood
PSC Research Report No. 12-768 (August 2012), Population Studies Center, University of Michigan
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Studies Center, University of Michigan
Keyword(s): Age at Birth; Body Mass Index (BMI); Depression (see also CESD); Family Structure; Gender Differences; Marital History/Transitions; Menarche; Obesity; Parents, Single; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem); Self-Esteem; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Purpose: Experiencing family instability during adulthood has an immediate impact on adult women and men’s weight, with adult women gaining weight and adult men losing weight. It is unclear whether experiencing family instability during childhood has a negative accumulating impact on adult weight, placing females at risk for being overweight in young adulthood. We assessed whether female and male young adults differ in overweight status based on the family instability experienced during childhood.

Methods: Data from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 was used to estimate the odds of being overweight in young adulthood based on family instability experienced during childhood (n = 5139). Family instability was measured by young adults’ exposure to family structure transitions from birth to the age of 18 as defined by mother’s formation and dissolution of romantic unions. Body mass index was directly assessed in young adulthood.

Results: A series of logistic regression models predicted the odds of young adults being overweight or obese. Results indicate that cumulative family structure transitions during childhood increase the odds for young adult females born to married mothers to be overweight by 19%. Family instability, however, does not increase the probability for young adult females nor males born to single mothers to be overweight.

Conclusions: Experiencing family instability has a negative accumulating impact on the weight status of young adult females born to married mothers. Interventions during childhood are important to prevent females who experience multiple family transitions from becoming overweight as young adults.

Bibliography Citation
Hernandez, Daphne C., Emily Pressler, Cassandra J. Dorius and Katherine Stamps Mitchell. "Family Instability, Gender, and Overweight Status in Young Adulthood." PSC Research Report No. 12-768 (August 2012), Population Studies Center, University of Michigan.