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Source: University of Chicago Press
Resulting in 18 citations.
1. Bartel, Ann P.
Borjas, George J.
Wage Growth and Job Turnover: An Empirical Analysis
In: Studies in Labor Markets. S. Rosen, ed. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1981
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Job Satisfaction; Job Tenure; Job Turnover; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Quits; Wage Growth; Work History

The authors focus on documenting how labor turnover systematically affects the rate of growth in wages both across jobs and within the job. The working hypothesis is to interpret wage growth to be the result of human capital investments, both general and specific to the job. The authors interpret wage growth across jobs as being due to changes in the individual's human capital stock resulting from "mobility" investments (e.g. search) and losses of specific training incurred when job separation takes place.
Bibliography Citation
Bartel, Ann P. and George J. Borjas. "Wage Growth and Job Turnover: An Empirical Analysis" In: Studies in Labor Markets. S. Rosen, ed. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1981
2. Blanchflower, David G.
Lynch, Lisa M.
Training at Work: A Comparison of U.S. and British Youths
In: Training in the Private Sector. Lisa Lynch, ed. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1994: pp. 233-260
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Cross-national Analysis; Job Training; NCDS - National Child Development Study (British)

This paper compares and contrasts the structures of postschool training for young non-university graduates in Britain and in the United States. We are able to utilize two unique and broadly comparable longitudinal data series on young people, the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey Youth Cohort (NLSY) and the British National Child Development Survey (NCDS). In addition, we make use of two large individual data files-the 1981 and 1989 Labour Force Surveys to determine how the labor market in the United Kingdom changed during the 1980s. We use these data to examine the early labor market experiences of young people as they make the transition from school to work
Bibliography Citation
Blanchflower, David G. and Lisa M. Lynch. "Training at Work: A Comparison of U.S. and British Youths" In: Training in the Private Sector. Lisa Lynch, ed. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1994: pp. 233-260
3. Cameron, Stephen V.
Heckman, James J.
Determinants of Young Males' Schooling and Training Choices
In: Training in the Private Sector. Lisa Lynch, ed. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1994: pp. 201-231
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Dropouts; GED/General Educational Diploma/General Equivalency Degree/General Educational Development; School Dropouts; Schooling, Post-secondary; Training; Training, Post-School

This paper examines the determinants of high school graduation, GED certification, and postsecondary participation in academic and vocational training programs.
Bibliography Citation
Cameron, Stephen V. and James J. Heckman. "Determinants of Young Males' Schooling and Training Choices" In: Training in the Private Sector. Lisa Lynch, ed. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1994: pp. 201-231
4. Clotfelter, Charles T.
Rothschild, Michael
Studies of Supply and Demand in Higher Education
Papers from an NBER Conference, May 17-19, 1991. Chicago IL: University of Chicago Press, 1993.
Also: http://www.nber.org/books/clot93-1
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): College Enrollment; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Demography; Higher Education; Human Capital Theory

Economists take a serious look at issues in higher education by working on a coordinated research effort and the resulting eight papers published in this volume push the literature forward in significant ways. The first applies basic economic theory to the higher education industry. The second paper's concern is with how youth, in making human capital investment decisions, form their expectations about future earnings. The third paper is on trends in college entry by different demographic groups. The fourth paper presents evidence that the nation's most talented students are increasingly concentrated in our "elite" institutions. The fifth paper uses survey results to examine the stated plans of Harvard seniors with regard to the pursuit of academic careers and fails to find much of a trend over the period 1985-90. The sixth paper considers a potentially important determinant of the future supply of academics--federal support for graduate students and estimates a model of institutional behavior. The seventh paper applies the basic principles of finance in discussing optimal investment strategies for endowment funds. The last chapter examines public choices in public higher education, funding for public colleges and universities, and understanding legislative decisions regarding higher education.
Bibliography Citation
Clotfelter, Charles T. and Michael Rothschild. Studies of Supply and Demand in Higher Education. Papers from an NBER Conference, May 17-19, 1991. Chicago IL: University of Chicago Press, 1993..
5. Cook, Philip J.
Moore, Michael J.
Environment and Persistence in Youthful Drinking Patterns
In: Risky Behavior Among Youths: An Economic Analysis. J. Gruber, ed. Chicago IL: The University of Chicago Press, 2001: pp. 375-437
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Alcohol Use; Substance Use; Taxes

Provides evidence on the influence of the minimum purchase age and the beer excise task on youthful drinking, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth for 1982-85 and 1988-89. The authors find that the estimated effects of excise taxes are sensitive to specification, and they argue that increasing these taxes would reduce the prevalence of binge drinking. The authors present some descriptive statistics on how much American adolescents drink and how their use of alcohol compared with that of their counterparts in other countries. They then analyze the 25-yr trend in drinking and binging prevalence by high school seniors in the US. The similarity between this teen-drinking time profile and the time profile of adult per capita alcohol consumption suggests that the drinking decisions of teens are influence by adult drinking behavior. The authors then discuss the determinants of drinking by young adults, influencing the influence of the alcohol excise tax on alcohol abuse. Results on the persistence of youthful drinking are described with findings that suggest that alcohol availability at age 14 influences the likelihood of binging as an adult. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Cook, Philip J. and Michael J. Moore. "Environment and Persistence in Youthful Drinking Patterns" In: Risky Behavior Among Youths: An Economic Analysis. J. Gruber, ed. Chicago IL: The University of Chicago Press, 2001: pp. 375-437
6. Corcoran, Mary E.
Employment and Wage Consequences of Teenage Women's Nonemployment
In: Youth Labor Market Problem: Its Nature, Causes, and Consequences. R. Freeman, et al., eds. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1982
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Behavior; High School Completion/Graduates; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Teenagers; Unemployment; Wages; Work Attitudes; Work History

The author examines how lack of employment during the teenage years affects future employment and wages. The results indicate considerable persistence in the women's employment behavior, which in part may be due to unmeasured individual differences influencing a woman's propensity to work. Evidence also suggests that early nonemployment is associated with lower future wages. For white women, wage losses associated with prolonged nonwork are greatest when it occurs at the beginning of their careers. For teenage women with less than 14 years of schooling, nonemployment is pervasive and prolonged. It is associated with a lower probability of employment in the short run and with lower wages throughout women's work careers. Thus, early employment behavior has lasting implications for women's future economic career.
Bibliography Citation
Corcoran, Mary E. "Employment and Wage Consequences of Teenage Women's Nonemployment" In: Youth Labor Market Problem: Its Nature, Causes, and Consequences. R. Freeman, et al., eds. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1982
7. Currie, Janet
Stabile, Mark
Mental Health in Childhood and Human Capital
In: The Problems of Disadvantaged Youth: An Economic Perspective. J. Gruber, ed., Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009: 115-148
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Attention/Attention Deficit; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Canada, Canadian; Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY); CESD (Depression Scale); Child Health; Cross-national Analysis; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Depression (see also CESD); Deviance; Family Income; Health, Mental; Job Aspirations; Labor Market Outcomes; Modeling; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Special Education

Bibliography Citation
Currie, Janet and Mark Stabile. "Mental Health in Childhood and Human Capital" In: The Problems of Disadvantaged Youth: An Economic Perspective. J. Gruber, ed., Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009: 115-148
8. Earle, Alison
Heymann, S. Jody
Work, Family, and Social Class
In: How Healthy Are We? A National Study of Well-Being at Midlife. OG. Brim, C.D. Ryff, and R.C. Kessler, eds. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 2004: pp. 485-513.
Also: http://midus.wisc.edu/howhealthyarewe/Chapter17.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Asthma; Child Care; Child Health; Maternal Employment; Welfare

Of particular interest from a policy perspective is Chapter 17, which centers on work, family, and social class. The authors find that the lower the income level, the more likely it is that work is juxtaposed with poor social support, a chronically ill child, or other caretaking responsibility. Low-income jobs do not provide flexibility in sick leave or work hours, resulting in a disproportionate number of children who suffer from unmet health and developmental needs -- and ultimately impacting our nation's health.
Bibliography Citation
Earle, Alison and S. Jody Heymann. "Work, Family, and Social Class" In: How Healthy Are We? A National Study of Well-Being at Midlife. OG. Brim, C.D. Ryff, and R.C. Kessler, eds. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 2004: pp. 485-513.
9. Freeman, Richard B.
Black Economic Progress after 1964: Who Has Gained and Why?
In: Studies in Labor Markets. S. Rosen, ed. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1981
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Affirmative Action; Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Earnings; Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO); Family Background; Racial Differences; Schooling; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

This study used three types of evidence to analyze the nature and cause of black economic progress in post-World War II years: (1) aggregate evidence on the timing and incidence among skill groups of changes in the relative earnings or occupational position of blacks; (2) cross- sectional evidence on the family background determinants of the socioeconomic achievement of blacks; and (3) information from company personnel offices regarding personnel policies toward black (and other) workers affected by civil rights legislation.
Bibliography Citation
Freeman, Richard B. "Black Economic Progress after 1964: Who Has Gained and Why?" In: Studies in Labor Markets. S. Rosen, ed. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1981
10. Freeman, Richard B.
Wise, David A.
Youth Labor Market Problem: Its Nature, Causes, and Consequences
In: Youth Labor Market Problem: Its Nature, Causes, and Consequences. R. Freeman, et al., eds. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1982
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Employment; Teenagers; Vocational Education; Wages; Work Experience

This article elaborates on the findings of the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) on the nature of youth employment, the causes of changes in youth employment rates over time, the causes of individual differences in employment experiences, and the consequences of youth unemployment. The authors find that lack of employment is not a severe problem for the vast majority of youth. Black youths are less likely to be employed than white youths, but once employed the two groups have similar wage rates. Vocational training in school, in contrast to work experience and academic performance, is shown to be unrelated to employment and wages. The authors also find that early employment experience has virtually no effect on later employment after controlling for persistent characteristics of individuals, and that wages earned upon entry into the labor force do not affect wage rates earned a few years later. Not working in earlier years is shown to affect subsequent wages negatively.
Bibliography Citation
Freeman, Richard B. and David A. Wise. "Youth Labor Market Problem: Its Nature, Causes, and Consequences" In: Youth Labor Market Problem: Its Nature, Causes, and Consequences. R. Freeman, et al., eds. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1982
11. Gruber, Jonathan
Risky Behavior Among Youths: An Economic Analysis
Chicago IL: The University of Chicago Press, 2001
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Alcohol Use; Behavioral Problems; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Contraception; Crime; Drug Use; Sexual Activity

The papers in this volume were presented at a conference at the South Seas Plantation in December 1999. Includes bibliographical references and indexes. Introduction : Jonathan Gruber. 1. Risky Behavior among Youths: Some Issues from Behavioral Economics : Ted O'Donoghue and Matthew Rabin. 2. Youth Smoking in the United States: Evidence and Implications : Jonathan Gruber and Jonathan Zinman. 3. Teens and Traffic Safety : Thomas S. Dee and William N. Evans. 4. The Sexual Activity and Birth Control Use of American Teenagers : Phillip B. Levine. 5. Explaining the Rise in Youth Suicide : David M. Cutler, Edward L. Glaeser and Karen E. Norberg. 6. Marijuana and Youth : Rosalie Liccardo Pacula, Michael Grossman, Frank J. Chaloupka, Patrick M. O'Malley, Lloyd D. Johnston, and Matthew C. Farrelly. 7. The Determinants of Juvenile Crime : Steven D. Levitt and Lance Lochner. 8. Environment and Persistence in Youthful Drinking Patterns : Philip J. Cook and Michael J. Moore. 9. Dropout and Enrollment Trends in the Postwar Period: What Went Wrong in the 1970s? : David Card and Thomas Lemieux. 10. Youths at Nutritional Risk: Malnourished or Misnourished? : Jay Bhattacharya and Janet Currie.
Bibliography Citation
Gruber, Jonathan. Risky Behavior Among Youths: An Economic Analysis. Chicago IL: The University of Chicago Press, 2001.
12. Gustafsson, Siv S.
Stafford, Frank P.
Three Regimes of Childcare: the United States, the Netherlands and Sweden
In: Social Protection Versus Economic Flexibility: Is There a Tradeoff? R. Blank, ed. Chicago, IL: NBER, University of Chicago Press, 1993.
Also: http://www.press.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/hfs.cgi/00/12659.ctl
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Behavior; Child Care; Cross-national Analysis; Labor Force Participation; Manpower Planning; Sweden, Swedish; Welfare; Women

Differences in social protection across countries have received far more attention as national economies have become more interconnected through trade and finance.In this paper we study the nature and functioning of childcare policies in Sweden, the Netherlands and the United States. These three countries, despite being at what might be regarded as similar levels of industrialization, have dramatically different regimes under which families secure childcare to facilitate labor market activity of young women. Perceived economic pressures and wage slowdowns in all three countries will undoubtedly shape the debate on the expansion or reduction of the public policy role in these and other areas of social protection. Our thesis is that to understand both the context and features of these specific programs one needs a broader framework to understand the historical and conceptual origins of the welfare concept in each country. The welfare concept, in turn, shapes the system of social protection and its modification in light of emerging economic forces. The basic descriptive differences in the use of public programs and market and informal arrangements which constitute the childcare subsystem of the larger social welfare system in the three countries are presented. We summarize some of the existing research findings on the use of the systems, and utilizing three separate microdata sets, one for each country, we provide some comparative differences in earnings growth and behavioral responses in terms of labor force participation and price sensitivity. Finally, we offer a summary and some conjectures on possible pressures to modify the systems and ways in which the systems might enhance or inhibit a country's position in the world economy. U.S. data used: Young Women from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth as of 1988.
Bibliography Citation
Gustafsson, Siv S. and Frank P. Stafford. "Three Regimes of Childcare: the United States, the Netherlands and Sweden" In: Social Protection Versus Economic Flexibility: Is There a Tradeoff? R. Blank, ed. Chicago, IL: NBER, University of Chicago Press, 1993.
13. Jianakoplos, Nancy Ammon
Menchik, Paul L.
Irvine, F. Owen
Using Panel Data to Assess the Bias in Cross-sectional Inferences of Life-Cycle Changes in the Level and Consumption of Household Wealth
In: Measurement of Saving, Investment, and Wealth. RE Lipsey and HS Tice, eds. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1989
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Assets; Behavior; Data Quality/Consistency; Income; Life Cycle Research; Mortality; Research Methodology; Wealth

This paper compares age-wealth profiles based on four cross-sectional surveys of a panel with time-series age-wealth profiles for each of the fifteen age cohorts from the same panel observed over fifteen years. These comparisons confirm Shorrocks' hypothesis that productivity growth and differential mortality cause substantial distortions in age-wealth profiles based on cross-sectional data. Furthermore, the authors' evaluation of procedures used in previous research to adjust cross- sectional data for the productivity effect indicate that these fixups are unreliable and, in addition, do not correct for the differential mortality effect. Cohort-specific productivity effects and differential mortality are also shown to cause misleading inferences about portfolio reallocations over time based on cross- sectional data. The authors point to the need to adjust panel data for differential attrition before making inferences about individual behavior.
Bibliography Citation
Jianakoplos, Nancy Ammon, Paul L. Menchik and F. Owen Irvine. "Using Panel Data to Assess the Bias in Cross-sectional Inferences of Life-Cycle Changes in the Level and Consumption of Household Wealth" In: Measurement of Saving, Investment, and Wealth. RE Lipsey and HS Tice, eds. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1989
14. Leighton, Linda S.
Mincer, Jacob
Labor Turnover and Youth Unemployment
In: The Youth Labor Market Problem: its Nature, Causes, and Consequences. RB Freeman, et al., eds. Chicago IL: University of Chicago Press, 1982
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Behavior; Black Youth; Human Capital Theory; Labor Turnover; Learning Hypothesis; Modeling; Racial Differences; Unemployment Rate; Unemployment, Youth

Public concern about youth employment problems in the U.S. derives from three facts: (1) the unemployment rate of young people is high in absolute numbers, in relation to adult unemployment, and in comparision with other countries; (2) unemployment rates of black youths are much higher; (3) youth unemployment rates have increased in recent years. Data from the two panels of men in the NLS and Michigan Income dynamics are used in several analyses that attempt to illustrate the structure of unemployment and to address the more permanent problem of high youth unemployment. Why is it so high? Are there criteria by which we can judge that it is too high? Why does it decline with age in a particular fashion? Models used suggest that the search for a determination of the operative mechanism in the human capital theory may not be the appropriate focus. The theory's primary insight relating to turnover is the importance of specific as opposed to general learning. This distinction plays a pivotal role in pure sorting and adaptive behavior models as well as in analyses of actual training processes.
Bibliography Citation
Leighton, Linda S. and Jacob Mincer. "Labor Turnover and Youth Unemployment" In: The Youth Labor Market Problem: its Nature, Causes, and Consequences. RB Freeman, et al., eds. Chicago IL: University of Chicago Press, 1982
15. Levitt, Steven D.
Lochner, Lance John
The Determinants of Juvenile Crime
In: Risky Behavior Among Youths: An Economic Analysis. J. Gruber, ed. Chicago IL: The University of Chicago Press, 2001: pp. 327-373
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Cognitive Ability; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Gender Differences; Home Environment; Income; Poverty

Examines the issues of youth crime. The authors begin by laying out the basic facts and trends relevant to youth crime over the last 30 yrs. They then consider both the social costs of youth crime and the personal risks and costs borne by the criminals themselves. After reviewing the various hypotheses as to the determinants of crime identified in the previous literature, the authors present 3 new sets of estimates that shed light on the issue. The first set of regressions uses that National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to explore the correlates of crime at the individual level. The second analysis focuses on census-tract-level homicide data for the city of Chicago over 30 yrs. The final data set is a state-level panel covering 15 yrs. This analysis is ideal for examining the effect of the criminal-justice system and, to a lesser extent, economic factors. The authors found that such factors as gender, family environment, cognitive ability, income inequality, poverty, and the effectiveness of the criminal justice system influence criminal involvement (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved))
Bibliography Citation
Levitt, Steven D. and Lance John Lochner. "The Determinants of Juvenile Crime" In: Risky Behavior Among Youths: An Economic Analysis. J. Gruber, ed. Chicago IL: The University of Chicago Press, 2001: pp. 327-373
16. Michael, Robert T.
The Five Life Decisions: How Economic Principles and 18 Million Millennials Can Guide Your Thinking
Chicago IL: University of Chicago Press, 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Health Factors; Marital Satisfaction/Quality; NLS Description; Occupational Choice; Parenthood

[The author] brings in data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, a scientific sample of 18 million millennials in the United States that tracks more than a decade of young adult choices and consequences. As the survey's longtime principal investigator and project director, Michael shows that the aggregate decisions can help us understand what might lie ahead along many possible paths--offering readers insights about how their own choices may turn out.

Chapter 1. Making Choices
Chapter 2. More Schooling?
Chapter 3. Deciding on an Occupation
Chapter 4. Decisions about a Partner
Chapter 5. Parenting
Chapter 6. Health Habits
Chapter 7. Wrapping Up

Bibliography Citation
Michael, Robert T. The Five Life Decisions: How Economic Principles and 18 Million Millennials Can Guide Your Thinking. Chicago IL: University of Chicago Press, 2016.
17. Mincer, Jacob
Jovanovic, Boyan
Labor Mobility and Wages
In: Studies in Labor Markets. S. Rosen, ed. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1981
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Income Dynamics/Shocks; Job Tenure; Life Cycle Research; Mobility; Mobility, Interfirm; Mobility, Job; Schooling; Wages; Work Experience; Work History

The authors explore the implications of human capital and search behavior for both the interpersonal and life cycle structure of interfirm labor mobility. The economic hypothesis which motivates the analysis is that individual differences in firm-specific complementarities and related skill acquisitions produce differences in mobility behavior and in the relation between job tenure, wages, and mobility.
Bibliography Citation
Mincer, Jacob and Boyan Jovanovic. "Labor Mobility and Wages" In: Studies in Labor Markets. S. Rosen, ed. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1981
18. Mouw, Ted
Sequences of Early Adult Transitions: How Variable Are They, and Does It Matter?
In: On the Frontier of Adulthood: Theory, Research, and Public Policy. R. Settersten, Jr., F. Furstenberg, Jr., and R. Rumbaut, eds., Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2005
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): CESD (Depression Scale); Depression (see also CESD); Educational Attainment; Family Income; First Birth; Gender Differences; Life Course; Nestleaving; Poverty; Transition, Adulthood; Transition, School to Work

In this chapter in On the Frontier of Adulthood, Mouw uses longitudinal data to follow 5,464 youth interviewed in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) between 1979 and 1998 as they traverse the paths into adulthood. The youth were between ages 16 and 22 in 1979, and were interviewed each year between ages 22 and 35. Mouw examines whether the timing and sequence of these experiences affect later economic and psychological well-being, such as self-reported happiness and depression, family income, poverty, and education.

A longitudinal study examines the sequencing of traditional markers of the transition to adulthood like leaving home, finishing school, entering employment, marrying, and having a child and considers the impact of orderly/disorderly sequences on adult outcomes. Life-history data for persons aged 22 to 35 were taken from the 1979-98 waves of the annual National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The focus was on how many different pathways to adulthood there are, whether the transition has become less structured over time, and how different pathways affect adult outcomes. Monothetic divisive algorithm was used to divide the data into six pathways that explained 41.6% (males) and 41.8% (females) of the variance in life-course transitions. Although these pathways to adulthood definitely correlate with adult outcomes, the effect was substantially smaller than might be expected, and largely dependent on the time of each transition. It is noted that the pathway to adulthood has little impact on poverty, income, happiness, and depression. The policy implications are discussed.

Bibliography Citation
Mouw, Ted. "Sequences of Early Adult Transitions: How Variable Are They, and Does It Matter?" In: On the Frontier of Adulthood: Theory, Research, and Public Policy. R. Settersten, Jr., F. Furstenberg, Jr., and R. Rumbaut, eds., Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2005