Search Results

Source: U.S. Department of Labor
Resulting in 61 citations.
1. Adams, Arvil Van
Goldstein, Harold
Harrell, Adele
Mangum, Stephen L.
The Neglected Source of Human Wealth: A Study of Formal Education and Training During the Adult Years
Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1982
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Education, Adult; Educational Costs; Labor Market Outcomes; Life Cycle Research; Schooling, Post-secondary; Training, Post-School

This study describes the participants and institutions involved in adult education and training. It examines labor market outcomes and explores the economic and social factors influencing participation in these forms of education and training. Those who benefit most from adult education and training are those involved in company- based programs: white-collar, managerial, professional and technical workers; and participants in short and moderate-term programs. Most important is the cumulative nature of knowledge and skill development over the life cycle. Early advantages leading to knowledge and skill development during childhood and adolescence are found to be perpetuated in the adult years with important implications for social stratification.
Bibliography Citation
Adams, Arvil Van, Harold Goldstein, Adele Harrell and Stephen L. Mangum. "The Neglected Source of Human Wealth: A Study of Formal Education and Training During the Adult Years." Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1982.
2. Altonji, Joseph G.
Dunn, Thomas Albert
Family Background and Labor Market Outcomes
NLS Discussion Paper No. 92-13, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington DC, June 1990.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/ore/abstract/nl/nl900030.htm
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Children; Educational Returns; Family Influences; Gender Differences; Labor Market Outcomes; Pairs (also see Siblings); Parental Influences; Racial Differences; Siblings

Also: Final Report, U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1990.

This report is a compilation of the following three papers abstracted elsewhere in this bibliography: (1) "Relationships Among the Family Incomes and Labor Market Outcomes of Relatives"; (2) "An Intergenerational Model of Wages, Hours and Earnings"; and (3) "Effects of Parental Characteristics on the Returns to Education and Labor Market Experience."

Bibliography Citation
Altonji, Joseph G. and Thomas Albert Dunn. "Family Background and Labor Market Outcomes." NLS Discussion Paper No. 92-13, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington DC, June 1990.
3. Andrisani, Paul J.
The Establishment of Stable and Successful Employment Careers: The Role of Work Attitudes and Labor Market Knowledge
In: Conference Report on Youth Unemployment: Its Measurement and Meaning. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Labor, U.S. GPO, 1978.
Also: http://www.cceerc.net/ICPSR/biblio/series/129/resources/1852?sortBy=1&paging.startRow=1&author=Andrisani%2C+Paul+J.
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Work Attitudes; Work Experience; Work Knowledge

This study analyzes the work attitudes and labor market knowledge of youths, considering how they differ from their older counterparts and how they affect and are affected by successes and failures upon entry into the labor force. The findings show the importance of work attitudes and adequate labor market knowledge for the establishment of stable and successful employment careers. The data indicate that there exists inadequate labor market knowledge among youth-especially blacks, females, poor white youth; however, there is little justification that the attitudes toward work of youths are inadequate, immature, anti-work, or the cause for their unique labor problems. In addition, youth's work attitudes were dissimilar from those of older workers; they reflected considerable ambition in planning career goals, and they were shown to be influenced in an anti-work direction by unsatisfactory labor market experiences early in work careers.
Bibliography Citation
Andrisani, Paul J. "The Establishment of Stable and Successful Employment Careers: The Role of Work Attitudes and Labor Market Knowledge" In: Conference Report on Youth Unemployment: Its Measurement and Meaning. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Labor, U.S. GPO, 1978.
4. Ashenfelter, Orley
Oaxaca, Ronald L.
Secretary of Labor's Invitational Conference on the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Men and Young Women
Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1979
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Earnings; Employment; Migration; Mobility, Job

The report summarizes the purpose and results of a conference on the NLS of Young Men and Young Women. The conference was held on March 29-30, l979 in Tucson, Arizona. Six scholarly papers were prepared for the conference. These papers represented studies which illustrated how the NLS youth sample could be used to shed light on important youth labor market phenomenon.
Bibliography Citation
Ashenfelter, Orley and Ronald L. Oaxaca. "Secretary of Labor's Invitational Conference on the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Men and Young Women." Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1979.
5. Becker, Brian E.
Krzystofiak, Frank J.
Perceived Discrimination, Work Attitudes, and Labor Market Experience
Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1980
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Discrimination; Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Employment; Labor Force Participation; Labor Market Outcomes; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Wages; Work Attitudes

The study examines the process by which labor market discrimination influences work attitudes and in turn labor market outcomes. Using the NLS of Young Men, a two equation model is developed to estimate both the direct effect and perceived discrimination on labor market experience as well as the indirect effect on such experience via the influence of these perceptions on work attitudes (locus of control). The results suggest no direct effects of perceived discrimination on wages, employment levels or employment stability. Young blacks who perceived themselves as victims of racial discrimination, however, developed significantly more deleterious work attitudes and as a result earned slightly (3%) lower wages.
Bibliography Citation
Becker, Brian E. and Frank J. Krzystofiak. "Perceived Discrimination, Work Attitudes, and Labor Market Experience." Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1980.
6. Blau, David M.
Child Outcomes in the NLSY79: An Assessment and Suggestions for Redesign
Presented: Washington DC, NLSY79 Redesign Conference, September 1998
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Child Development; Data Quality/Consistency; Life Course

This paper evaluates the contributions of the NLSY79 to research on the determinants of child outcomes and suggests improvements that could enhance its value as a research tool.
Bibliography Citation
Blau, David M. "Child Outcomes in the NLSY79: An Assessment and Suggestions for Redesign." Presented: Washington DC, NLSY79 Redesign Conference, September 1998.
7. Blau, Francine D.
Youth Participation Rates and the Availability of Jobs
In: Supplementary Papers, Conference on Youth Unemployment: Its Measurement and Meaning. N.B. Davidson, ed. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration, October 1978: pp. 56-76
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Behavior; Discouraged Workers; Local Area Unemployment; Unemployment; Work History

This paper uses data from the NLS of Young Men and Women to examine the relationship between local area unemployment rates and the labor supply behavior of youth aged eighteen to twenty-four in l970. The net effect of the unemployment rate on the probability of labor force participation in l970 is found to be negative. Net discouragement appears to be greater among young women than among young men, and to be larger among blacks than among whites. Since local labor market unemployment rates tend to be correlated over time, the coefficient on the unemployment rate variable in the participation regressions was held to approximate a long-term supply response to persistent inter-city differences. The net impact of the unemployment rate on labor supply adjustments over a one-year period is also examined. No significant effect of unemployment rate on the probability of labor force entry or exit between l970 and l971 is obtained. These findings suggest that net effect of the ups and downs of the business cycle on the labor force participation of youth would not be very great. However, prolonged periods of high unemployment could produce net discouragement for this age group. At the level of the local labor market, our results suggest the efficacy and importance of policies designed to stimulate aggregate demand in depressed labor markets.
Bibliography Citation
Blau, Francine D. "Youth Participation Rates and the Availability of Jobs" In: Supplementary Papers, Conference on Youth Unemployment: Its Measurement and Meaning. N.B. Davidson, ed. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration, October 1978: pp. 56-76
8. Bureau of Labor Statistics
Education and Training of American Workers
Working Paper, Prepared for the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development National Experts Group on Training Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Wasington DC, 1990
Cohort(s): NLS General
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Bureau of Labor Statistics; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Earnings; Education; Gender Differences; Longitudinal Surveys; NLS Description; Racial Differences; Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP); Training; Vocational Education

This paper describes briefly the following surveys that have been conducted to determine the amount and thrust of employee training in the United States: (1) household surveys including the Current Population Survey, the NLS, the Survey of Income and Program Participation, and the University of Michigan Time Use study; and employer surveys, including the 1974 survey by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the National Institute of Education and National Center for Research in Vocational Education surveys, the Bureau of Labor Statistics Employee Benefit Survey, state and local surveys, the Battelle Human Affairs Research Center survey, and apprenticeship surveys. The paper also describes ways to determine costs and effects of training. The surveys provide the following information: (1) the likelihood of training declines with age, but increases with education; (2) men and whites are more likely to receive training than women and blacks; (3) the likelihood of training increases with firm size; (4) most training is informal; and (5) training increases future earnings of workers, but which kinds of training do so and how well training pays is uncertain. Information not provided by the surveys, however, includes the definition of training, the total amount of training received by workers, the cost of training, and changes in training over time. The report proposes that these questions be answered by a multistage survey. [ERIC ED330892]
Bibliography Citation
Bureau of Labor Statistics. "Education and Training of American Workers." Working Paper, Prepared for the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development National Experts Group on Training Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Wasington DC, 1990.
9. Bureau of Labor Statistics
Learning to Do the Job
Work and Family, Report 903. Washington DC: US Department of Labor, March 1996.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/pdf/nlswk001.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Aptitude; Educational Attainment; Job Analysis; Job Knowledge; Job Skills; Skilled Workers; Skills; Training, Employee

This issue of Work and Family examines the acquisition of skills by young adults at the start of a job and as a response to changes at the workplace. The analysis is based primarily on a set of questions asked of 28- to 30 year-old workers in 1993. Significant findings are included...Investments in job training are commonly thought to increase workers' productivity and wages. Yet research into the effects of training, particularly training provided by employers, has been limited by a lack of comprehensive and representative data on training investments. While there is a growing set of data which contains information concerning formal employer-provided training, much less is known about more informal ways in which workers learn new tasks...In 1993, respondents for the first time were asked about more informal forms of on-the-job learning, such as receiving instruction from supervisors or observing coworkers. In the 1993 survey, working respondents were asked about two forms of learning: the acquisition of skills when they began their job and learning new tasks related to changes at work within the prior 12 months. This report presents tabulations generated from the responses to these two sets of questions.
Bibliography Citation
Bureau of Labor Statistics. Learning to Do the Job. Work and Family, Report 903. Washington DC: US Department of Labor, March 1996..
10. Bureau of Labor Statistics
What Researchers Have Learned from the National Longitudinal Surveys About Youth Unemployment
Report No 828. Washington, DC: US Department of Labor, August 1992.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/pdf/nlssp002.pdf
Cohort(s): NLS General
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Job Requirements; Longitudinal Surveys; Minorities, Youth; Unemployment; Unemployment Duration; Unemployment, Youth

Unemployment rates of youth typically exceed those of other workers. This report summarizes some of the research that uses the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience (NLS), with special reference to the employment problems of minority and disadvantaged youth. These surveys are a collection of five surveys: Young Men who were 14-24 in 1966, Older Men who were 45-59 in 1966, Mature Women who were 30-44 in 1967, Young Women who were 14-24 in 1968, and Youth who were 14-21 in 1979, which includes both sexes. Because of the large samples of youth and because NLS respondents have been surveyed once every year or two over an extended period, these data are well-suited to examining the long-run consequences of youth labor market experiences. In particular, the 1979 NLS Youth Cohort (NLSY) contains weekly work histories detailing each respondent's labor force status, hours worked, and employment at more than one job, permitting analyses that are not possible with other data series. The sections of this report give an overview of the general characteristics of unemployed youths; discuss issues relating to the duration and incidence of joblessness among youth; survey the literature on the consequences of youth joblessness; discuss longer term consequences of youth unemployment and job search strategies of the young. a brief conclusion is provided that summarizes: NLS research has shown that blacks and whites appear to search for jobs in similar ways, both with regard to the search methods used and with regards to reservation wages for accepting a job offer. However, whites have more success in generating offers. This review has attempted to show the contribution that research using the NLS has made in understanding the problem of youth unemployment.
Bibliography Citation
Bureau of Labor Statistics. What Researchers Have Learned from the National Longitudinal Surveys About Youth Unemployment. Report No 828. Washington, DC: US Department of Labor, August 1992..
11. Butler, Richard J.
Ehrenberg, Ronald G.
Data from the Consortium for Longitudinal Studies: Its Potential Use in Analyzing the Educational and Labor Force Outcomes of Disadvantaged Youth
Final Report, Assistant Secretary for Policy, Evaluation, and Research, U.S. Department of Labor, 1980
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Assets; Employment; Family Background; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Longitudinal Surveys; Research Methodology

The report summarizes the potential usefulness of a rather unique data base collected by the Consortium for Longitudinal Studies (CLS) based at Cornell University in analyzing labor market outcomes of young people. This data base compares favorably to the National Longitudinal Surveys data in terms of breadth of information on current labor market status, family background, and health and attitudinal (both with respect to school and work) measures. It lacks, however, detailed information on family assets, labor market histories, and crucially, on participation in government-sponsored programs after the onset of formal schooling. Its singular contribution results from its being a longitudinal study of disadvantaged youth, many of whom were enrolled in pre-school intervention programs that began before their formal schooling performance was recorded. Unfortunately, the independent beginnings of the CLS data bases' component projects lead to what is undoubtedly its chief defect--the lack of a cohesive sampling design.
Bibliography Citation
Butler, Richard J. and Ronald G. Ehrenberg. "Data from the Consortium for Longitudinal Studies: Its Potential Use in Analyzing the Educational and Labor Force Outcomes of Disadvantaged Youth." Final Report, Assistant Secretary for Policy, Evaluation, and Research, U.S. Department of Labor, 1980.
12. Carliner, Geoffrey
Social Security and the Labor Supply of Older Men
Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1980
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Earnings; Part-Time Work; Pensions; Retirement; Social Security

The Social Security earnings test currently reduces benefits by fifty cents for each dollar earned above a certain exempt amount. Increasing the exempt amount or eliminating the earnings test altogether might: (1) encourage men who retire completely under current rules to work part time; (2) encourage pensioners who currently work part time to work more hours; and (3) encourage workers who currently receive no benefits even though they are eligible to become pensioners and work fewer hours. Regression results using data from the NLS of Older Men suggest retirement behavior. The estimated effects of wage rates and benefit levels also suggest that eliminating the earnings test will not increase labor supply but will increase the net cost to the government of Social Security pensions.
Bibliography Citation
Carliner, Geoffrey. "Social Security and the Labor Supply of Older Men." Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1980.
13. Carr, Timothy J.
A Comparative Study of the Duration of Unemployment of Young and Middle-Aged Men
Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1979
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Behavior; Job Search; Unemployment; Unemployment Compensation; Wages, Reservation

A number of hypotheses concerning the job search behavior of unemployed workers are tested in this study. The empirical literature on unemployment is reviewed and data from the NLS of Young Men (aged 14 to 24 in l966) and Older Men (aged 45-59) are analyzed. Variables examined include: duration of search, return to search, wage offer level, probability of receiving an offer, search cost, and length of horizon. The unemployment duration model and the acceptance wage model are presented and discussed in terms of these variables. Transition rate (i.e., the probability of moving from unemployed to employed status) is analyzed. Findings are summarized both from a policy perspective and as an indication of the efficacy of the hypotheses tested, and directions for future research are suggested.
Bibliography Citation
Carr, Timothy J. "A Comparative Study of the Duration of Unemployment of Young and Middle-Aged Men." Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1979.
14. Cherlin, Andrew J.
Employment, Income, Marriage, and Divorce in Two Cohorts of Women
Final Report to Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1978
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Children; Divorce; Earnings; Educational Attainment; Employment; Marital Dissolution; Marriage; Work Attitudes

Data are analyzed from the NLS of Young Women and Mature Women on the following topics: (1) the postponement of marriage among women in their twenties; (2) the determinants of divorce and separation among young and mature married women; (3) cohabitation and subsequent marriage; and (4) the reliability and validity of retrospective measures of family structure. A number of effects of employment, earnings, work attitudes, educational attainment, and other social demographic and economic characteristics are reported. During the l969 to l975 period, the proportion of young women wanting to be housewives at age 35--as opposed to wanting to work outside the home--fell sharply, lowering the probability of marriage for these women. Employment and income are more important determinants of divorce and separation for married women in their thirties and forties than for married women in their twenties. Single, cohabitating women marry at about the same rate as do single, non-cohabitating women.
Bibliography Citation
Cherlin, Andrew J. "Employment, Income, Marriage, and Divorce in Two Cohorts of Women." Final Report to Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1978.
15. Chirikos, Thomas N.
Nestel, Gilbert
Sex and Race Differentials in the Economic Consequences of Poor Health
Research Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1982
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Earnings; Employment; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Work History

The effect of poor health on earnings is explored with data collected from reinterviews of Older Men and Mature Women in 1976 and 1977. Additional controls for race were introduced to allow for white and black men and women comparisons. Two health indicators were calculated: an impairment index of functional limitations and a health history measure that summarized the respondent's health in the prior ten-year period. Wage and hours equations were estimated by multivariate techniques (OLS and TOBIT) with the wage equations containing an additional term to correct for sample selectivity bias. The findings show that poor health affects men and women of each race differently. Blacks were generally less likely than whites to sustain labor market activity and earnings when faced with a health problem. Unhealthy whites, however, also incurred substantial earnings losses. Differences in responses were also found between men and women of each race.
Bibliography Citation
Chirikos, Thomas N. and Gilbert Nestel. "Sex and Race Differentials in the Economic Consequences of Poor Health." Research Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1982.
16. Cotterman, Robert
Estimation of a Dynamic Model of Labor Supply: The Case of Older Males
Final Report, Assistant Secretary for Policy, Evaluation, and Research, U.S. Department of Labor, 1977.
Also: http://books.google.com/books/about/Estimation_of_a_dynamic_model_of_labor_s.html?id=UKcOHQAACAAJ
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Assets; Employment; Retirement; Wages

The first chapter of this report on the employment of older males provides a theoretical analysis of a dynamic labor supply model. A number of comparative dynamics results are presented, with particular emphasis placed on the labor supply effects of changes in the initial stock of assets, the level of wage rates, the rate of wage growth, and the length of the horizon. A point of special interest is the possibility that different rates of wage growth may explain a portion of differences in labor supply and retirement behavior among older men. The second chapter provides an econometric framework for estimating a dynamic labor supply model using panel data. The third chapter presents empirical results estimated on a subsample of Older Men drawn from the NLS. Included in these results are estimates of the parameters determining participation probabilities, weekly hours of work, and hourly wage rates.
Bibliography Citation
Cotterman, Robert. "Estimation of a Dynamic Model of Labor Supply: The Case of Older Males." Final Report, Assistant Secretary for Policy, Evaluation, and Research, U.S. Department of Labor, 1977.
17. Davidson, Naomi B.
Supplementary Papers from the Conference on Youth Unemployment: Its Measurement and Meaning
Working Papers, Washington DC: U.S. Department of Labor, 1978.
Also: http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED176117.pdf
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; High School; Household Income; Teenagers; Unemployment; Work Attitudes

Nine papers presented at the conference on Employment Statistics and Youth are presented. Focusing on the meaning of unemployment counts in the U.S., the first three papers included: "Measurement and Interpretation of Teenage Unemployment in the United States and Other Countries" by Beatrice Reubens; "What Do Teenage Unemployment Statistics Measure?" by Orley Ashenfelter; and "Youth Participation Rates and the Availabilty of Jobs" by Francine Blau. Assessing important factors which underlie the employment and unemployment statistics, the next four papers include: "Family Status and Labor Force Patterns" by Martha Hill; "Education, Occupation, and Earnings" by David O'Shea; "Alienation and Adjustment to Limited Prospects" by David Gottlieb; and "Do Youth Really Want to Work?: A Comparison of the Work Values and Job Perceptions of Younger and Older Men" by Patricia Miller and William Simon. The last two papers examine the long-term consequences of the employment experiences of youth: "The Relationship Between Youth Employment and Future Employability and Earnings" by Wayne Stevenson, and "Employment and Earning Patterns: The Dynamics of Change" by David Farber.
Bibliography Citation
Davidson, Naomi B. "Supplementary Papers from the Conference on Youth Unemployment: Its Measurement and Meaning." Working Papers, Washington DC: U.S. Department of Labor, 1978.
18. De La Puente, Manuel
A Preliminary Analysis of the Occupational Aspirations of Hispanic, Black, and White Youths: The Role of Government-Sponsored Employment and Training
Report, National Council of La Raza, U.S. Department of Labor, 1982
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA); Employment, Youth; Hispanics; Job Training; Minorities, Youth; Occupational Aspirations; Racial Differences; School Quality

This report examines the occupational aspirations of Hispanic, black, and white young men and women aged 14 to 21, focusing primarily on the impact that participation in government-sponsored employment and training program has on the occupational aspirations of these youths. Program participants are compared with nonparticipants, and additional comparisons are conducted among Hispanic, black, and white participants and nonparticipants. The report has five major objectives. It (1) determines the impact that participation in government-sponsored employment and training programs has on the occupational aspirations of Hispanic, black, and white male and female youths; (2) reviews the employment literature to examine the contention that a synthesis is needed between the two dominant paradigms in labor market research (the status attainment and labor market approaches) and the realistic analysis of labor markets as well as a more comprehensive and accurate picture of minority workers; (3) examines the research on youth employment with special emphasis on minority youths, and also discusses the role of such programs in addressing the employment problems of these young people; (4) bridges the gulf between research and public policy by extrapolating policy implications from the studies reviewed and discussing the policy relevance of the NLSY 1979 findings; and (5) delineates areas where additional research is warranted, and makes empirically based recommendations for public policy.
Bibliography Citation
De La Puente, Manuel. "A Preliminary Analysis of the Occupational Aspirations of Hispanic, Black, and White Youths: The Role of Government-Sponsored Employment and Training." Report, National Council of La Raza, U.S. Department of Labor, 1982.
19. Flanagan, Robert J.
Labor Turnover, Racial Unemployment Differentials, and the Dual Labor Market Hypothesis
Report, Manpower Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1974
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Labor Market, Secondary; Layoffs; Migration; Occupational Segregation; Quits; Schooling; Unemployment; Vocational Education; Wages

The main thrust of the report is an analysis of racial unemployment differentials in the context of received theories of racial discrimination. Noting that the average duration of unemployment is similar for white and black males, the analytical emphasis is on the flow of new unemployment which is decomposed into turnover flows and conditional unemployment probabilities. The links between racial wage discrimination and racial unemployment differentials are also examined. The results include findings that differences in quit and layoff rates between the races are quite small, that the practice of wage discrimination or occupational segregation tends to widen racial unemployment differentials, and compensatory post-school training investments do not seem to be the main road to racial wage equality among males. The analysis did not support the dual market view of racial wage differences.
Bibliography Citation
Flanagan, Robert J. "Labor Turnover, Racial Unemployment Differentials, and the Dual Labor Market Hypothesis." Report, Manpower Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1974.
20. Frank, Robert H.
Stoikov, Vladimir
Changes in Pension Benefits and the Timing of Retirement
Final Report, Assistant Secretary for Planning, Evaluation and Research, U.S. Department of Labor, 1975
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Pensions; Retirement; Work Attitudes

The research described in this paper details the development and estimation of a model of the retirement decision. The estimates are intended to serve as a basis for calculating the effect of the Employment Retirement Income Security Act of l974 on the retirement data chosen by individuals covered by the Act. Three existing studies which deal with the issue of early retirement are examined. A simple theory of the retirement decision is outlined then employed as a guide in the specification of an estimating equation which can be employed, using the l971 NLS of Older Men data, to make the kinds of quantitative inferences which existing studies do not permit.
Bibliography Citation
Frank, Robert H. and Vladimir Stoikov. "Changes in Pension Benefits and the Timing of Retirement." Final Report, Assistant Secretary for Planning, Evaluation and Research, U.S. Department of Labor, 1975.
21. Garcia, John A.
Avalos, Manuel
Hispanic Youth in the Labor Market: Explorations into the Job Search Process
Report to the National Council of La Raza, U.S. Department of Labor, 1982
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Hispanic Youth; Hispanics; Job Search; Work Knowledge

The job search process for Hispanic youths is examined according to four interrelated areas: (1) labor market knowledge; (2) type of job search method utilized; (3) search extensiveness; and (4) search time. Results of the analysis show Hispanic youth tend to rely on informal methods of job search. Given these sources, the kinds of jobs these youth secure may be lower paying and less occupationally mobile positions. Since Hispanic youth limit their method options, levels of search extensiveness are also lower.
Bibliography Citation
Garcia, John A. and Manuel Avalos. "Hispanic Youth in the Labor Market: Explorations into the Job Search Process." Report to the National Council of La Raza, U.S. Department of Labor, 1982.
22. Garcia, Phillip
Hurtado, Aida
Differences in Unemployment and Job Turnover Rates Among Young Hispanic, Black, and White Workers
Report, National Council of La Raza, U.S. Department of Labor, 1982
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Employment, Youth; Hispanic Youth; Hispanics; Racial Differences; Unemployment, Youth

The primary objective of this study is to investigate the determinants of Hispanic youth unemployment through the use of multivariate techniques on data from the 1979 NLSY. The specific statistical aims are to estimate the parameters of these determinants and to explain more precisely why Hispanic unemployment figures among young workers are often five to ten percentage points higher than for like-aged white labor force participants. The findings suggest that an over-representation in highly unstable jobs, regardless of relevant background characteristics, contributes to higher rates of Hispanic youth unemployment. Other results also suggest that Hispanic teens demonstrate a relatively high degree of labor force attachment; thus higher rates of voluntary job separations among Hispanic youth do not contribute to observed Hispanic-white unemployment differences.
Bibliography Citation
Garcia, Phillip and Aida Hurtado. "Differences in Unemployment and Job Turnover Rates Among Young Hispanic, Black, and White Workers." Report, National Council of La Raza, U.S. Department of Labor, 1982.
23. Gustafson, Thomas Alton
Retirement Decision of Older Men: An Empirical Analysis
Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1982
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Earnings; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Pensions; Retirement; Social Security; Variables, Independent - Covariate

This study explores the sensitivity of estimates of the probability of retirement to variations in empirical specifications. An evaluation of the recent microeconomic literature relating to the retirement decision and to the labor supply of older workers stresses the wide divergence of results from different studies, including a controversy about the relative roles of bad health and retirement benefits in explaining the decision to retire. This study uses a simple theoretical and empirical model of the retirement decision, viewed as a binary choice. Various possible definitions of both dependent and independent variables are explored in detail. The model is estimated with a number of variations in the empirical specification using the sample of Older Men from the NLS. These variations include different formulations of the key variables, corrections for selectivity bias, and use of sub-samples of different demographic groups. The study concludes that both bad health and retirement benefits affect the retirement decision; this result is robust in the face of changes in specification. In contrast, a number of other variables hypothesized to be important, including the wage rate, do not consistently have much explanatory power.
Bibliography Citation
Gustafson, Thomas Alton. "Retirement Decision of Older Men: An Empirical Analysis." Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1982.
24. Gustman, Alan L.
Anderson, Patricia M.
Engelhardt, Gary V.
Samwick, Andrew A.
Wages, Fringe Benefits and Savings: Interactions and Implications for Determination of Labor Market Outcomes Analysis with the National Longitudinal Survey
Technical Proposal Response to Bureau of Labor Statistics SGA 940-04 from U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1994
Cohort(s): Mature Women, NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Benefits, Fringe; Job Turnover; Labor Market Outcomes; Mobility, Labor Market; Pensions; Retirement; Savings; Wage Differentials; Wages; Wealth

The project consists of five interrelated studies. The first study is an economic analysis with the Survey of Mature Women, but has a significant methodological component pertaining to the use of employer provided pension plan descriptions. The second study uses these data for the first time in a retirement analysis. Third is a study using the data for Mature Women to analyze labor market risk in the form of wage and employment variation, exploring the implications of such variation for asset accumulation and labor market decisions. The fourth study analyzes the role of health insurance in the labor market, and in particular the effects of health insurance on labor market turnover, among NLSY respondents, among those in the survey of Young Women, and among the Mature Women sample. The fifth focuses on asset formation early in the career, especially in the form of housing wealth, and considering the implications of housing wealth for labor market turnover.
Bibliography Citation
Gustman, Alan L., Patricia M. Anderson, Gary V. Engelhardt and Andrew A. Samwick. "Wages, Fringe Benefits and Savings: Interactions and Implications for Determination of Labor Market Outcomes Analysis with the National Longitudinal Survey." Technical Proposal Response to Bureau of Labor Statistics SGA 940-04 from U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1994.
25. Hahn, Andrew
Friedman, Barry
Did the CETA System Work for Disadvantaged Youth? An Overview of Program Impacts after Program Participation
In: CETA Youth Employment Record: Final Report to US Department of Labor. A. Hahn and R. Lerman, eds. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor, 1983.
Also: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED241619&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED241619
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA); Socioeconomic Status (SES); Teenagers; Vocational Education

An analysis of comparison between the CETA group and a matched comparison group showed one consistent result: CETA youth worked less in unsubsidized jobs than their matched counterparts. A two part explanation is presented to account for this finding: (1) the unsubsidized work of the CETA group was low because of continuing subsidized work; (2) as subsidized jobs ended, unsubsidized jobs did not replace them immediately since they were found only slowly. The unsubsidized work of the CETA group consequently remained below that of their counterparts. One can surmise that the CETA group shortfall should be only temporary and that eventually unsubsidized jobs will be found, but this assumption remains to be tested when later NLSY interview waves become available. Also examined were the positive CETA effects for particular subgroups. No single pattern emerged for who gains, but findings include: (1) slightly more CETA youth enrolled in school in both follow up years; (2) total weeks worked was greater among CETA youth in 1979; (3) minority CETA participants who were in school in the follow up year worked more weeks of unsubsidized jobs than their matches in 1979 but not in 1980; (4) by 1980 more CETA young women (enrolled in school and working) worked than their counterparts in unsubsidized jobs; and (5) generally, the only unsubsidized employment variable for which a CETA advantage appeared is earnings per week.
Bibliography Citation
Hahn, Andrew and Barry Friedman. "Did the CETA System Work for Disadvantaged Youth? An Overview of Program Impacts after Program Participation" In: CETA Youth Employment Record: Final Report to US Department of Labor. A. Hahn and R. Lerman, eds. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor, 1983.
26. Hardy-Hazelrigg, Melissa A.
Socio-Economic Structure of Retirement
Final Report, Assistant Secretary for Policy, Evaluation, and Research, U.S. Department of Labor, 1980
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Assets; Educational Attainment; Family Resources; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Job Tenure; Occupational Status; Pensions; Retirement; Social Security; Wages

The study investigates the retirement behavior of older males from l969 to l975 within the more general context of labor supply. Using the NLS of Older Men for l969, l97l, l973, l975, labor supply models are estimated for all waves by Heckman's generalized version of Tobit analysis. The core variables in the analysis include health limitations, retirement policies of the work place, family composition, net family assets and hourly wage; measures of job status, education, employment sector, job tenure and unemployment are included as controls. Of the factors considered, health limitations and retirement policies of the work place had the strongest negative effect on the labor supply of older men; family composition variables and employment sector had strong positive effects in the older cohorts. The coordinated effects of compulsory retirement and relatively lucrative pension benefits as well as the existence of a health limitation also appear to interact with Social Security eligibility. The overtime patterns of results suggest the importance of more general economic conditions, prevailing economic trends, and changes in Social Security legislation for labor supply decisions.
Bibliography Citation
Hardy-Hazelrigg, Melissa A. "Socio-Economic Structure of Retirement." Final Report, Assistant Secretary for Policy, Evaluation, and Research, U.S. Department of Labor, 1980.
27. Hill, M. Anne
O'Neill, June E.
Intercohort Change in Women's Labor Market Status
Final Report, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, 1991
Cohort(s): Mature Women, NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Earnings; Fertility; Labor Force Participation; Life Cycle Research; Marital Status; Schooling; Wage Gap; Women; Work Attachment; Work Experience

This research utilizes data from the three continuing panels of the NLS--the Mature Women, the Young Women, and the NLSY--to measure accumulated years of work experience and to examine changes in life-cycle work patterns across successive cohorts of women born between 1923 and 1964. This study first investigated how these successive cohorts of women have changed with respect to their accumulation of work-related skills, in terms of level of schooling, career orientation, and attachment to the labor force. The authors considered how the nature of entry into and exit from the labor force changed across cohorts and how the response of women's labor force participation decisions to life-cycle events (e.g., marriage, the birth of a child, divorce) may have change Intercohort changes in women's returns to work experience, schooling, and other human ca also considered. Increases and declines of labor force participation is measured for black and white women.
Bibliography Citation
Hill, M. Anne and June E. O'Neill. "Intercohort Change in Women's Labor Market Status." Final Report, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, 1991.
28. Hills, Stephen M.
De Souza, Gita
Returns to Educational Training in Math and Science for American Women
Report, Women in Education Series Report. Women's Bureau, U.S. Department of Labor , 1993
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Educational Returns; High School Curriculum; Human Capital; Human Capital Theory; Schooling, Post-secondary; Self-Employed Workers; Wage Dynamics; Wage Rates

The economic returns to math and science courses taken while in high school are estimated for women who do not go on to college and women entrepreneurs. A human capital model is used to estimate the model for respondents drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey's New Youth Cohort. Women who were 14-21 in 1979 are followed through time, and their wage rates measured in 1990. Wages earned in 1990 are related to courses in math and science taken in high school, recorded on a respondent's transcript, and coded in standard year long units. Little direct effect was found for the influence of high school curriculum on subsequent wage rates, either for women or for men. For women, courses in science in math did, however, significantly improve the probability that they would gain post-secondary training or go on to college. These indirect effects argue for use of a multi-equation model that estimates effects for women of all educational levels. Even when using women of all educational levels, the study did not show any significant effect of science and math on the earnings of the self-employed.
Bibliography Citation
Hills, Stephen M. and Gita De Souza. "Returns to Educational Training in Math and Science for American Women." Report, Women in Education Series Report. Women's Bureau, U.S. Department of Labor , 1993.
29. Hills, Stephen M.
Shaw, Lois B.
Sproat, Kezia
Teenagers: What Are Their Choices About Work?
In: A Review of Youth Employment Problems, Programs and Policies, Youth Knowledge Development Report: 2:4. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor, 1980
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Age; Family Resources; Local Labor Market; Unemployment Duration; Unemployment Insurance; Vocational Training

This paper presents a series of observations and recommendations that would improve teenagers' employability. Family background is a strong but indirect influence on a young person's success in the labor market. School completion is a major determinant of labor market success. Increased knowledge of the labor market and career alternatives is needed. Vocational training even after high school graduation is useful. Temporary unemployment of youth is usually not detrimental to future success. Job shopping appears to be desirable. Public service or subsidized jobs can provide young people with experience and the opportunity to explore the world of work. Teenage pregnancy is a serious barrier to young women's long-term career success. Transportation inadequacy is an impediment to teenage employment. Discrimination accounts for a substantial part of the labor market problems of youth.
Bibliography Citation
Hills, Stephen M., Lois B. Shaw and Kezia Sproat. "Teenagers: What Are Their Choices About Work?" In: A Review of Youth Employment Problems, Programs and Policies, Youth Knowledge Development Report: 2:4. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor, 1980
30. Johnson, William R.
Job Shopping Among Young Men
Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1980
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Educational Attainment; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Wages; Work History; Work Knowledge

The causes and effects of job mobility among young men are examined. The effect of job mobility in the first five years of a worker's career is to improve matches between workers and job while mobility in the second five years does not appear to be efficient since it reduces wages and increases wage dispersion. Early mobility can be explained by unlucky first job matches and imperfect information about the labor market. Later mobility is reduced only by formal education. Race and family background do not affect job mobility when other factors are accounted for. Hence, the conclusion that some identifiable racial or social groups have "pathological" rates of job mobility does not seem to be warranted.
Bibliography Citation
Johnson, William R. "Job Shopping Among Young Men." Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1980.
31. Jones, Ethel B.
Long, James E.
Women and Part-Week Work
Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1978
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Children; Earnings; Employment; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Homogamy; Household Models; Husbands, Income; Unemployment

This two-part report examines four aspects of the part-week job association of married women: (1) the proportion experiencing part-week employment; (2) characteristics increasing the probability of part-week work; (3) the wage effect from part-week in the work-life history; and (4) and the impact upon her unemployment experience. The data base is the NLS of Young Women (l968-73) and of Mature Women (l967-72). Over a six-year period, three of every five women who worked held a part-week job. The work history usually showed both part-week and full-week. The test of a household decision-making model found young children, more children, a higher-income husband, a lower potential market wage, and poor health among significant factors increasing the probability of part-week employment. Intervals of part-week employment increased the current wage less than full-week. At particular periods of potential work-life, no work experience was less depreciating of future earnings than part-week employment. Compared with full-week, unemployment incidence was less frequent, and no consistent differences were observed with respect to duration or the multiplicity of spells of unemployment.
Bibliography Citation
Jones, Ethel B. and James E. Long. "Women and Part-Week Work." Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1978.
32. Jud, G. Donald
Racial Discrimination and Occupational Choice: Estimates Based on a Sample of Young Men
Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1979
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Assets; Career Patterns; Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Earnings; Job Search; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

The study employs data from the NLS of Younger Men for l970 and l975 to examine the economic and social factors that account for black-white earnings differentials and to determine how the effect of these socio-economic factors differ depending on the individual's chosen career path and parental background. Single equation earnings models that allow variable interactions between race, occupation, and socio-economic background are estimated, and racial, occupational, and social class differentials in the determinants of earnings are examined cross- sectionally and through time. Because the study employs a longitudinal sample of younger men, black-white differentials in the returns to training and experience (both general and firm-specific) are measured directly and possible racial differences in the level of OJT are explicitly quantified.
Bibliography Citation
Jud, G. Donald. "Racial Discrimination and Occupational Choice: Estimates Based on a Sample of Young Men." Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1979.
33. Jusenius, Carol L.
Sandell, Steven H.
Barriers to Entry and Re-Entry into the Labor Force
Presented: Washington, DC, Workshop on Research Needed to Improve the Employment and Employability of Women, U.S. Department of Labor, 1974.
Also: http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED105320.pdf
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Employment; Household Income; Marital Status; Wages; Wives

This paper focuses on barriers that women face when they consider entrance or re-entrance into the labor force. Part I discusses, in general terms, the problem and the existing literature on the subject points out those topics which require additional research. Part II focuses on some of the methodological and empirical problems inherent in such analysis as they bear on future research needs.
Bibliography Citation
Jusenius, Carol L. and Steven H. Sandell. "Barriers to Entry and Re-Entry into the Labor Force." Presented: Washington, DC, Workshop on Research Needed to Improve the Employment and Employability of Women, U.S. Department of Labor, 1974.
34. Kalachek, Edward
Raines, Fredric Q.
Static and Dynamic Labor Supply Functions
Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1978
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Employment; Layoffs; Leisure; Mobility, Job; Quits; Unemployment; Unions; Wages; Work Attitudes

Data from the NLS of Older Men are used to examine the determinants of wage differences, labor supply and labor supply change. The analysis stresses the distinction between the permanent and transitory components of wages, and differential responses to these coefficients. Findings include: (1) personality, attitudinal and psychological characteristics affect wages; (2) workers with the same human capital receive substantially different wages; (3) this difference affects quits, layoffs, the duration of unemployment and hiring standards; (4) labor supply responds positively to the permanent and negatively to the transitory component of wages; (5) the use of measured wages in labor supply regressions leads to misleading results; and (6) workers adjust labor input rapidly when their leisure-income choices alter.
Bibliography Citation
Kalachek, Edward and Fredric Q. Raines. "Static and Dynamic Labor Supply Functions." Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1978.
35. Kerckhoff, Alan C.
Parrow, Alan A.
Early Career Contingencies in the Process of Status Attainment
Final Report, Manpower Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1977
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Children; Educational Attainment; Employment; Marriage; Mobility, Job; Occupational Attainment; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

The Young Men sample of the NLS was used to investigate the effects of marriage and parenthood on educational and occupational attainment. The subjects were 14 through 24 years of age in l966 and were followed through l970. Multiple regression analyses were conducted for separate sub-samples which were homogeneous with respect to age, race, marital status and school enrollment status in l966.
Bibliography Citation
Kerckhoff, Alan C. and Alan A. Parrow. "Early Career Contingencies in the Process of Status Attainment." Final Report, Manpower Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1977.
36. Kerckhoff, Alan C.
Parrow, Alan A.
Sex Differences in Early Contingencies in Attainment
Report, U.S. Department of Labor, 1975
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Children; Earnings; Educational Attainment; Marriage; Occupational Attainment; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

The effect of marriage and parenthood on educational and occupational attainment is investigated. The findings show that significant depressing effects on both educational and occupational attainments are associated with early marriage and early parenthood. For white women, age at marriage and parenthood are highly correlated and the separate effects of each are difficult to specify. In comparison, early marriage and early parenthood produce independent depressing effects for blacks. Females experience greater educational losses than males due to marriage, males show no loss due to parenthood, and females suffer occupational losses because of early marriage and early parenthood.
Bibliography Citation
Kerckhoff, Alan C. and Alan A. Parrow. "Sex Differences in Early Contingencies in Attainment." Report, U.S. Department of Labor, 1975.
37. Kiefer, Nicholas M.
Conditional Likelihood Models for Heterogeneity in Longitudinal (Panel) Data
Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1980
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Heterogeneity; Research Methodology; Wages

The report develops econometric models for heterogeneity in panel data. The conditional likelihood approach, which requires few and unrestrictive assumptions about the distribution of unobservables in the population, is used. The techniques are applied to estimate an intertemporal substitution (of time) elasticity based on the NLS data. The elasticity was found to be somewhat sensitive to the estimation technique. Conditional likelihood estimates are about .05 for white males and .1 for nonwhite males. These can be interpreted as effects of a temporary wage subsidy program, perceived by workers as not strongly affecting lifetime income.
Bibliography Citation
Kiefer, Nicholas M. "Conditional Likelihood Models for Heterogeneity in Longitudinal (Panel) Data." Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1980.
38. Kohen, Andrew I.
Minimum Wage and Handicapped Workers
In: Report of the Minimum Wage Study Commission: Volume 5. Washington, DC: U.S. GPO, 1981: pp. 429-464
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Disabled Workers; Employment; Minimum Wage

The author provides a review of relevant empirical studies and descriptions of the labor supply, employment and wages of handicapped Americans, provides a review of the relevant portions of three major studies of the operations of sheltered workshops, and presents and interprets new analyses of data on the wages of handicapped workers in and outside of sheltered employment.
Bibliography Citation
Kohen, Andrew I. "Minimum Wage and Handicapped Workers" In: Report of the Minimum Wage Study Commission: Volume 5. Washington, DC: U.S. GPO, 1981: pp. 429-464
39. Kohen, Andrew I.
Gilroy, Curtis
The Minimum Wage, Income Distribution, and Poverty
In: Report of the Minimum Wage Study Commission: Volume 8. Washington, DC: U.S. GPO, 1981: pp. 1-30
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Income Distribution; Income Dynamics/Shocks; Minimum Wage; Schooling

A portion of this paper describes the characteristics of minimum wage workers in terms of the distribution and level of income. Using data from the Young Men's and Young Women's cohorts, the demographic and labor force characteristics as well as non-wage income sources are examined.
Bibliography Citation
Kohen, Andrew I. and Curtis Gilroy. "The Minimum Wage, Income Distribution, and Poverty" In: Report of the Minimum Wage Study Commission: Volume 8. Washington, DC: U.S. GPO, 1981: pp. 1-30
40. Lerman, Robert I.
The Nature of the Youth Unemployment Problem: A Review Paper
Technical Analysis Paper No 69. Washington, DC: US Department of Labor, 1980.
Also: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED201826&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED201826
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Educational Attainment; Employment, In-School; Family Influences; Job Turnover; Military Enlistment; Racial Differences; Seasonality; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Transition Rates, Activity to Work; Work Experience

This paper provides an overview of the nature and severity of youth unemployment utilizing data from both the NLS and CPS. The author investigates youth unemployment from the classical position that there are two types of reasons for the large difference between youth unemployment and adult unemployment--first, that youths are less desirable to potential employers than older, more experienced and perhaps better-trained adults; and second, that youth unemployment is natural and inevitable due to the high turnover, seasonality and school-to-work transition inherent to teen-age labor force participation. It is found, however, that the seasonal pattern of youth labor force entry has no effect upon the unemployment rate, and that the high turnover rate of youth accounts for only 30 percent of the youth/adult differential. Family status differences, such as leaving school and becoming financially independent, can account for up to 75 percent of the employment/population ratio of white youths. Limited work experience and education also are found to affect the level of youth employment. Although it is concluded that, ceteris paribus, a black youth has ten points lower employment possibilities than a white youth, many of the large racial differences in employment status seem to be somehow related to Armed Forces enrollment patterns--apparently more blacks than whites enter the military, for whatever reasons. For males, the racial differential in crime rates and arrest records is also a potential factor, as employers still use this data in hiring decisions, even though the practice is illegal. For females, family status differences appear to account for half the racial differences in employment status. Finally, for both sexes and races, although more pronounced for blacks, the difference in family economic status is also a major determinate of unemployment.
Bibliography Citation
Lerman, Robert I. The Nature of the Youth Unemployment Problem: A Review Paper. Technical Analysis Paper No 69. Washington, DC: US Department of Labor, 1980..
41. Miller, Herman P.
Garfinkle, Stuart H.
Academic Careers and Post-College Employment of Young Men
Final Report, Manpower Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1974
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; College Graduates; Employment

The early stages of career development are studied for young men who received college training for a variety of professional occupations. In order to identify some of the factors associated with the choice of a college curriculum and to trace the pattern of career development during the first few years after graduation from college. The sample is too small to yield statistically reliable results, but the intensive study of individual case histories covering the four years provides insights into factors affecting career development that are not now available from other sources.
Bibliography Citation
Miller, Herman P. and Stuart H. Garfinkle. "Academic Careers and Post-College Employment of Young Men." Final Report, Manpower Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1974.
42. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Child Outcomes in the NLSY
Presented: Washington DC, NLSY79 Redesign Conference, September 1998
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Data Quality/Consistency; Life Course; Longitudinal Surveys

This report contemplates strategies for future data collection and survey design for the NLSY-Child cohort.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson. "Child Outcomes in the NLSY." Presented: Washington DC, NLSY79 Redesign Conference, September 1998.
43. Mott, Frank L.
Shaw, Lois B.
The Transition from School to Adulthood
Presented: Washington, DC, Conference on Young Women and Employment, U.S. Department of Labor, 1978.
Also: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED158018&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED158018
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Children; Dropouts; Fertility; High School Completion/Graduates; Job Search; Teenagers; Transition, School to Work; Welfare; Work Knowledge

This paper focuses on young women who either drop out of high school without completing the 12th grade or who complete high school but do not immediately attend college. Not only do child-related considerations cause dropping out, but they then subsequently affect the ability of a woman both to take formal training programs and to find meaningful employment at a reasonable salary. The presence of a child not only inhibits the job hunt and the probability of finding a job but, in addition, has associated child-care costs. Thus, the "threshold" at which it is economically rational to accept a job is probably higher. Youth who will drop out of high school are far less likely to have had extensive employment experiences before leaving school. They are more likely to become discouraged and withdraw from the labor force.
Bibliography Citation
Mott, Frank L. and Lois B. Shaw. "The Transition from School to Adulthood." Presented: Washington, DC, Conference on Young Women and Employment, U.S. Department of Labor, 1978.
44. Myers, Steven C.
Byrne, Dennis M.
King, Randall H.
Stratton, Richard W.
Employment Outcomes of Hispanic Youth: An Analysis of Labor Market Behavior
Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor, 1982
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Employment; Hispanic Youth; Hispanics; Language Problems; Schooling; Teenagers; Vocational Training; Work History

This volume is the result of an extensive investigation of the labor market position of Hispanic youth across both employment and non-work dimensions. An oversampling of Hispanics in the l979 NLSY provided a fresh new body of data for the study. Answers to the following three broad research questions were sought: How are Hispanic youth faring in the labor market? How do they compare to their non-Hispanic counterparts? How may their position in the labor market be improved? Part one addresses issues of enrollment and educational choice, hours of work, earnings, and occupational attainment. Part two resolves some serious methodological issues regarding the proper manner of analysis of the non-employment experiences of youth, estimates probabilities of moving from work to non- work (and vice versa), the duration of spells of nonwork, and estimates the subsequent wage gain.
Bibliography Citation
Myers, Steven C., Dennis M. Byrne, Randall H. King and Richard W. Stratton. "Employment Outcomes of Hispanic Youth: An Analysis of Labor Market Behavior." Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor, 1982.
45. O'Neill, June E.
Determinants and Wage Effects of Occupational Segregation
Report, Employment and Training Administration, Office of Research and Evaluation, U.S.Department of Labor, (Washington DC: The Urban Institute), 1983
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Earnings; Occupational Segregation; Occupations, Female

This study analyzes data from the March 1980 Current Population Survey (CPS) and the Young Men and Young Women panels of the NLS (aged 24 to 34 in 1976 and 1978 respectively). The study examined the following two issues: (1) what underlying factors can explain the difference in male and female occupational distributions and (2) what is the net effect on earnings of being in a disproportionately female occupation, i.e., controlling for other factors known to affect earnings. [NTIS PB83-220665]
Bibliography Citation
O'Neill, June E. "Determinants and Wage Effects of Occupational Segregation." Report, Employment and Training Administration, Office of Research and Evaluation, U.S.Department of Labor, (Washington DC: The Urban Institute), 1983.
46. O'Neill, June E.
Review of the National Longitudinal Surveys
Prepared for the Office of Research and Evaluation, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1982
Cohort(s): NLS General
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Attrition; Behavioral Problems; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Labor Market Outcomes; Longitudinal Data Sets; NLS Description

This paper, prepared in 1982 for the Department of Labor's Office of Research and Evaluation, Employment and Training Administration, reviews policy uses, both past and planned, of data from the five cohorts of the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS). It notes that the NLS had already produced a large volume of useful information, that this information would not have been available from other sources, and that a wide variety of users in federal and state government rely on data from the NLS in formulating policy. Ten policy areas are discussed: (1) unemployment and related labor market issues; (2) the DOL's employment and training programs; (3) women's labor force participation and male-female earnings differentials; (4) aging and retirement; (5) education and labor market outcomes; (6) health, disability and mortality; (7) alcohol use and delinquent behavior among young people; (8) fertility among the general population and teenagers; (9) military manpower issues; and (10) validation and supplementation of national statistics. The paper concludes with a discussion of attrition including a copy of a Census Bureau report evaluating the continued representativeness of the four original NLS cohorts after ten years of interviews. Statements from various departments within the DOL, i.e., the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the Employment Standards Administration, the Employment and Training Administration, etc., on the continued interest of these agencies in utilizing NLS data and a partial bibliography of research generated from the NLS are provided within appendices to this report.
Bibliography Citation
O'Neill, June E. "Review of the National Longitudinal Surveys." Prepared for the Office of Research and Evaluation, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1982.
47. Osterman, Paul
Racial Differentials in Male Youth Unemployment
In: Conference Report on Youth Unemployment: Its Measurement and Meaning. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Labor, U.S. GPO, 1978
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Layoffs; Racial Differences; Unemployment, Youth

This research examines the source of racial unemployment differentials by comparing results of a model of unemployment for black and white youth. The findings display significant racial differences in unemployment which continue even after controlling for various personal characteristics and labor market demand. For blacks, the probability of layoff is not much higher than whites, and blacks are more apt to quit into unemployment. Finally, the consequences of unemployment are examined and the results show that unemployment experience seems to have few long term effects; however, long-term adverse consequences are found for blacks.
Bibliography Citation
Osterman, Paul. "Racial Differentials in Male Youth Unemployment" In: Conference Report on Youth Unemployment: Its Measurement and Meaning. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Labor, U.S. GPO, 1978
48. Osterman, Paul
The Causes of the Worsening Employment Situation of Black Youth
Report, Assistant Secretary for Policy, Evaluation and Research, U.S. Department of Labor, 1979.
Also: http://catalogue.nla.gov.au/Record/5374492
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Job Search; Layoffs; Occupational Aspirations; Quits; Wages, Reservation; Work History

A study was conducted to examine why black youth unemployment has increased and participation rates decreased. The study was conducted in three parts. The first employs l960 and l970 Census data to examine the impact of local labor market structure and changes in the structure upon the employment growth of black and white youth. The second part uses data on individuals from the NLS of Young Men to examine the determinants of spells of unemployment and the duration of those spells. The final part of the study employs a variety of sources to determine whether there is any evidence that racial differences in aspiration or behavior can explain the employment differential. Among the findings of the study was that black employment is more sensitive than that of whites to the industrial composition of the labor market and to competition from adult women. The analysis of individuals found that racial differences in background characteristics can account for only half of the differential in unemployment experience. No evidence is found of important racial differences in aspirations or behavior.
Bibliography Citation
Osterman, Paul. "The Causes of the Worsening Employment Situation of Black Youth." Report, Assistant Secretary for Policy, Evaluation and Research, U.S. Department of Labor, 1979.
49. Ross, Sue
Usefulness of the Parnes Data for Analysis of the UI System
Final Report, Assistant Secretary for Planning, Evaluation, and Research, U.S. Department of Labor, 1974
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Research Methodology; Unemployment; Welfare

An examination of the four waves of NLS of Older Men for validity showed that although the data contain some measures of individual characteristics that are not available from other sources, the four waves of the survey are not entirely comparable in continuity of time periods and completeness of information. Some difficulty is encountered interpreting the data because of differences in interview method. Earlier concerns about lack of usable samples due to expected low incidence of unemployment in the age group were found to be unnecessary. Greater familiarity with the data is expected to lead to further and more efficient applications of the results.
Bibliography Citation
Ross, Sue. "Usefulness of the Parnes Data for Analysis of the UI System." Final Report, Assistant Secretary for Planning, Evaluation, and Research, U.S. Department of Labor, 1974.
50. Santos, Richard
Employment Status of Hispanics
In: A Profile of Hispanic Youth: Youth Knowledge Development Report 10.2, U.S. Department of Labor, 1980
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): High School; Hispanic Youth; Hispanics; Unemployment

In 1979, nearly a million Hispanic youth age 16-21 are in the labor force in the NLS survey week; approximately 720,000 are employed, 218,000 are unemployed, and 578,000 are neither looking for nor holding jobs. Hispanic youth represent 5.1 percent of the employed youth, 6.5 percent of the unemployed youth, and 8.1 percent of those outside the labor force. Hispanics occupy an intermediate employment status relative to blacks and whites.
Bibliography Citation
Santos, Richard. "Employment Status of Hispanics" In: A Profile of Hispanic Youth: Youth Knowledge Development Report 10.2, U.S. Department of Labor, 1980
51. Schiller, Bradley R.
Longitudinal Experiences of Minimum Wage Youth
Final Report, U.S. Department of Labor, Office of Assistant Secretary for Policy, 1989
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Employment, Youth; Job Satisfaction; Minimum Wage; Wages, Youth; Work Histories

The labor market experiences of young minimum-wage workers were examined using the NLSY 19791987. The analysis indicates that all young people hold a job paying the minimum wage or less at some point in the early stages of their work lives. Of special concern are the training experiences and subsequent wage growth of youth who start at the minimum wage or less. The study finds that: (1) Most minimum-wage youth workers like their jobs, believe the job experience is beneficial, and perceive that they are acquiring skills that will be valuable in attaining better jobs later. (2) The minimum wage experience is relatively brief. Young people neither expect to hold nor stay on their minimum-wage job long. Within two years, most youth who start at the minimum wage (or less) are earning above minimum wages. (3) The wage growth of youth who began at or below the minimum wage averages 16 percent a year in the first six years, five times faster than the wage growth of all U.S. workers in the same period (1981- 1987). Overall, the evidence reviewed refutes the notion that minimum-wage jobs are "dead-end" jobs, offering neither training nor opportunities for wage growth. At least for young labor-market entrants, minimum-wage jobs are common stepping stones to higher wages. Details are provided in the two volumes that constitute the final report.
Bibliography Citation
Schiller, Bradley R. "Longitudinal Experiences of Minimum Wage Youth." Final Report, U.S. Department of Labor, Office of Assistant Secretary for Policy, 1989.
52. Solberg, Eric J.
Eich, Steven A.
Racial Wage Differentials for Females by Occupation
Report, U.S. Department of Labor, 1979
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Discrimination, Sex; Earnings; Occupational Attainment; Racial Differences; Wages, Women

This paper investigates the presence of wage discrimination by race for females. The empirical model is similar to that applied by Johnson (1978) who restricted his data to males in the labor force. A major difference between the Johnson application and this paper is the choice of industrial classification. The present study divides observations into professional and managerial, clerical, manufacturing and construction, or a residual class of industry occupational categories. The data were drawn from the NLS of Older Men and Mature Women. The results provide evidence of reserve wage advantages by race for females after controlling for differences in human capital acquisitions by an analysis of covariance wage rate specifications.
Bibliography Citation
Solberg, Eric J. and Steven A. Eich. "Racial Wage Differentials for Females by Occupation." Report, U.S. Department of Labor, 1979.
53. Sorensen, Elaine
Women's Relative Pay: The Factors that Shape Current and Future Trends
Final Report, Office of Strategic Planning and Policy Development, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1989
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Census of Population; Earnings; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Wages, Women

The purpose of the study was to understand the major factors that may influence future trends in women's relative pay. This was accomplished by analyzing various data sets, such as census data, national longitudinal survey data (NLS of Young Women and NLSY), Bureau of Labor Statistics, University of Michigan Panel Study of Income Dynamics, etc., to identify and determine the relative influence of the many factors that influence career and employment choices that lead to high level job choices and careers, and influence relative employment earnings. [NTIS PB90-218710-XAB]
Bibliography Citation
Sorensen, Elaine. "Women's Relative Pay: The Factors that Shape Current and Future Trends." Final Report, Office of Strategic Planning and Policy Development, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1989.
54. Spitze, Glenna D.
Family Migration and Wives' Employment
Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1983
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Black Family; Earnings; Employment; Job Satisfaction; Migration; Mobility, Job; Occupations, Female; Variables, Independent - Covariate

Traditionally, family migration has been explained in terms of job opportunities of individuals or family heads, treating wives implicitly as tied movers or stayers. This research builds upon recent revisions which take into account women's rising employment, using a dual-earner family model. It also tests for tied migration as a contributing cause of the sex earnings gap by measuring effects of migration on earnings and other employment characteristics and by measuring the duration of any effects found. Using data from the NLS Young and Mature Women surveys, it is found that reasons for moving are similar for whites and blacks, and that only around five percent of moves could be precipitated by a wife's job offer or transfer. For whites, both wife's employment and earnings deter migration, mainly for women with high earnings and middle earnings shares, and only up to the middle thirties. For blacks, wife's employment does not deter migration although for dual-earner black couples, wife's weeks worked have a negative impact. Young white employed women who are satisfied with their jobs are less likely to move, as are those whose husbands approve of their working. Black husband-wife couples are less likely than whites to move but this is not due to the combined operation of the independent variables examined here. White women who move are less likely to be employed, work fewer weeks, and earn less a year later. A move also decreases job satisfaction for mature women. These consequences last only one to two years. Policy implications are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Spitze, Glenna D. "Family Migration and Wives' Employment." Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1983.
55. Spitze, Glenna D.
Work Commitment Among Young Women: Its Relation to Labor Force Participation, Marriage, and Childbearing
Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1979
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Children; Employment; Job Satisfaction; Marital Dissolution; Marriage; Work Attitudes

The research analyzes the relations between young women's attitudes and preferences about market work and their labor force and family-building experiences in early adulthood, focusing on the causal relations between early employment and work-related attitudes, and between these attitudes and the timing of family formation. Data over a five-year period on women age 14 to 24 in l968 are taken from the NLS of Young Women. The major thrust of the findings suggests that work-related attitudes and preferences of young women are highly mutable during early adulthood, and relate only minimally to the timing or quality of early labor force experiences. Long term preferences for market work are linked to family building and dissolution. Women with a taste for paid employment delay marriage and childbearing, presumably to allow time for preparation for market work, and also are more likely than others to dissolve a marriage. Taste for market work decreases upon first marriage but increases with marital dissolution or the birth of a child, presumably due to changes in resources.
Bibliography Citation
Spitze, Glenna D. "Work Commitment Among Young Women: Its Relation to Labor Force Participation, Marriage, and Childbearing." Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1979.
56. Stephan, Paula E.
Labor Force Response of Career vs. Noncareer Married Women to the Unemployment Rate
Final Report, Assistant Secretary for Policy, Evaluation, and Research, U.S. Department of Labor, 1977
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Children; Discouraged Workers; Earnings; Employment; Unemployment; Wives; Work Experience

The objective of this paper is to examine the hypothesis that because of job experience and a commitment to the labor force, the current labor force status of married women who have a career (defined as married women who have been working 70 percent or more of the time since marriage) is not responsive to changes in the local employment rate. The analysis uses data from the 1972 survey of the NLS of Mature Women. Logit techniques are used to analyze the labor force participation of career vs. noncareer women. It was found, using a "traditional" specification of the discouraged worker problem (which excludes experience) that career women as a whole are not discouraged while noncareer women appeared discouraged. The results are not paralleled when division is made by race. This paper also hypothesized that the amount of discouragement present depends upon the amount of experience that the woman in the labor market has. When experience is included with the unemployment rate in the interaction term, there is support for this hypothesis. However, when experience is also included directly in the specification of the labor force participation equation, the coefficients on the local unemployment rate--and the above mentioned interaction term--are no longer significant.
Bibliography Citation
Stephan, Paula E. "Labor Force Response of Career vs. Noncareer Married Women to the Unemployment Rate." Final Report, Assistant Secretary for Policy, Evaluation, and Research, U.S. Department of Labor, 1977.
57. Stephenson, Stanley P., Jr.
School to Work Transition of Noncollege Young Persons
Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1980
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Dropouts; Employment; Family Resources; Schooling; Training, Occupational; Training, Post-School; Transition, School to Work; Unemployment; Urban and Regional Planning; Vocational Education; Work Experience

The report includes four empirical studies of the early labor market problems of noncollege youth. Data are from the NLS of Young Men and Young Women. Four youth labor policy implications emerge from the analysis: (1) the provision of employment in school may aid the school to work transition by enhancing labor market success in the first two years after leaving school, but it does not appear to directly affect long run labor outcomes; (2) postschool occupational training is much more beneficial if it is used (a result for young women) or if it is combined with accumulated work experience (a result for young men); (3) unemployment rate differentials between white and black male youth cannot be eliminated by equalizing the level of individual characteristics, such as training or education; racial differences in the effects of these factors, not their levels, are most important; and (4) youth labor policies should be targeted by sex, race, dropout status, family income, and urban vs. rural residence.
Bibliography Citation
Stephenson, Stanley P., Jr. "School to Work Transition of Noncollege Young Persons." Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1980.
58. Suter, Larry E.
Waite, Linda J.
Stolzenberg, Ross M.
Birth Expectations and Working Plans of Young Women: Changes in Role Choices
Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1976
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Children; Employment; Fertility

The report explores plans of young women for labor force participation, their expectations for childbearing and the relationship between these intentions. Data from the l968 to l973 waves of the NLS of Young Women form the basis for the research. In the first chapter, the short-run stability of young women's reports on the number of children they expect to have in their lifetimes is examined. In the second and third chapters the relationship between young women's childbearing plans and intentions to work at age 35 is explored using nonrecursive models which allow reciprocal causation between work plans and fertility expectations. Planned family size was found to have only a small effect on young women's expectations for employment.
Bibliography Citation
Suter, Larry E., Linda J. Waite and Ross M. Stolzenberg. "Birth Expectations and Working Plans of Young Women: Changes in Role Choices." Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1976.
59. Vaughan, Suzanne
Wright-Romero, Linda
Structure of Labor Markets and Sectors of Production: An Analysis of Underemployment Among Hispanic Youth
Report to the National Council of La Raza, U.S. Department of Labor, 1982
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Discouraged Workers; Hispanic Youth; Hispanics; Minorities; Minorities, Youth; Teenagers; Underemployment

Data from the NLSY are used to explore the distribution and utilization of labor power among Hispanic youths through examining their conditions of employment and their relationship to major structural features of the labor market. The focus of the study is upon evaluating the extent to which Hispanic youths differ from other groups and among themselves regarding labor force participation and the labor markets in which they participate. Findings include: (1) wide gaps that appear between the rates of underemployment among minority youths and whites are probably symptomatic of a continuing process of misallocation of employment opportunities for minorities; (2) Hispanic youth fall somewhere in the middle with regard to their distribution across sectors, with a somewhat higher proportion of Hispanics employed in the state sector as opposed to blacks; (3) the competitive sector is not the only sector that should be the focus of scrutiny; and (4) unemployed and "discouraged" teenagers are more likely to be within the state sector and monopoly sector. Overall, the results of the study suggest that both the quantity and, more importantly, the quality of the employment experience differentiate white youth from black and Hispanic youth. Policy recommendations are provided on the basis of these findings.
Bibliography Citation
Vaughan, Suzanne and Linda Wright-Romero. "Structure of Labor Markets and Sectors of Production: An Analysis of Underemployment Among Hispanic Youth." Report to the National Council of La Raza, U.S. Department of Labor, 1982.
60. Verdugo, Richard R.
Race, Ethnicity, and Attainment in the Early Career
Report to the National Council of La Raza, U.S. Department of Labor, 1982
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Educational Returns; Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Hispanics; Occupational Attainment; Racial Differences; Teenagers

Data from the 1979 NLSY are used to explore socioeconomic differentials in early career among Chicanos, blacks and whites. The attainment process appears to be more complex and disjointed for blacks than for whites or Chicanos. In fact, attainment for Chicanos seems to be less complex than for either blacks or whites and predicated primarily on merit and aspirations. Differences in the attainment process of the three groups are highlighted by the fact that blacks, although having more years of schooling, coming from better socioeconomic origins, and realizing greater income returns to their education than Chicanos, still earn less, on the average, and work at jobs comparable to those held by Chicanos.
Bibliography Citation
Verdugo, Richard R. "Race, Ethnicity, and Attainment in the Early Career." Report to the National Council of La Raza, U.S. Department of Labor, 1982.
61. Ybarra, Lea
Zaks, Vivian C.
Educational and Occupational Aspirations and Attainment of Young Hispanic Female Workers
Report, National Council of La Raza, U.S. Department of Labor, 1982
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Educational Attainment; Family Background; Hispanics; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mobility; Occupational Aspirations; Parental Influences

This study examines the relative influence of maternal and paternal employment, educational attainment, and generational status upon the educational and occupational aspirations, expectations, and attainment of young Hispanic women. Both the educational level of father and mother and the occupations of the adult male and female in the household when the respondent was fourteen had an impact on the respondent's educational attainment. Second and third generations continue to have exceedingly high dropout rates, and all groups tend to have the same relatively low percentage of respondents who attend college. Data show that Hispanic women workers continue to be concentrated in the lower paying occupations and that because of lower educational attainment, this pattern seems entrenched. Overall results indicate that it will be some time before Hispanic females achieve parity in the higher paying occupations. Mobility, in terms of educational and occupational attainment between second and third generations, seems almost nonexistent. This mobility is hindered by factors of sexism, racism, low educational and occupational levels of parents, and young women's own low levels of educational attainment and subsequent reduced chances of moving into higher paying jobs.
Bibliography Citation
Ybarra, Lea and Vivian C. Zaks. "Educational and Occupational Aspirations and Attainment of Young Hispanic Female Workers." Report, National Council of La Raza, U.S. Department of Labor, 1982.