Search Results

Source: Social Problems
Resulting in 16 citations.
1. Apel, Robert
Sweeten, Gary
The Impact of Incarceration on Employment during the Transition to Adulthood
Social Problems 57,3 (August 2010): 448-479.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/pss/10.1525/sp.2010.57.3.448
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: University of California Press
Keyword(s): Crime; Employment; Incarceration/Jail; Transition, Adulthood; Work Histories

The research findings with respect to the relationship between incarceration and employment are consistent enough that it is tempting to conclude that incarceration causes deterioration in ex-inmates' employment prospects. Yet, causality remains tenuous for several reasons. For one, studies frequently rely on samples of nonincarcerated subjects that are not truly "at risk" of incarceration, which undermines their use as comparison samples and potentially biases estimates of the impact of incarceration on life outcomes. Additionally, even with confidence about causal identification, the field remains ignorant about the precise mechanism by which incarceration erodes employment and earnings. To address these gaps, this study uses the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to estimate the impact of incarceration during late adolescence and early adulthood on short- and long-term employment outcomes. The subjects of interest are all individuals who are convicted of a crime for the first time, some of whom receive a sentence of incarceration following their conviction. Broad measures of legal and illegal employment are used to explore possible avenues by which incarceration affects individual work histories.
Bibliography Citation
Apel, Robert and Gary Sweeten. "The Impact of Incarceration on Employment during the Transition to Adulthood." Social Problems 57,3 (August 2010): 448-479.
2. Berdahl, Terceira Ann
McQuillan, Julta
Occupational Racial Composition and Nonfatal Work Injuries
Social Problems 55,4 (November 2008): 549-572.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/pss/10.1525/sp.2008.55.4.549
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of California Press
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Injuries, Workplace; Labor Market Outcomes; Occupational Segregation; Racial Differences; Racial Equality/Inequality; Social Influences

Is there an association between occupational racial composition and nonfatal workplace injuries? Guided by several labor market theories (queuing, social closure, devaluation, poor market position, and human capital), we use occupational data from the U.S. Census and Dictionary of Occupational Titles combined with individual data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to answer this question. Hierarchical generalized linear models of individuals within occupations show that there is an association between occupational racial composition and workplace injuries, but this association is only statistically significant for white men in the model controlling for relevant occupational and individual level characteristics. A 10 percent increase in the occupation percent black is associated with a 28 percent increase in injury risk. Contrary to expectations, white men have the highest adjusted odds of injury; white women and black men have significantly lower odds of injury than white men. Additionally, occupation-level environmental hazards and individual-level education, hours worked per week, jobs with insurance benefits, working in the South, and specific industries are associated with differential injury risk. These findings are consistent with labor market theories that suggest social closure, market position, and individual skills contribute to differential labor market outcomes. We demonstrate that sociological theories of labor market inequality are useful for understanding workplace injury risk, and that workplace injuries should be studied as an outcome of social inequality. Reprinted by permission of the publisher.
Bibliography Citation
Berdahl, Terceira Ann and Julta McQuillan. "Occupational Racial Composition and Nonfatal Work Injuries." Social Problems 55,4 (November 2008): 549-572.
3. Budig, Michelle Jean
Male Advantage and the Gender Composition of Jobs: Who Rides the Glass Escalator?
Social Problems 49,2 (May 2002): 258-277.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3097230
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of California Press
Keyword(s): Economics of Gender; Employment; Gender; Gender Differences; Occupations, Female; Occupations, Male; Sexual Division of Labor; Wage Gap; Wage Growth; Wages, Men; Wages, Women

Is the gender gap in pay constant across all jobs, or does the gender composition of the job affect male advantage? Using data from the NLSY and a finely detailed measure of the gender composition of jobs, I investigate gender differences in wages and in wage growth. I show how they differ between female-dominated, male-dominated, and balanced jobs. Predictions from Kanter's theory of tokenism and the Williams and Acker theory of gendered organizations are tested. Findings indicate that men are advantaged, net of controls, in both pay levels and wage growth in all jobs, regardless of gender composition. Contrary to predictions generated from Kanter's tokenism theory, men do not suffer when they are tokens, in terms of pay. Not only are predictions from Kanter's theory untrue for male tokens, they also do not hold for female tokens when it comes to wages. Rather, consistent with the Williams and Acker theory of gendered organizations, men are no more—and no less—advantaged when women are tokens; in terms of earnings, men are uniformly advantaged in male-dominated, female-dominated, and balanced jobs. Analyses of promotions data indicate that men are also not additionally advantaged whether they are the numerically dominant or minority gender; in fact, male advantage in promotions is the smallest when men are tokens.
Bibliography Citation
Budig, Michelle Jean. "Male Advantage and the Gender Composition of Jobs: Who Rides the Glass Escalator?" Social Problems 49,2 (May 2002): 258-277.
4. Budig, Michelle Jean
Hodges, Melissa J.
England, Paula A.
Wages of Nurturant and Reproductive Care Workers: Individual and Job Characteristics, Occupational Closure, and Wage-Equalizing Institutions
Social Problems published online (18 April 2018): DOI: 10.1093/socpro/spy007.
Also: https://academic.oup.com/socpro/advance-article/doi/10.1093/socpro/spy007/4976108
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): Job Characteristics; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Occupations; Wage Gap; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite the work's social importance, nurturant and reproductive care workers earn less than others with comparable human capital and work demands. We explore three broad questions related to pay for care work. First, we examine nurturant and reproductive care penalties together to investigate what mechanisms produce the lower wages for these workers. Second, we examine how occupational closure through education credentials and licensing requirements creates varying returns to care work. Finally, we explore the roles of wage equalizing institutions--labor unions and government sector care provision--in reducing wage disparities associated with care work. Using the 1979-2012 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and fixed-effects regression models, we find that selection on stable factors and human capital differences explain much of the lower wages for reproductive workers, but none of the low wages of nurturant workers. However, compared to non-care workers, college-educated nurturant care workers receive lower returns to work experience, suggesting limitations in how much learning can increase efficiency in care work, given the labor intensive, face-to-face nature of much of it. Occupational closure matters: care jobs with the highest educational and licensing requirements pay a wage bonus, while less closed care occupations incur a penalty. Wage equalizing institutions have both floor and ceiling effects on care worker wages that mitigate care penalties for selected workers: women reproductive workers and women in low-education/high-licensing occupations. More consistently, ceiling effects of these institutions lower the wages of otherwise higher paid care workers: nurturant and high-education/high licensing occupations.
Bibliography Citation
Budig, Michelle Jean, Melissa J. Hodges and Paula A. England. "Wages of Nurturant and Reproductive Care Workers: Individual and Job Characteristics, Occupational Closure, and Wage-Equalizing Institutions." Social Problems published online (18 April 2018): DOI: 10.1093/socpro/spy007.
5. England, Paula A.
Budig, Michelle Jean
Folbre, Nancy
Wages Of Virtue: The Relative Pay of Care Work
Social Problems 49,4 (November 2002): 455-474.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/sp.2002.49.4.455
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of California Press
Keyword(s): Modeling, Fixed Effects; Occupational Status; Occupations; Wage Determination; Wage Growth; Wage Rates; Wages

We examine the relative pay of occupations involving care, such as teaching, counseling, providing health services, or supervising children. We use panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth covering workers between 17 and 35 years of age. Care work pays less than other occupations after controlling for the education and employment experience of the workers, many occupation and industry characteristics, and (via individual fixed effects) unmeasured, stable characteristics of those who hold the jobs. Both men and women in care work pay this relative wage penalty. However, more women than men pay the penalty, since more women than men do this kind of work.
Bibliography Citation
England, Paula A., Michelle Jean Budig and Nancy Folbre. "Wages Of Virtue: The Relative Pay of Care Work." Social Problems 49,4 (November 2002): 455-474.
6. Erickson, Julia A.
An Analysis of the Journey to Work for Women
Social Problems 24 (April 1977): 428-435.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/800136
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: University of California Press
Keyword(s): Child Care; Commuting/Type, Time, Method; Family Influences; Job Search; Transportation

The basic argument of this paper is that the journey to work has a different meaning for women than for men. Unlike men, women's home-role requirements are important predictors of the length of their journey to work. Data from the NLS of Mature Women aged thirty to forty-four are examined. The main findings are that women with demanding home roles have shorter journeys to work, and that although black women have longer journeys to work than white women, this is a function of residence and not of differences in the relationship of the home role to the length of journey to work.
Bibliography Citation
Erickson, Julia A. "An Analysis of the Journey to Work for Women." Social Problems 24 (April 1977): 428-435.
7. Houle, Jason N.
A Generation Indebted: Young Adult Debt across Three Cohorts
Social Problems 61,3 (August 2014): 448-465.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/sp.2014.12110
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: University of California Press
Keyword(s): Assets; College Cost; College Education; Debt/Borrowing; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Student Loans

In this study, I examine how young adult indebtedness has changed across three cohorts of young adults in the 1970s, 1980s, and 2000s. I pool data from four National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth cohorts--the NLS-M 1966, NLS-W 1968, NLSY 1979, and NLSY 1997. I have three key findings. First, debt burdens (debt relative to economic resources) have increased substantially across the three cohorts of study. Despite the fact that the most recent cohort of young adults are earlier along in their debt accrual career and have yet to hit many of the major adult milestones that often lead to debt, they are burdened with more debt than previous cohorts of young adults who achieved these milestones earlier. Second, young adult debt portfolios have shifted towards noncollateralized (unsecured) and student loan debt over time, the latter replacing home mortgage debt as the primary form of wealth-building debt among young adults. Third, cohort changes in debt have occurred unequally across social class lines. Young adults from lower social class backgrounds have disproportionately taken on more unsecured debt over time, relative to their more advantaged counterparts. The growth in debt burden across cohorts, however, has been most pronounced among college-educated young adults.
Bibliography Citation
Houle, Jason N. "A Generation Indebted: Young Adult Debt across Three Cohorts." Social Problems 61,3 (August 2014): 448-465.
8. Lundquist, Jennifer Michelle Hickes
The Black-White Gap in Marital Dissolution Among Young Adults: What Can a Counterfactual Scenario Tell Us?
Social Problems 53,3 (August 2006): 421-441.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/sp.2006.53.3.421
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of California Press
Keyword(s): Divorce; Family Formation; Family Studies; Military Personnel; Military Service; Racial Differences

One of the most heavily studied subfields of family sociology is that of racial disparities in family formation trends. While divergent black-white patterns in divorce are well documented, their underlying causal factors are not well understood. Debates on whether such differences are due to socioeconomic compositional differences, cultural differences, or some degree of each continue to surface in the literature. In this article, I use the U.S. military as an institutional counterfactual to larger society because, I argue, it isolates many of the conditions commonly cited in the literature to explain race differences in divorce trends. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), I find that, unlike their civilian counterparts, African American military enlistees have low divorce rates, even lower, it seems, than their fellow enlisted Caucasians. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Lundquist, Jennifer Michelle Hickes. "The Black-White Gap in Marital Dissolution Among Young Adults: What Can a Counterfactual Scenario Tell Us?" Social Problems 53,3 (August 2006): 421-441.
9. Lyon, Larry
Abell, Troy
Jones, Elizabeth D.
Rector-Owen, Holley
The National Longitudinal Surveys Data for Labor Market Entry: Evaluating the Small Effects of Race Discrimination and the Large Effects of Sex Discrimination
Social Problems 29,5 (June 1982): 524-539.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/800401
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: University of California Press
Keyword(s): Discrimination; Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Discrimination, Sex; Earnings; Employment; Family Influences; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Occupational Status; Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Socioeconomic Status (SES); Work Knowledge

This paper constructs racially and sexually comparative models of labor market entry to assess the effects of individual differences and labor market discrimination. Traditional measures of racial discrimination in the labor market are of relatively small importance in explaining prestige and income gaps compared to the effect of individual differences. Measures of sexual discrimination, however, are of considerable importance in accounting for the differences in prestige and income between male and female workers. Sexual discrimination works against women in the allocation of income, but against men for occupational prestige, a pattern that holds for both black and white workers. Discrimination against men for prestige is the logical counterpart of discrimination against women for income. Women should be considered theoretically and empirically distinct from blacks when minority relations are analyzed.
Bibliography Citation
Lyon, Larry, Troy Abell, Elizabeth D. Jones and Holley Rector-Owen. "The National Longitudinal Surveys Data for Labor Market Entry: Evaluating the Small Effects of Race Discrimination and the Large Effects of Sex Discrimination." Social Problems 29,5 (June 1982): 524-539.
10. Mason, Katherine
The Unequal Weight of Discrimination: Gender, Body Size, and Income Inequality
Social Problems 59,3 (August 2012): 411-435.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/sp.2012.59.3.411
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: University of California Press
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Body weight; Gender Differences; Income; Obesity; Weight

This article examines the causes of income inequalities between obese and nonobese workers, focusing on how gender interacts with body size to determine the size and duration of those inequalities. Drawing on data from the 1997–2008 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97), I introduce a positive test for discrimination, which provides a methodological advantage over previous research in this area. I then pose two questions: first, is anti-obesity discrimination to blame for income inequalities between obese and nonobese workers? Second, do women and men's experiences of those inequalities differ? The results indicate that very obese men do face one form of discrimination—statistical discrimination—but that they can overcome initial disadvantages with time. In contrast, obese women's income disadvantages persist over time, suggesting the presence of prejudicial discrimination. In combination with previous studies illustrating how fat women are disadvantaged in educational attainment and marriage outcomes—two important means of accessing economic resources—this research shows one mechanism by which weight, particularly in combination with gender, is a major vector of U.S. inequality.
Bibliography Citation
Mason, Katherine. "The Unequal Weight of Discrimination: Gender, Body Size, and Income Inequality." Social Problems 59,3 (August 2012): 411-435.
11. Roscigno, Vincent J.
Family/School Inequality and African-American/Hispanic Achievement
Social Problems 47,2 (May 2000): 266-290.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3097201
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: University of California Press
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Elementary School Students; Ethnic Differences; Family Background; Family Income; Family Structure; Hispanics; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Racial Differences; Schooling; Siblings; Simultaneity

Analyses of educational achievement and racial gaps, in particular, have demonstrated the importance of family background and school attributes. Little of this work, however, incorporates a broad, multi-level, conceptual and analytic focus; one whereby disadvantages at, and potential linkages between, family and school levels are considered simultaneously. In this paper, I offer a framework that views individuals and societal subgroups as simultaneously embedded in multiple institutional spheres that are potentially interdependent. Such embeddedness and interdependency, I argue, are important for understanding the reproduction of group disadvantage, including that pertaining to educational outcomes. Analyses of Black and Hispanic disadvantages in achievement draw from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and its new school and principal component surveys. Baseline family disadvantages (1986) explain a substantial portion of racial variation in math/reading comprehension (1994), while changes in family income and parental education over a five year period (1986-1990) yield notable consequences as well. These effects are strong and direct at the early elementary levels, and partially mediated through earlier patterns of academic achievement for late elementary and middle school students. The addition of school attributes, and modest declines in family effects, suggest that it is partially through (the allocation of children to) schools that general and race-specific family disadvantages are played out. Particularly important are racial inequalities in public/private school enrollment, school social class composition, instructional expenditure, and crime at the school level. I conclude by discussing the implications of my argument and findings for research in the area of education and stratification more broadly.
Bibliography Citation
Roscigno, Vincent J. "Family/School Inequality and African-American/Hispanic Achievement." Social Problems 47,2 (May 2000): 266-290.
12. Saperstein, Aliya
Penner, Andrew M.
The Race of a Criminal Record: How Incarceration Colors Racial Perceptions
Social Problems 57,1 (February 2010): 92-113.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/pss/10.1525/sp.2010.57.1.92
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of California Press
Keyword(s): Incarceration/Jail; Racial Studies; Self-Perception

The article reports on research conducted to determine whether being incarcerated in the United States affects how individuals perceive their own race and how they are perceived by others. Researchers used unique longitudinal data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. They found that respondents who have been incarcerated are more likely to identify as and be seen as black, and less likely to identify and be seen as white, regardless of how they were perceived or identified previously. Researchers concluded that their research results suggest that race is not a fixed characteristic of individuals but is flexible and continually negotiated in everyday interactions.
Bibliography Citation
Saperstein, Aliya and Andrew M. Penner. "The Race of a Criminal Record: How Incarceration Colors Racial Perceptions." Social Problems 57,1 (February 2010): 92-113.
13. Schneider, Daniel J.
Reich, Adam
Marrying Ain't Hard When You Got a Union Card? Labor Union Membership and First Marriage
Social Problems 61,4 (November 2014): 625-643.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/sp.2014.12316
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of California Press
Keyword(s): Employment; Income; Marriage; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Unions

Over the past five decades, marriage has changed dramatically, as young people began marrying later or never getting married at all. Scholars have shown how this decline is less a result of changing cultural definitions of marriage, and more a result of men's changing access to historically consistent social and economic pre-requisites for marriage. Specifically, men's current economic standing and men's future economic security have been shown to affect their marriageability. Traditionally, labor unions provided economic standing and security to male workers. Yet during the same period that marriage has declined among young people, membership in labor unions has declined precipitously--particularly for men. In this paper we examine the relationship between union membership and first marriage and discuss the possible mechanisms by which union membership might lead to first marriage. We draw on longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-79 to estimate discrete time event-history models of first marriage entry and find that, controlling for many factors, union membership is positively and significantly associated with marriage. We show then that this relationship is largely explained by the increased income, regularity and stability of employment, and fringe benefits that come with union membership.
Bibliography Citation
Schneider, Daniel J. and Adam Reich. "Marrying Ain't Hard When You Got a Union Card? Labor Union Membership and First Marriage." Social Problems 61,4 (November 2014): 625-643.
14. Tanner, Julian
Davies, Scott
O'Grady, Bill
Whatever Happened to Yesterday's Rebels? Longitudinal Effects of Youth Delinquency on Education and Employment
Social Problems 46,2 (May 1999): 250-274.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3097255
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of California Press
Keyword(s): Behavior, Violent; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Drug Use; Educational Attainment; Incarceration/Jail; Occupations; Teenagers

This paper examines whether and how teen delinquency is consequential for a variety of educational and employment outcomes. From the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth we measure five forms of delinquency from 1979 when respondents were 14-17 years old, and investigate whether they predict five different outcomes when those individuals were aged twenty-five to thirty. We measure delinquency as the prevalence of skipping school, drug use, violent behavior, engaging in property crime, and contact with the criminal justice system. Using a variety of regression models, we explore whether delinquency has negative zero-order effects, and negative partial effects net of standard status attainment variables. We find that all types of delinquency have consistently significant and negative impacts on educational attainment among both males and females, net of status attainment variables. Delinquency also has a fairly consistent impact on male occupational outcomes, but has weaker effects on female occupational outcomes. Overall, the data suggest that delinquency has autonomous and negative effects on later life chances. We discuss these findings in light of links between status attainment models and theories of crime and delinquency.
Bibliography Citation
Tanner, Julian, Scott Davies and Bill O'Grady. "Whatever Happened to Yesterday's Rebels? Longitudinal Effects of Youth Delinquency on Education and Employment." Social Problems 46,2 (May 1999): 250-274.
15. Vander Ven, Thomas Michael
Cullen, Francis T.
Carrozza, Mark A.
Wright, John Paul
Home Alone: The Impact of Maternal Employment on Delinquency
Social Problems 48,2 (May 2001): 236-257.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/sp.2001.48.2.236
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: University of California Press
Keyword(s): Behavioral Problems; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Children, Behavioral Development; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Employment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Maternal Employment; Mothers

Recently, conservative commentators and parenting experts have been outspoken about the potential negative effects of maternal employment. Specifically, there appears to be a pervasive belief that delinquency is one unfortunate consequence of maternal work. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), we examine whether the occupational status of mothers has criminogenic effects on their children. After tracing the effects of work hours and occupational conditions through risk factors to delinquency, we find that the characteristics of maternal work have relatively little or no influence on delinquency, but do have a slight (and complex) indirect effect through the delinquency pathway 'supervision'. This general pattern holds regardless of whether early maternal employment (i.e., work occurring when children were in the pre-school years) or current maternal employment is considered. Our findings contradict the view that maternal employment causes child behavioral problems.
Bibliography Citation
Vander Ven, Thomas Michael, Francis T. Cullen, Mark A. Carrozza and John Paul Wright. "Home Alone: The Impact of Maternal Employment on Delinquency." Social Problems 48,2 (May 2001): 236-257.
16. Willson, Andrea E.
Race and Women's Income Trajectories: Employment, Marriage, and Income Security Over the Life Course
Social Problems 50,1 (February 2003): 87-110.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/sp.2003.50.1.87
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: University of California Press
Keyword(s): Benefits, Fringe; Economic Well-Being; Employment; Income; Life Course; Marriage; Modeling; Racial Differences; Women

This article examines the contribution of employment and marriage to the income security of women as they age, and assesses differences in the process of building income security for African American and white women. Using hierarchical linear modeling and data from the National Longitudinal Survey's Mature Women Cohort, I focus on individual-level trajectories of income over time, their determinants, and how they differ across subgroups. The results demonstrate the complexity of change in women's income security over the life course and the important role that race plays in structuring trajectories of income security. Regardless of marital history, employment history, the type of job, or level of education, black women were anchored with substantially lower average adjusted household income and had significantly less growth in this income over time. As they aged, black women experienced less decay in household income; however, their income did not have nearly as far to drop. The pathways that lead from marriage and employment to income security are different for white and black women. The two mechanisms do not operate the same for all women, with white women gaining more security from marriage and black women gaining more security from "good jobs"--those with fringe benefits--to which they often lack access.
Bibliography Citation
Willson, Andrea E. "Race and Women's Income Trajectories: Employment, Marriage, and Income Security Over the Life Course." Social Problems 50,1 (February 2003): 87-110.