Search Results

Source: Population Research and Policy Review
Resulting in 26 citations.
1. Augustine, Jennifer March
Exploring New Life Course Patterns of Mother's Continuing Secondary and College Education
Population Research and Policy Review 35,6 (December 2016): 727-755.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11113-016-9401-5
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); College Degree; Continuing Education; Educational Attainment; Life Course; Motherhood; Mothers, Education

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A mounting body of evidence suggests that the life course sequence that once defined contemporary US women's lives is changing as an increasing number of women now complete their education after the transition to motherhood. Despite such evidence, we know little about this changing pattern of life course events for many US women. The aim of this study, therefore, is to produce population-based estimates that describe the prevalence of mothers' school reentry and secondary and college degree attainment, the timing of women's post-childbearing education vis-a-vis their transition into motherhood, and the characteristics of mothers who pursue additional schooling. To do so, the study draws on data from a nationally representative cohort of US women participating in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 4925) and descriptive and event-history techniques. Findings suggest that a substantial proportion of mothers (17%) completed additional education after the transition to motherhood, especially mothers who had the lowest levels of education at their time of first birth (high school dropouts) (43%). These mothers, who overwhelmingly earned high school degrees/GEDs, were most likely to do so within 5 years of giving birth, while mothers pursuing higher levels were more likely to do so when children were older. Mothers who pursued schooling after the transition to motherhood were remarkably more disadvantaged than women who followed the traditional sequencing of life course events. Compared to women who had the same education upon being mothers, they were also younger, more often poor, and had greater job instability but higher cognitive test scores.
Bibliography Citation
Augustine, Jennifer March. "Exploring New Life Course Patterns of Mother's Continuing Secondary and College Education." Population Research and Policy Review 35,6 (December 2016): 727-755.
2. Bailey, Amy Kate
Sykes, Bryan L.
Veteran Status, Income, and Intergenerational Mobility Across Three Cohorts of American Men
Population Research and Policy Review 37,4 (August 2018): 539-568.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11113-018-9477-1
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Income; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Military Enlistment; Mobility, Social; Veterans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Existing research linking prior military employment with labor market outcomes has focused on comparing the relative income of veterans and nonveterans. However, people who join the armed forces are uniquely selected from the broader population, and the form and direction of selectivity has shifted over time, with differential enlistment rates by race, region, and socioeconomic status. Understanding changes in the demographic composition of enlistees and veterans has significant import for the study of social mobility, particularly given changes in the occupational structure since the mid-twentieth century and wage stagnation well into the new millennium. Furthermore, labor market polarization and increases in educational attainment since WWII raise additional concerns about the social origins of military personnel and their occupational trajectories after discharge. Using data from the National Longitudinal Surveys, we investigate how social background is linked to both income and occupational mobility among veterans from three cohorts of American men: World War II, Vietnam, and the All-Volunteer Force. We find few benefits for veterans, for either income or intergenerational occupational mobility, once social background is controlled, suggesting that selection into the armed forces largely governs outcomes in the civilian labor market. Our findings have significant importance for understanding civilian labor market outcomes and trajectories of social mobility during distinct phases of military staffing.
Bibliography Citation
Bailey, Amy Kate and Bryan L. Sykes. "Veteran Status, Income, and Intergenerational Mobility Across Three Cohorts of American Men." Population Research and Policy Review 37,4 (August 2018): 539-568.
3. Balistreri, Kelly Stamper
Welfare and the Children of Immigrants: Transmission of Dependence or Investment in the Future?
Population Research and Policy Review 29,5 (October 2010): 715-743.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/v623457g714165p2/
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Keyword(s): Benefits, Child Tax; Benefits, Fringe; College Enrollment; High School Completion/Graduates; Hispanic Studies; Immigrants; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Labor Force Participation; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The public concern that immigrant families might be using a disproportionate share of social benefits and transmitting some form of public dependency to their children, combined with the rising levels of immigrants entering the country, fueled the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act in 1996, which limited public assistance to many immigrant families. This paper uses the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to explore the association between exposure to welfare and young adult outcomes of high school graduation, college enrollment and labor force participation with a focus on parental nativity status as well as broad country of origin group. Results indicate a persistent negative association between welfare legacy and high school graduation; a negative association that is most pronounced for children of natives. Results also show the largest positive effect of welfare receipt among the most disadvantaged group, the young adult children of immigrants from Mexican and Central American countries. The main finding of this study suggests that the negative impacts of welfare receipt might be lessened and in some cases reversed among the young adults from immigrant families. Such findings challenge the common notion that immigrant families use welfare as a crutch across generations and raise serious concern about U.S. immigration and welfare policies. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Balistreri, Kelly Stamper. "Welfare and the Children of Immigrants: Transmission of Dependence or Investment in the Future?" Population Research and Policy Review 29,5 (October 2010): 715-743.
4. Garfinkel, Irwin
McLanahan, Sara S.
The Effects of the Child Support Provisions of the Family Support Act of 1988 on Child Well-Being
Population Research and Policy Review 9,3 (September 1990): 205-234.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/v26552545p2445v2/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Keyword(s): Child Support; Children; Children, Well-Being; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Family Structure; Fathers, Absence; Sociability/Socialization/Social Interaction; Well-Being

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A review of the history of the child support system in the US, the role of the Family Support Act of 1988, and empirical research on children from disrupted families and children born out of wedlock. Potential consequences of the 1988 law--eg, increases in child support payments, in father-child contact, and in parent-parent contact with possible conflict--are discussed. A model for evaluating child support reform is developed, and it is emphasized that a critical problem will be to identify, over time, other variables that may affect the seven outcome variables identified. Advantages of utilizing and supplementing existing nationally representative data sets such as the Child Support Supplements to the March Current Populations Survey, the National Survey of Families and Households, and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, are explicated. 1 Figure, 65 References. (Copyright 1991, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Garfinkel, Irwin and Sara S. McLanahan. "The Effects of the Child Support Provisions of the Family Support Act of 1988 on Child Well-Being." Population Research and Policy Review 9,3 (September 1990): 205-234.
5. Goldscheider, Frances Kobrin
Hofferth, Sandra L.
Curtin, Sally C.
Parenthood and Leaving Home in Young Adulthood
Population Research and Policy Review 33,6 (December 2014): 771-796.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11113-014-9334-9/fulltext.html
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at First Birth; Age at First Intercourse; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Delinquency/Gang Activity; Family Formation; Family Structure; Fatherhood; Fathers, Absence; Fathers, Presence; Gender Differences; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Parent-Child Interaction; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parenthood; Parenting Skills/Styles; Teenagers; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

With increases in nonmarital fertility, the sequencing of transitions in early adulthood has become even more complex. Once the primary transition out of the parental home, marriage was first replaced by nonfamily living and cohabitation; more recently, many young adults have become parents before entering a coresidential union. Studies of leaving home, however, have not examined the role of early parenthood. Using the Young Adult Study of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 4,674), we use logistic regression to analyze parenthood both as a correlate of leaving home and as a route from the home. We find that even in mid-adolescence, becoming a parent is linked with leaving home. Coming from a more affluent family is linked with leaving home via routes that do not involve children rather than those that do, and having a warm relationship with either a mother or a father retards leaving home, particularly to nonfamily living, but is not related to parental routes out of the home.
Bibliography Citation
Goldscheider, Frances Kobrin, Sandra L. Hofferth and Sally C. Curtin. "Parenthood and Leaving Home in Young Adulthood." Population Research and Policy Review 33,6 (December 2014): 771-796.
6. Guzzo, Karen Benjamin
Dorius, Cassandra J.
Challenges in Measuring and Studying Multipartnered Fertility in American Survey Data
Population Research and Policy Review 35,4 (August 2016): 553-579.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11113-016-9398-9
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult, NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Data Analysis; Data Quality/Consistency; Fertility, Multiple Partners; Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study; National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth); National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG); Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Multipartnered fertility ("MPF") has become a major topic of interest in the United States due to potential negative linkages with parental, child, and family wellbeing. A first step in studying any newly emerging (or newly identified) social phenomenon is to properly define the issue and identify its prevalence. However, this is problematic in the case of MPF because most existing sources of data were not originally designed to study MPF. We examine the major data sources used to produce estimates of MPF in the United States, discussing the methodological issues that produce conflicting prevalence estimates and providing guidelines for producing comparable estimates. We also discuss important considerations for research seeking to link MPF and outcomes. Our recommendations will help researchers situate their findings in the broader literature and spur future research.
Bibliography Citation
Guzzo, Karen Benjamin and Cassandra J. Dorius. "Challenges in Measuring and Studying Multipartnered Fertility in American Survey Data." Population Research and Policy Review 35,4 (August 2016): 553-579.
7. Han, JooHee
Who Goes to College, Military, Prison, or Long-Term Unemployment? Racialized School-to-Labor Market Transitions Among American Men
Population Research and Policy Review 37,4 (August 2018): 615-640.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11113-018-9480-6
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): College Enrollment; Incarceration/Jail; Military Service; Racial Differences; Transition, Adulthood; Transition, School to Work; Unemployment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper analyzes the selection processes behind post-schooling transitions into college enrollment, military service, long-term unemployment, and incarceration relative to civilian employment, examining to what extent these processes are racialized. Rather than analyzing a complete set of alternatives, previous research typically focuses on a limited set of these alternatives at a time, and rarely accounts for incarceration or long-term unemployment. Using individual-level panel data on the first post-high school transition from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 Cohort, results show that white men experience positive transitions (college enrollment and military service) at higher rates and for longer periods than black men, who experience negative transitions (long-term unemployment and incarceration) at higher rates for longer periods than whites. Competing risk Cox regression analyses reveal that blacks' transitions are polarized, showing that blacks in the upper distributions of standardized test scores and socioeconomic status are more likely to pursue a college education relative to their white counterparts, whereas blacks in the bottom of the standardized test score and socioeconomic status distribution are more likely to experience negative transitions than whites. Unlike prior research finding that military service provided "bridging careers" for racial minorities, black men are no longer more likely to join the military than whites. Instead, blacks now face a much higher risk of incarceration. Implications for intra-generational mobility and changing opportunity structures for racial minorities are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Han, JooHee. "Who Goes to College, Military, Prison, or Long-Term Unemployment? Racialized School-to-Labor Market Transitions Among American Men." Population Research and Policy Review 37,4 (August 2018): 615-640.
8. Kane, Jennifer B.
A Closer Look at the Second Demographic Transition in the US: Evidence of Bidirectionality from a Cohort Perspective (1982–2006)
Population Research and Policy Review 32,1 (February 2013): 47-80.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11113-012-9257-2
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Fertility; Life Course; Modeling, Poisson (IRT–ZIP)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Second demographic transition (SDT) theory posits that increased individualism and secularization have contributed to low fertility in Europe, but very little work has directly tested the salience of SDT theory to fertility trends in the US. Using longitudinal data from a nationally representative cohort of women who were followed throughout their reproductive years (National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort, NLSY79), this study examines the role of several key indicators of the SDT (secularization, egalitarianism, religious affiliation, and female participation in the labor market) on fertility behavior over time (1982–2006). Analyses employ Poisson estimation, logistic regression, and cross-lagged structural equation models to observe unidirectional and bidirectional relationships over the reproductive life course. Findings lend support to the relevance of SDT theory in the US but also provide evidence of “American bipolarity” which distinguishes the US from the European case. Furthermore, analyses document the reciprocal nature of these relationships over time which has implications for how we understand these associations at the individual-level.
Bibliography Citation
Kane, Jennifer B. "A Closer Look at the Second Demographic Transition in the US: Evidence of Bidirectionality from a Cohort Perspective (1982–2006)." Population Research and Policy Review 32,1 (February 2013): 47-80.
9. Kim, Keuntae
Intergenerational Transmission of Age at First Birth in the United States: Evidence from Multiple Surveys
Population Research and Policy Review 33,5 (October 2014): 649-671.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11113-014-9328-7
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at First Birth; Childbearing; Fertility; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

It is well established that the timing of childbearing is transmitted from parents to children in the United States. However, little is known about how the intergenerational link has changed over time and under structural and ideological transformations associated with fertility behaviors. This study first considers changes across two birth cohorts from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) in the extent to which parents’ age at first birth is transmitted to their children. The first cohort includes individuals born during the late 1950s through the early 1960s (NLSY79), while the second includes individuals born in the early 1980s (NLSY97). Results from discrete-time event history analyses indicate that the intergenerational transmission of age at first birth significantly increased for both daughters and sons. These results were confirmed by analyses of data from three cycles of the National Survey of Family Growth spanning the same time period. Over this period, age at first childbirth became increasingly younger for children born to teenage mothers and increasingly older for those born to mothers who began parenthood after age 25. These patterns have important implications for the reproductive polarization hypothesis.
Bibliography Citation
Kim, Keuntae. "Intergenerational Transmission of Age at First Birth in the United States: Evidence from Multiple Surveys." Population Research and Policy Review 33,5 (October 2014): 649-671.
10. Kim, Yujin
The Effect of Incarceration on Midlife Health: A Life-Course Approach
Population Research and Policy Review 34,6 (December 2015): 827-849.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11113-015-9365-x
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Incarceration/Jail; Life Course; Propensity Scores; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A significant association between incarceration and health is well established, but whether this association depends on the timing of incarceration is not known. Men who experience incarceration during the transition to adulthood are more likely to have their educational attainment and transition into the work force disrupted relative to others who are never incarcerated and to those who are first incarcerated in adulthood. Thus, I investigate whether age at first incarceration conditions the relationship between incarceration and men’s health, including general and mental health in midlife. I also examine whether the disadvantaged socioeconomic status and health behavior of ex-inmates function as a main mechanism explaining the relationship between incarceration and health. Using propensity score–weighted regressions with data from the NLSY79. I find that men with a first incarceration during the transition to adulthood (at ages 18–24) are less likely to be in good self-reported general and mental health than otherwise similar men who have never been incarcerated. Results suggest that these negative health conditions among ex-inmates are explained mostly by socioeconomic status such as educational attainment and employment. On the other hand, men with an incarceration experience later in adulthood (at ages 25–40) are not less likely to be in good general and mental health compared to otherwise similar men who have never been incarcerated. Overall, the results from this study encourage a life course approach to understanding the relationship between incarceration and health.
Bibliography Citation
Kim, Yujin. "The Effect of Incarceration on Midlife Health: A Life-Course Approach." Population Research and Policy Review 34,6 (December 2015): 827-849.
11. Light, Audrey L.
Nandi, Alita
Identifying Race and Ethnicity in the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
Population Research and Policy Review 26,2 (April 2007): 125-144.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/p308463686246t74/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Keyword(s): Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Racial Studies; Self-Reporting

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth is among the few surveys to provide multiple reports on respondents' race and ethnicity. Respondents were initially classified as Hispanic, black, or "other" on the basis of data collected during 1978 screener interviews. Respondents subsequently self-reported their "origin or descent" in 1979, and their race and Hispanic origin in 2002; the latter questions conform to the federal standards adopted in 1997 and used in the 2000 census. We use these data to (a) assess the size and nature of the multiracial population, (b) measure the degree of consistency among these alternative race-related variables, and (c) devise a number of alternative race/ethnicity taxonomies and determine which does the best job of explaining variation in log-wages. A key finding is that the explanatory power of race and ethnicity variables improves considerably when we cross-classify respondents by race and Hispanic origin. Little information is lost when multiracial respondents are assigned to one of their reported race categories because they make up only 1.3% of the sample. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

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Bibliography Citation
Light, Audrey L. and Alita Nandi. "Identifying Race and Ethnicity in the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." Population Research and Policy Review 26,2 (April 2007): 125-144.
12. Light, Audrey L.
Omori, Yoshiaki
Determinants of Long-Term Unions: Who Survives the “Seven Year Itch”?
Population Research and Policy Review 32,6 (December 2013): 851-891.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11113-013-9285-6
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Divorce; Marital History/Transitions; Marriage; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Most studies of union formation focus on short-term probabilities of marrying, cohabiting, or divorcing in the next year. In this study, we take a long-term perspective by considering joint probabilities of marrying or cohabiting by certain ages and maintaining the unions for at least 8, 12, or even 24 years. We use data for female respondents in the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to estimate choice models for multiple stages of the union-forming process. We then use the estimated parameters to simulate each woman’s sequence of union transitions from ages 18–46, and use the simulated outcomes to predict probabilities that women with given characteristics follow a variety of long-term paths. We find that a typical, 18 year-old woman with no prior unions has a 22 % chance of cohabiting or marrying within 4 years and maintaining the union for 12+ years; this predicted probability remains steady until the woman nears age 30, when it falls to 17 %. We also find that unions entered via cohabitation contribute significantly to the likelihood of experiencing a long-term union, and that this contribution grows with age and (with age held constant) as women move from first to second unions. This finding reflects the fact that the high probability of entering a cohabiting union more than offsets the relatively low probability of maintaining it for the long-term. Third, the likelihood of forming a union and maintaining it for the long-term is highly sensitive to race, but is largely invariant to factors that can be manipulated by public policy such as divorce laws, welfare benefits, and income tax laws.
Bibliography Citation
Light, Audrey L. and Yoshiaki Omori. "Determinants of Long-Term Unions: Who Survives the “Seven Year Itch”?" Population Research and Policy Review 32,6 (December 2013): 851-891.
13. Manning, Wendy D.
Smock, Pamela Jane
Dorius, Cassandra J.
Cooksey, Elizabeth C.
Cohabitation Expectations Among Young Adults in the United States: Do They Match Behavior?
Population Research and Policy Review 33,2 (April 2014): 287-305.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11113-013-9316-3
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Dating; Expectations/Intentions; Gender Differences; Household Composition; Marital History/Transitions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Cohabitation continues to rise, but there is a lack of knowledge about expectations to cohabit and the linkage between expectations and subsequent cohabitation. We capitalize on a new opportunity to study cohabitation expectations by drawing on the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY79) main youth and two waves (2008 and 2010) of the NLSY young adult (YA) surveys (n = 1,105). We find considerable variation in cohabitation expectations: 39.9 % have no expectation of cohabiting in the future and 16.6 % report high odds of cohabiting in the next 2 years. Cohabitation expectations are associated with higher odds of entering a cohabiting relationship, but are not perfectly associated. Only 38 % of YAs with certain cohabitation expectations in 2008 entered a cohabiting union by 2010. Further investigation of the mismatch between expectations and behaviors indicates that a substantial minority (30 %) who entered a cohabiting union had previously reported no or low expectations, instances of what we term “unplanned cohabitation.” Our findings underscore the importance of considering not only just behavior but also individuals’ expectations for understanding union formation, and more broadly, family change.
Bibliography Citation
Manning, Wendy D., Pamela Jane Smock, Cassandra J. Dorius and Elizabeth C. Cooksey. "Cohabitation Expectations Among Young Adults in the United States: Do They Match Behavior?" Population Research and Policy Review 33,2 (April 2014): 287-305.
14. Maxwell, Nan L.
Fertility Policy and Employment: Implications from the Former Soviet Union
Population Research and Policy Review 17 (1998): 351-368.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/j8762q3k1vt75qw7/
Cohort(s): Mature Women, NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Keyword(s): Cross-national Analysis; Data Quality/Consistency; Demography; Employment; Fertility; Russia, Russian

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

NLS data (Mature and Young Women and NLSY79) were used as the benchmark for Russians in this study: Using individual-level survey data that were collected in Russia in 1993, we analyze the fertility-employment relationship for a sample of urban women who bore children during the Soviet era. Although some Russian policy makers advocate policies that reduce female employment to stimulate fertility, we find little empirical support to ensure success of these policies. Specifically, we find no connection between employment and fertility for our sample of Russian females, perhaps because of their historic, mandated commitment to the labor market. Instead, we find that demographics and attitudes influence fertility decision making. These results, in combination with the findings that our sample of Russian women hold more 'traditional' attitudes toward family and 'egalitanan' attitudes toward work than similar American women, suggest that policies to stimulate fertility by reducing employment may not be effective for women raised during the Soviet era unless a dramatic shift in attitudes away from a strong work commitment also occurs.
Bibliography Citation
Maxwell, Nan L. "Fertility Policy and Employment: Implications from the Former Soviet Union." Population Research and Policy Review 17 (1998): 351-368.
15. Maxwell, Nan L.
Individual and Aggregate Influences on the Age at First Birth
Population Research and Policy Review 10,1 (1991): 27-46.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/v378603h76581167/
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Childbearing; First Birth; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines the influence of individual demand factors and aggregate period and cohort effects on the age at first childbirth for blacks, whites, and three cohorts of mothers. Data from the NLS of Mature Women and Young Women were used to construct three birth cohorts of women: women born between 1923 and 1929, 1930 and 1937, and 1944 and 1954. Results reconcile the discrepancy between increased opportunity cost of childbearing and decreased age at first childbirth by showing dominate aggregate influences for blacks and for more recent cohorts of women. For the early baby-boom cohort, there is a relative strengthening in the influence of both aggregate period and cohort effects and individual demand factors on initial childbearing timing. The study also uncovers potential estimation bias in examining age at first childbirth with indirect aggregate influences operating through individual factors for recent cohorts and spurious correlation existing between individual factors and aggregate influences.
Bibliography Citation
Maxwell, Nan L. "Individual and Aggregate Influences on the Age at First Birth." Population Research and Policy Review 10,1 (1991): 27-46.
16. Perelli-Harris, Brienna
Hoherz, Stefanie
Addo, Fenaba
Lappegard, Trude
Evans, Ann
Sassler, Sharon
Styrc, Marta
Do Marriage and Cohabitation Provide Benefits to Health in Mid-Life? The Role of Childhood Selection Mechanisms and Partnership Characteristics Across Countries
Population Research and Policy Review 37,5 (October 2018): 703-728.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11113-018-9467-3
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Australia, Australian; Britain, British; Cohabitation; Cross-national Analysis; German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP); Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Life Course; Marriage; Norway, Norwegian

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Extensive research has found that marriage provides health benefits to individuals, particularly in the U.S. The rise of cohabitation, however, raises questions about whether simply being in an intimate co-residential partnership conveys the same health benefits as marriage. Here, we use OLS regression to compare differences between partnered and unpartnered, and cohabiting and married individuals with respect to self-rated health in mid-life, an understudied part of the lifecourse. We pay particular attention to selection mechanisms arising in childhood and characteristics of the partnership. We compare results in five countries with different social, economic, and policy contexts: the U.S. (NLSY), U.K. (UKHLS), Australia (HILDA), Germany (SOEP), and Norway (GGS). Results show that living with a partner is positively associated with self-rated health in mid-life in all countries, but that controlling for children, prior separation, and current socio-economic status eliminates differences in Germany and Norway. Significant differences between cohabitation and marriage are only evident in the U.S. and the U.K., but controlling for childhood background, union duration, and prior union dissolution eliminates partnership differentials. The findings suggest that cohabitation in the U.S. and U.K., both liberal welfare regimes, seems to be very different than in the other countries. The results challenge the assumption that only marriage is beneficial for health.
Bibliography Citation
Perelli-Harris, Brienna, Stefanie Hoherz, Fenaba Addo, Trude Lappegard, Ann Evans, Sharon Sassler and Marta Styrc. "Do Marriage and Cohabitation Provide Benefits to Health in Mid-Life? The Role of Childhood Selection Mechanisms and Partnership Characteristics Across Countries." Population Research and Policy Review 37,5 (October 2018): 703-728.
17. Polachek, Solomon W.
Occupational Segregation and the Gender Wage Gap
Population Research and Policy Review 6,1 (1987): 47-67.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/m17804112205mh17/
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Keyword(s): Discrimination; Discrimination, Sex; Dual Economic Theory; Family Constraints; Human Capital; Human Capital Theory; Occupational Segregation; Wage Differentials; Wage Gap

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines the role of occupational segregation in determining gender wage differentials. Utilizing data from the NLS of Mature Women, it was found that: (1) Earnings regressions using sex composition (as measured by percent female within a given occupation) as an independent variable indicate that occupational segregation is unimportant in explaining wage differentials by sex. Traditional human capital variables play more of a role in explaining the wage gap. (2) The 'percent female' variable is inappropriate for use in testing human capital implications in the context of the earnings functions. and (3) Lifetime work consideration, such as the degree of labor force intermittency, are important in determining occupation and wage.Implications for governmental anti- discrimination policies are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Polachek, Solomon W. "Occupational Segregation and the Gender Wage Gap." Population Research and Policy Review 6,1 (1987): 47-67.
18. Quesnel-Vallée, Amélie
Morgan, S. Philip
Missing the Target? Correspondence of Fertility Intentions and Behavior in the U.S.
Population Research and Policy Review 22,5-6 (December 2003): 497-525.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/q45281251445l40g/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Keyword(s): Birth Rate; Expectations/Intentions; Family Size; Fertility; Life Course

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Building on a framework suggested by Bongaarts (2001) and using data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we describe the correspondence between intended family size and observed fertility for the 1957 to 1961 birth cohorts of U.S. women and men. Over an 18-year period (1982-2000), we show that while aggregate intentions are quite stable, discrepancies are very common at the individual level. Women and men were more likely to err in predicting number of additional births in the period 1982-2000 than to hit their target number. A very strong predictor of over- and underachieving fertility is initial intended parity. Those who intended more than two children tended to have fewer children than intended, while those who intended fewer than two children tended to have more children than intended. In addition and consistent with life course arguments, those unmarried in 1982, childless in 1982, and (for women) still in school in 1982 were most likely to underachieve their 2000 intended parity (i.e., have fewer children than intended). We conclude by reflecting on how the circumstances that allow discrepancies between intentions and behavior to almost "balance" in the U.S. may cumulate differently elsewhere to produce much lower fertility.
Bibliography Citation
Quesnel-Vallée, Amélie and S. Philip Morgan. "Missing the Target? Correspondence of Fertility Intentions and Behavior in the U.S." Population Research and Policy Review 22,5-6 (December 2003): 497-525.
19. Rackin, Heather M.
Comparing Veteran and Non-veteran Racial Disparities in Mid-life Health and Well-being
Population Research and Policy Review 36,3 (June 2017): 331-356.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11113-016-9419-8
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): CESD (Depression Scale); Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Racial Differences; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem); Self-Esteem; Veterans; Well-Being

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 data on mid-life physical health, mental health, and self-esteem, I examine inter- and intra-racial disparities in health and well-being among veteran and non-veteran men (N = 2440). After controlling for selectivity into the military via propensity weighting, I find that black veterans have higher self-esteem than white veterans and comparable black non-veterans, but white veterans have similar mid-life self-esteem as their non-veteran counterparts. I find no evidence of disparities in health for depressive symptoms and self-rated health after taking selection into military service into account. The results suggest that aspects of military service may increase blacks' self-esteem, possibly due to less discrimination and more opportunity.
Bibliography Citation
Rackin, Heather M. "Comparing Veteran and Non-veteran Racial Disparities in Mid-life Health and Well-being." Population Research and Policy Review 36,3 (June 2017): 331-356.
20. Rackin, Heather M.
Bachrach, Christine A.
Assessing the Predictive Value of Fertility Expectations Through a Cognitive–Social Model
Population Research and Policy Review 35,4 (August 2016): 527-551.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11113-016-9395-z
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Expectations/Intentions; Fertility; Life Course

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

his paper grounds its analysis in a novel model (Bachrach and Morgan in Popul Dev Rev, 39:459–485, 2013) that suggests that responses to questions about fertility intentions may reflect distinct phenomena at distinct points in the life course. The model suggests that women form "true" intentions when their circumstances make the issue of childbearing salient and urgent enough to draw the cognitive resources needed to make a conscious plan; before this, women report intentions based on cognitive images of family and self. We test the implications of this model for reported fertility expectations using NLSY79 data that measure expectations throughout the life course. We find that early in the life course, before marriage and parenthood, women's fertility expectations are associated with family background and cognitive images of family and future self. Later in the life course, as women experience life course transitions that confer statuses normatively associated with childbearing—such as marriage—and parenthood itself, their reported expectations are better predictors of their fertility than before they passed these life course milestones. Our empirical results provide support for a model which has important implications for both the measurement and conceptualization of women's intended and expected fertility.
Bibliography Citation
Rackin, Heather M. and Christine A. Bachrach. "Assessing the Predictive Value of Fertility Expectations Through a Cognitive–Social Model." Population Research and Policy Review 35,4 (August 2016): 527-551.
21. Roberts, Tracy Elizabeth
Martin, Steven P.
Welfare Exit, Marriage, and Welfare Recidivism: A Reevaluation of Patterns of the 1980s and 1990s.
Population Research and Policy Review 29,2 (April 2010): 105-125.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/lw733v3240431l8h/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Keyword(s): Marriage; Transition, Welfare to Work; Welfare; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We examine the relationship between marriage and welfare recidivism for women leaving a first welfare spell, using the 1979-2000 panels of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Previous studies have found that women who marry around the time of welfare exit have lower rates of welfare return than women who stay single. However, more marriages occur before or after welfare exit than occur at the time of welfare exit. We find that marriages that precede or follow welfare exit by more than 12 months are not associated with significantly lower rates of welfare return. We also confirm previous findings that marriages formed within a year of welfare exit are associated with reduced rates of welfare return. However, these reduced rates mostly indicate later welfare returns rather than fewer welfare returns. Overall, our findings indicate a much weaker association between marriage and welfare independence than has been previously reported for this time period. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Roberts, Tracy Elizabeth and Steven P. Martin. "Welfare Exit, Marriage, and Welfare Recidivism: A Reevaluation of Patterns of the 1980s and 1990s." Population Research and Policy Review 29,2 (April 2010): 105-125.
22. Teachman, Jay D.
Health Limitations and Post-Secondary School Enrollment
Population Research and Policy Review 31,1 (February 2012): 85-96.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/n3338l7l632657ux/fulltext.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): College Enrollment; Health Factors; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Modeling, Fixed Effects

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using 25 years of data taken from the NLSY-79, I investigate the relationship between two measures of health-related work limitations and the likelihood of post-secondary school enrollment. I measure health-related work limitations both in terms of limitations in the kind of work that can be performed and in the amount of work that can be performed. I argue that limitations in kind of work will spur school enrollment, while limitations in amount of work will suppress school enrollment. Results support these arguments.
Bibliography Citation
Teachman, Jay D. "Health Limitations and Post-Secondary School Enrollment." Population Research and Policy Review 31,1 (February 2012): 85-96.
23. Teachman, Jay D.
Tedrow, Lucky M.
Veteran Status and Body Weight: A Longitudinal Fixed-Effects Approach
Population Research and Policy Review 32, 2 (April 2013): 199-220.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11113-012-9262-5
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Life Course; Military Service; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Obesity; Veterans; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

About 10–12 % of young men (and increasingly, women) have served a term in the military. Yet, we know relatively little about the consequences of military service for the lives of those who serve. In this article, we provide estimates of the relationship between men’s peacetime military service during the all-volunteer era (AVE) and body weight using longitudinal data on 6,304 men taken from the National Longitudinal Survey of 1979 (NLSY-79). Using fixed-effects estimators on up to 13 years of data and numerous controls for time-varying life-course characteristics linked to body weight, we find that veterans of active-duty military service have higher levels of BMI and obesity. We argue that eating habits learned during service, coupled with patterns of physical activity, lead to a situation whereby veterans making the transition to less active civilian lifestyles gain weight that is not lost over time.
Bibliography Citation
Teachman, Jay D. and Lucky M. Tedrow. "Veteran Status and Body Weight: A Longitudinal Fixed-Effects Approach." Population Research and Policy Review 32, 2 (April 2013): 199-220.
24. Walsemann, Katrina Michelle
Hummer, Robert A.
Hayward, Mark D.
Heterogeneity in Educational Pathways and the Health Behavior of U.S. Young Adults
Population Research and Policy Review 37,3 (June 2018): 343-366.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11113-018-9463-7
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; College Enrollment; Educational Attainment; Heterogeneity; Life Course; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

An increasing number of U.S. adults are progressing through college in decidedly more complex ways. Little is known, however, about how this growing heterogeneity may be associated with the health behaviors and ultimately health of young adults. Using a life course perspective, we investigate whether and why different educational pathways--that is, variation in when people attend and complete school--are associated with daily smoking and binge drinking among U.S. young adults. We use 14 waves (1997-2011) of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort (n = 7359) that enable us to identify the most common educational pathways, as well as their association with young adult health behaviors. Bachelor's degree recipients who enrolled immediately after high school but did not attain their degree within 4 years were more likely to smoke daily in early adulthood (i.e., ages 26-32) than those who enrolled in college immediately after high school and attained a bachelor's degree within 4 years. Conversely, bachelor's degree recipients who delayed college enrollment were less likely to binge drink in early adulthood than individuals who enrolled in college immediately after high school and attained a bachelor's degree within 4 years. Marital status and household income in young adulthood accounted for some of the relationships between educational pathways and health behavior. These findings highlight the complexity of education's relationship to health behavior and strongly suggest that heterogeneity in educational pathways should be explicitly examined in population health research.
Bibliography Citation
Walsemann, Katrina Michelle, Robert A. Hummer and Mark D. Hayward. "Heterogeneity in Educational Pathways and the Health Behavior of U.S. Young Adults." Population Research and Policy Review 37,3 (June 2018): 343-366.
25. Wilson, Beth A.
Berry, Eddy Helen
Toney, Michael B.
Kim, Young-Taek
Cromartie, John B.
A Panel Based Analysis of the Effects of Race/Ethnicity and Other Individual Level Characteristics at Leaving on Returning
Population Research and Policy Review 28,4 (August 2009): 405-428.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/8r38phn7g765jj0q/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Keyword(s): Education; Employment; Ethnic Groups; Ethnic Studies; Gender Differences; Migration; Migration Patterns

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Individual level differentials between migrants and nonmigrants are examined to ascertain the likelihood of return migration to a prior residence based on characteristics at the time of departure from place of origin. Analysis focuses on comparisons of Hispanics, blacks and whites, examining the odds of return migration by education, employment status, marital status, home ownership, length of residence, gender, age, and migration interval. The 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) is utilized to identify 13,798 preliminary migrations that may be followed by at least one return migration. Findings indicate a sharp decline in propensity to return migrate as length of absence from origin increases. Regardless of length of time since the preliminary migration, both blacks and Hispanics are more likely to return migrate than are whites. Individuals who resided at place of origin for longer periods before leaving had strikingly higher odds for return migration. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Wilson, Beth A., Eddy Helen Berry, Michael B. Toney, Young-Taek Kim and John B. Cromartie. "A Panel Based Analysis of the Effects of Race/Ethnicity and Other Individual Level Characteristics at Leaving on Returning." Population Research and Policy Review 28,4 (August 2009): 405-428.
26. Zajacova, Anna
Walsemann, Katrina Michelle
Dowd, Jennifer Beam
The Long Arm of Adolescent Health Among Men and Women: Does Attained Status Explain Its Association with Mid-Adulthood Health?
Population Research and Policy Review 34,1 (February 2015): 19-48.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11113-014-9327-8
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Gender Differences; Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Income; Life Course

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A growing body of research has established the effect of early health on later-life health. This study extends the literature by (1) examining multiple dimensions of mid-adulthood health including physical and mental conditions, (2) analyzing attained status (education and income) as a potential pathway through which health problems in adolescence may impact later health, and (3) considering the role of gender in these life course processes. Using over 20 years of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979 cohort (NLSY79), we test the associations between adolescent health limitations and eight adult health measures for men and women, and whether these associations are mediated by status attainment. We find strong links between adolescent health limitations and mid-adulthood health, especially among women. Among men, the associations are strong for measures of physical health but somewhat weaker for mental and general health measures--taking into account the men's demographic characteristics, family background, and skills, the effects of adolescent limitations become non-significant for these dimensions. These patterns are largely independent of attained socioeconomic status; that is, education and income do not appear to be critical pathways from adolescent to adult health. Understanding how early health influences the long-term trajectory of health and social capital accumulation for men and women is critical for developing social and health research and policy, in order to optimize health over the entire life course.
Bibliography Citation
Zajacova, Anna, Katrina Michelle Walsemann and Jennifer Beam Dowd. "The Long Arm of Adolescent Health Among Men and Women: Does Attained Status Explain Its Association with Mid-Adulthood Health?" Population Research and Policy Review 34,1 (February 2015): 19-48.