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Source: Population Association of America
Resulting in 762 citations.
[1][2]
1. Abma, Joyce C.
Mott, Frank L.
Is There a 'Bad Mother' Syndrome? Evidence of Overlapping High Risk Behavior During Pregnancy Among a National Cross-section of Young Mothers
Presented: Toronto, Canada, Population Association of America Meetings, May 1990
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Alcohol Use; Birthweight; Child Health; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Deviance; Drug Use; Fathers, Absence; First Birth; Household Composition; Mothers; Mothers, Behavior; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Unemployment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Growing evidence documents that significant proportions of mothers engage in behaviors considered detrimental to fetal development and infant health. These risk factors include neglect of prenatal care, excessive alcohol use, and the use of nicotine or other substances. This study explores the extent to which mothers who combine two or more of the behaviors during pregnancy, constitute a subset potentially distinct from those who engage in only one or none. The authors investigate the background factors and behaviors which differentiate these groups of mothers. The 1979 through 1986 waves of the NLSY are used for analysis of first births for about 2000 younger mothers. The study points to the limitations of population statistics on prenatal behavior patterns that present each behavior separately, and investigates the potentially compounding effect multiple risk factors can have on infants.
Bibliography Citation
Abma, Joyce C. and Frank L. Mott. "Is There a 'Bad Mother' Syndrome? Evidence of Overlapping High Risk Behavior During Pregnancy Among a National Cross-section of Young Mothers." Presented: Toronto, Canada, Population Association of America Meetings, May 1990.
2. Acs, Gregory P.
Can We Promote Child Well-Being by Promoting Marriage?
Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 30, 2005.
Also: http://paa2005.princeton.edu/download.aspx?submissionId=51422
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Well-Being; Household Composition; Marriage; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Temperament; Turbulence

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Mother-Child files to examine how the relationships between children's well-being and their living arrangements are affected to by the quality of their parents' marriages and turbulence in their living arrangements. Using the future marital status of children's parents to measure the quality of parents' marriages, I find that children living with parents in a "poor" marriage have more behavioral problems than children living with parents in "good" marriages. Parental marriage quality does not affect children's math and reading scores. Interestingly, even children living with parents in a "poor" marriage have fewer behavioral problems and higher math and reading scores than children living with single mothers. Evidence on the impact of recent changes in living arrangements on child well-being is mixed.
Bibliography Citation
Acs, Gregory P. "Can We Promote Child Well-Being by Promoting Marriage?." Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 30, 2005.
3. Acs, Gregory P.
Wissoker, Douglas A.
The Impact of Local Labor Markets on the Employment Patterns of Young Inner-City Males
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, 1991.
Also: http://www.psc.isr.umich.edu/dis/infoserv/catalog/detail/120886
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Employment, Youth; Geographical Variation; Inner-City; Labor Force Participation; Local Labor Market; Racial Differences; Residence; Transition, School to Work; Unemployment Rate; Unemployment, Youth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Over the past two decades, both people and firms have moved from centralized urban areas to the suburbs. Some argue that the resulting spatial isolation of those left in the inner-city has contributed to rising joblessness and concentrated urban poverty. In this analysis, the authors examine the relative importance of spatial isolation, individual characteristics, and the strength of local labor markets on the post-schooling employment patterns of young men using data from the NLSY. Although inner-city youth unemployment rates are higher than those of other youth, the authors found that this reflects differences in individual and city-wide characteristics rather than location within an urban area. Indeed, while living in an inner-city appears to have little effect on the employment patterns of youth, differences in the local economy measured by SMSA-level unemployment rates significantly affect the amount of time it takes youth to find jobs after leaving school and the stability of their employment.
Bibliography Citation
Acs, Gregory P. and Douglas A. Wissoker. "The Impact of Local Labor Markets on the Employment Patterns of Young Inner-City Males." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, 1991.
4. Addo, Fenaba
"Playing House": Financial Integration and Relationship Transitions among Current Cohabitors
Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Credit/Credit Constraint; Financial Behaviors/Decisions; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines whether financial attributes of shared living are associated with transitions to marriage or dissolution among current cohabitors. Using a sample of cohabitors interviewed during the two most recent waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979 Child and Young Adult study (N=712), the analysis focused on varying degrees of financial integration as proxies for relationship constraint commitments (Stanley & Markman 1992). Preliminary results indicated cohabitors engaged in progressive practices, such as having joint credit cards with their partner, have an increased probability of union dissolution, whereas respondents who practiced investment strategies, e.g. sharing a mortgage, were more likely to marry. This study sheds light on the heterogeneous ways that a recent cohort of young couples manage their finances and navigate relationships.
Bibliography Citation
Addo, Fenaba. ""Playing House": Financial Integration and Relationship Transitions among Current Cohabitors." Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014.
5. Addo, Fenaba
A Debt-Financed Life: Does It Preclude or Induce the Transition to First Cohabitation or Marriage?
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Coresidence; Credit/Credit Constraint; Debt/Borrowing; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper explores the role of consumption debt on young adult transitions into first unions, both marital and cohabiting. For many young adults, assuming the debtor role may serve as a vehicle for achieving financial independence (Arnett, 2004) an important step in the transition to coresidential relationships. Given that the theoretical predictions of consumption smoothing with debt are ambiguous given the dependence on the timing, quantity, and quality of the debt,(Chiteji, 2007) and existing research suggesting that the economic and financial “underpinnings” for cohabitation and marriage may not necessarily be congruent (Kravdal, 2010; Sassler, 2004; Clarkberg,1999), I hypothesize that a large debt load may act as a precursor to cohabitation but as a hindrance to marriage. Using the NLSY97, I follow approximately 4,000 from age 18 through age 25 and analyze the effect of early exposure to credit card and other non-collateralized debt on transitioning to their first coresidential relationship.
Bibliography Citation
Addo, Fenaba. "A Debt-Financed Life: Does It Preclude or Induce the Transition to First Cohabitation or Marriage?" Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011.
6. Addo, Fenaba
Debt, Cohabitation, and Marital Timing in Young Adulthood
Presented: San Francisco CA, Population Association of America Meetings, May 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Debt/Borrowing; Marriage; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the 1997 cohort of the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, I follow approximately 6,700 youth from early adulthood through their late 20s and compare youth who transition from singlehood into their first cohabitation to those who enter directly into marriage, utilizing a discrete-time competing risks hazard model framework. Results suggest total debt amount is associated with transitioning into a cohabitating union, increasing the odds of cohabitation over marriage and remaining single for both women and men. Credit card debt increases the probability of cohabitation, whereas education loan debt decreases the odds of marriage relative to remaining single and marrying for young women. Holding debt, independent of debt size, appears to influence first union choice in young adulthood for women. Transitioning to marriage is positively associated with greater educational attainment for all, but women with education loan debt are more likely to delay marrying and cohabit first.
Bibliography Citation
Addo, Fenaba. "Debt, Cohabitation, and Marital Timing in Young Adulthood." Presented: San Francisco CA, Population Association of America Meetings, May 2012.
7. Addo, Fenaba
Perelli-Harris, Brienna
Hoherz, Stefanie
Lappegard, Trude
Sassler, Sharon
Partnership Status and the Wage Premium in the United States, United Kingdom, Germany, and Norway: What Explains Differentials Between Married and Cohabiting Adults?
Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Cross-national Analysis; German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP); Marital Status; Marriage; Norway, Norwegian; Wage Dynamics; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Previous research has found that marriage often results in a wage premium. With recent increases in cohabitation, cohabitors may experience similar returns to their relationship status (or may continue to be stigmatized). Here we are interested in whether legal, welfare, and cultural contexts contribute to differentials in the marriage and cohabitation wage premium. We compare differences in wages between married and cohabiting men and women in the UK (BCS70), US (NLSY), Norway (GGS), and Germany (SOEP). Preliminary results indicate that both gender and context matter. Marriage provides a boost to wages in the U.S. and U.K. for both men and women, however, family background and the selectivity of cohabiting unions reduces differences. There are no differences between cohabitation and married in the Norwegian context, and German female cohabiters earn slightly more than married women, but this is reduced once accounting for the presence of children.
Bibliography Citation
Addo, Fenaba, Brienna Perelli-Harris, Stefanie Hoherz, Trude Lappegard and Sharon Sassler. "Partnership Status and the Wage Premium in the United States, United Kingdom, Germany, and Norway: What Explains Differentials Between Married and Cohabiting Adults?" Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017.
8. Addo, Fenaba
Su, Jessica Houston
Unintended Fertility, Wealth, and Wealth Trajectories of U.S. Adult Mothers
Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Fertility; First Birth; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Mothers; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The ability to control the timing and spacing of children is related to several aspects of economic and social mobility for women. Although a large body of research has evaluated socioeconomic outcomes related to access to contraception and teen childbearing, there is little research on (1) unplanned childbearing among adults and (2) the relationship between unintended childbearing and wealth trajectories. Using linear hierarchical growth curve models and panel data from the 1979 cohort of the NLSY (N=1,696), we estimate the wealth trajectories of U.S. mothers after the birth of their first child. Our analysis has three main results. First, mothers who had an unintended first birth have lower wealth than mothers who had a planned birth and these wealth disparities grow over time. Second, group differences in social and economic status explain half of the observed wealth differences. Third, the wealth trajectories of mothers with mistimed births decline over time.
Bibliography Citation
Addo, Fenaba and Jessica Houston Su. "Unintended Fertility, Wealth, and Wealth Trajectories of U.S. Adult Mothers." Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018.
9. Ahituv, Avner
Kamenecka, Paulette
Gender and Ethnic Differences in School Departure Does Youth Employment Promote or Undermine Educational Attainment?
Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America, May 1996
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Employment, Youth; Ethnic Differences; Gender Differences; Hispanics; Labor Market Outcomes; Life Course; School Dropouts

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The transition from school to work activities is a defining feature in the life course of adolescent men and women. To better understand this transition, we explore patterns of school departure among white, black and Hispanic male and female youth using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). In particular, we document race, ethnic and gender differences in the timing of school departure and labor market entry as well as the consequences of adolescent labor market experience force employment outcomes during early adulthood. From these patterns, we determine the conditions under which adolescent employment may precipitate early school withdrawal.
Bibliography Citation
Ahituv, Avner and Paulette Kamenecka. "Gender and Ethnic Differences in School Departure Does Youth Employment Promote or Undermine Educational Attainment?" Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America, May 1996.
10. Ahituv, Avner
Lerman, Robert I.
Job Stability, Earnings, and Marital Stability: How Are They Related?
Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Earnings; Job Turnover; Life Course; Male Sample; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines the interactions between job stability, earnings, and marital instability. We analyze the sequence of jobs, marriages, divorces, and remarriages among young men and ask: 1) Do job stability, high wages, and the career advancement of young men promote marriage and marital stability? 2) What are the consequences of marriage and marital stability for achieving high levels of job stability and occupational success? We use a Dynamic Selection Control model to estimate how young men make sequential choices about work and family. The maximum likelihood (ML) approach takes account of self-selection, simultaneity and heterogeneity. The data come from the 1979-1994 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79). The initial results show causal impacts in both directions: job stability promotes higher earnings and marital stability, while marital stability increases job stability and earnings. Simulation results showing impacts of economic shocks on pathways will appear in the revised paper.
Bibliography Citation
Ahituv, Avner and Robert I. Lerman. "Job Stability, Earnings, and Marital Stability: How Are They Related?" Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2004.
11. Ahlburg, Dennis
McCall, Brian P.
A Hazard Model of College with Endogenous Waiting
Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): College Dropouts; College Enrollment; College Graduates; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from NLSY79 and NLSY97 we investigate college attendance, dropout, and graduation behavior of high school graduates. Bivariate duration models, which allow the unobserved determinants of spell durations to be correlated across spells, are developed and used to study the impact of waiting time until college enrollment on college dropout and graduation. In NLSY79 we find that delaying college entry by one year after high school reduces the probability of graduating by up to 32 percent in models that account for the endogeneity of delaying enrollment. We also found that those who delay entry to college have hourly wages that are 9.2 percent less than those who did not delay. There is also evidence that the largest impact of delay occurs for those with lower ability. We are currently estimating the model on NLSY97 data and will compare the results for the two cohorts.
Bibliography Citation
Ahlburg, Dennis and Brian P. McCall. "A Hazard Model of College with Endogenous Waiting." Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016.
12. Aisenbrey, Silke
Fasang, Anette
Work-Family Trajectories in Germany and the United States
Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Family Studies; Gender Differences; Germany, German; Labor Force Participation; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Across advanced societies women’s labor force participation has increased while fertility has declined over the past decades, albeit to varying degrees. To scrutinize the impact of macro-structural contexts on how men and women combine work and family from career entry until midlife, this study compares Germany and the United States. Results using longitudinal data and sequence analysis show that the conservative male breadwinner welfare state in Germany reinforces gender differences in work-family trajectories, whereas the liberal market and residual welfare state in the United States exacerbates differences by social class. Further, the American context provides a more gender-equal playing field for men and women in the most prestigious professional occupations, whereas work-family trajectories are most gendered at the bottom of the social structure. In contrast, in Germany, gendering of work-family trajectories is strong across the entire range of the social structure.
Bibliography Citation
Aisenbrey, Silke and Anette Fasang. "Work-Family Trajectories in Germany and the United States." Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014.
13. Alon, Sigal
Consequences of Racial Disparities in Young Women's Early Labor Market Behavior
Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March 2000
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Employment; Employment, In-School; Hispanics; Human Capital Theory; Wages; Wages, Women; Wages, Young Women; Women; Work Experience; Work History

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

By age 30 women of different racial/ethnic groups have similar rates of full-time employment, yet they exhibit considerable wage inequality. I hypothesize that young women's early work experiences produce different "human capital profiles," which affect future earnings prospects. Utilizing an inclusive definition to include transitions among employers, full and part-time employment, and labor force states (employment and non-employment), I develop a conceptual scheme that captures the dynamic aspects of women's labor market behavior from age 16 to 30. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (Work History file) I examine various job transitions of young women over this 15-year period. Results confirm that there are substantial differences among racial/ethnic groups in the acquisition of employment experience, and that these differences help explain wage dispersion by Race and Hispanic origin. The type and timing of transitions at younger ages are critical to the wage prospects of those women at mature age.
Bibliography Citation
Alon, Sigal. "Consequences of Racial Disparities in Young Women's Early Labor Market Behavior." Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March 2000.
14. Alvarado, Steven Elias
Childhood Neighborhood Disadvantage and Criminal Justice Contact in Adulthood: Heterogeneous Effects by Timing of Exposure
Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Childhood Adversity/Trauma; Criminal Justice System; Geocoded Data; Incarceration/Jail; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Neighborhood Effects; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Residential segregation and mass incarceration are key components of contemporary inequality. This paper examines the association between early exposure to neighborhood disadvantage in youth and incarceration in adulthood. Restricted and geocoded panel data from the NLSY, Children and Young Adults cohort allows for the analysis of 26 years (14 waves) of neighborhood effects across the life-course. These data parallel the prison boom span multiple members and generations of the family. Sibling fixed effects analyses suggest that exposure to neighborhood disadvantage early in life increases 1) the odds of developing problematic behaviors in childhood and adolescence and 2) the odds of criminal conviction and being incarcerated as an adult, net of observed and unobserved adjustments. The results also align with developmental theory in that exposure to neighborhood conditions during adolescence is more salient than exposure during early childhood. Alternative specifications of neighborhood disadvantage and cousin fixed effects models reinforce the findings.
Bibliography Citation
Alvarado, Steven Elias. "Childhood Neighborhood Disadvantage and Criminal Justice Contact in Adulthood: Heterogeneous Effects by Timing of Exposure." Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017.
15. Alvarado, Steven Elias
Childhood Neighborhood Disadvantage Effects on Joblessness and Income in Adulthood
Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Childhood Adversity/Trauma; Geocoded Data; Income; Kinship; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Neighborhood Effects; Poverty; Siblings; Unemployment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Wilson's (1987) seminal contribution to the study of residential inequality focused heavily on adult economic outcomes as crucial components of the intergenerational transmission of poverty. This study uses 26 years (14 waves) of restricted panel data from the NLSY, Children and Young Adults cohort – data that has never been used to analyze long-term neighborhood effects – to examine whether childhood and adolescent neighborhood disadvantage affects adult (ages 19-41) economic outcomes. Sibling fixed effects models suggest that youth neighborhood disadvantage increases joblessness and reduces income in adulthood, net of observed and unobserved adjustments, and that childhood exposure is more salient than adolescent exposure. Moreover, these results persist deep into adulthood and are robust to alternative specifications of neighborhood disadvantage. Adjusting for the legacy of disadvantage that cascades from grandparents to grandchildren through cousin fixed effects further reinforces the findings.
Bibliography Citation
Alvarado, Steven Elias. "Childhood Neighborhood Disadvantage Effects on Joblessness and Income in Adulthood." Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017.
16. Alvarado, Steven Elias
Multiple Generations of Neighborhood Disadvantage and Adult Obesity Among Grandchildren
Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Disadvantaged, Economically; Geocoded Data; Grandchildren; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Neighborhood Effects; Obesity

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Empirical examinations of how residential inequality compounds over multiple generations to impact health outcomes are rare. This project investigates the association between the intergenerational transmission of neighborhood disadvantage and adult obesity for grandchildren. Restricted tract-level data from the NLSY allow for the first empirical investigation into how exposure to multiple generations of neighborhood disadvantage is associated adult obesity of grandchildren. On the one hand, the results suggest that there is no impact on grandchildren's adult obesity for parents' childhood exposure to neighborhood disadvantage if those parents were able to ascend to non-disadvantaged neighborhoods in adulthood. On the other hand, grandchildren's adult obesity increases if parents lived in disadvantaged neighborhoods in adulthood after not growing up in disadvantaged neighborhoods in childhood. This analysis contributes to a more robust understanding of the role that neighborhoods play in the persistence of health inequality across multiple generations.
Bibliography Citation
Alvarado, Steven Elias. "Multiple Generations of Neighborhood Disadvantage and Adult Obesity Among Grandchildren." Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018.
17. Alvarado, Steven Elias
The Effect of Neighborhood Context on Educational Achievement
Presented: San Francisco CA, Population Association of America Meetings, May 2012
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Educational Outcomes; Ethnic Differences; Geocoded Data; Neighborhood Effects; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper investigates the effects of neighborhood context on math and reading scores for youth who experience exogenous neighborhood change around them over time. Seldom-used restricted panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1986 – 2008) is used to estimate person fixed effects models that account for unobserved time-invariant characteristics of children and families. Black and Latino youth are found to reside amidst more disadvantaged neighborhoods throughout adolescence than Whites. Further, disparities in neighborhood quality are rigid as children mature. Fixed-effects models demonstrate that neighborhood poverty is a consistent detrimental force for achievement across racial and ethnic groups. Gentrification, however, is an inconsistent predictor of increased achievement across these groups. Theoretical and methodological implications are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Alvarado, Steven Elias. "The Effect of Neighborhood Context on Educational Achievement." Presented: San Francisco CA, Population Association of America Meetings, May 2012.
18. Alvarado, Steven Elias
The Effect of Neighborhood Context on Obesity among Youth
Presented: San Francisco CA, Population Association of America Meetings, May 2012
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Geocoded Data; Mobility, Residential; Neighborhood Effects; Obesity; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study uses geo-coded data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and fixed-effects to estimate neighborhood effects on obesity for youth ages 2 - 18 between 1986 and 2008. This study contributes an analysis of movers and stayers, an accounting of neighborhood change over time, and an accounting of the effects of moving to affluence and gentrification. Among urban Blacks and Latinos, gentrification did not affect obesity while unemployment increased their odds of being obese. Among POOR and urban Black youth, moving to more affluent neighborhoods decreased the odds of being obese, but this effect waned over time. Meanwhile, POOR and urban Latinos did not benefit from either affluence or gentrification. Policies that move poor and urban minorities to more affluent neighborhoods and those that economically revitalize neighborhoods around them over time should enhance the resources and services available to these severely disadvantaged sub-populations.
Bibliography Citation
Alvarado, Steven Elias. "The Effect of Neighborhood Context on Obesity among Youth." Presented: San Francisco CA, Population Association of America Meetings, May 2012.
19. Alvarado, Steven Elias
The Latino Health Paradox: A Cross-Generational Comparison
Presented: New York NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 2007
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Child Health; Hispanics; Immigrants; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Research into the ‘Latino epidemiological paradox’ has found that compared to similar socioeconomic native groups, first generation Latino immigrants exhibit advantages in health status measured in a variety of ways. These researchers focus on cross-sectional data to paint a picture of immigrants’ health status at one point in time – either early or very late in life. Other researchers have begun to look at the evolution of health status among the first generation and have found that the initial health advantages of this bourgeoning group erode fairly quickly upon entry to the U.S. Following such a trajectory in the literature on immigrant health, this paper measures the effect of generational status (first/second generation versus third generation) on the odds of having a child of low birth weight among the children and grandchildren of immigrants. The main hypothesis I test is that the children and grandchildren of immigrants will have increasingly higher odds of having a low birth weight child compared to their parents across racial/ethnic groups. I use 25 years worth of data from the NLSY to run logistic regression analysis and find that generational status indeed does increase the odds that later generations of Latinas living in the U.S. will have a child of low birth weight compared to earlier generations. The finding that low birth weight risk increases over generations is paradoxical in that Latinos migrate to the U.S. in order to better their lives–yet, living in the U.S. results in declines in health.
Bibliography Citation
Alvarado, Steven Elias. "The Latino Health Paradox: A Cross-Generational Comparison." Presented: New York NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 2007.
20. Amorim, Mariana
Dunifon, Rachel
Pilkauskas, Natasha
The Prevalence and Instability of Grandparental Coresidence During Childhood
Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): American Community Survey; Childhood; Coresidence; Grandparents; Household Structure; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Cross-sectional estimates show that the share of children living with grandparents has risen over the last two decades, yet little is understood about a child's likelihood of ever living with a grandparent. In this paper, we calculate the cumulative and age-specific probabilities of coresidence with grandparents during childhood. We used the American Community Survey and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to create multi-decrement period life tables to study the prevalence and instability of grandparent coresidence. We examine differences between three-generation and grandfamily arrangements and explore patterns by race and ethnicity. Our results indicate that up to 31.5% of children ever co-reside with grandparents in either arrangement. We also find striking racial disparities in the probability of co-residing with grandparents that vary by type of grandparent household. Grandparental coresidence most commonly starts during the child's first year of life. Three-generation arrangements are highly unstable and short-lived.
Bibliography Citation
Amorim, Mariana, Rachel Dunifon and Natasha Pilkauskas. "The Prevalence and Instability of Grandparental Coresidence During Childhood." Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017.
21. Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina
Kimmel, Jean
Do College Educated Women Reduce Their Motherhood Wage Penalty by Delaying Childbearing?
Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2003
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Earnings; Fertility; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty; Wages, Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

One of the stylized facts from the past thirty years has been the declining rate of first births before age 30 for all women and the increase rate of first births after age 30 among women with four-year college degrees (Martin 2000). What are some of the factors behind womens decision to postpone their childbearing? We hypothesize that the wage gap often observed between like-educated mothers and non-mothers (Waldfogel 1998) may be mitigated by postponing fertility. We use individual-level data on women from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to estimate a wage equation model that is later on expanded to address fundamental econometric issues and the education/fertility issue at hand. We find that half of the motherhood wage gap of college-educated women can be eliminated by postponing fertility until their thirties, helping us understand the postponement of maternity among educated women and the overall decline in fertility.
Bibliography Citation
Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina and Jean Kimmel. "Do College Educated Women Reduce Their Motherhood Wage Penalty by Delaying Childbearing?" Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2003.
22. Anderson, Douglas K.
Effects of Pregnancy, Childbirth, and Motherhood on High School Dropout and Graduation
Presented: Cincinnati, OH, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1993
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Childbearing; Educational Status; Family Background; Fertility; First Birth; High School Completion/Graduates; High School Dropouts; Minimum Wage; Motherhood; Mothers; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The educational effects of a first birth are explored by estimating the consequences of pregnancy, giving birth, and being a mother on high school dropout and on graduation among previous dropouts. Event history analysis is based on schooling histories constructed from annual enrollment reports and fertility histories of female respondents of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 to 1986 interviews. Controlling for background, pregnancy dramatically increases the incidence of dropout, especially for very young women. Mothers, especially new mothers and very young mothers, have significantly elevated dropout rates. Dropout mothers have lower rates of graduation than other dropouts for at least the first six years after dropout.
Bibliography Citation
Anderson, Douglas K. "Effects of Pregnancy, Childbirth, and Motherhood on High School Dropout and Graduation." Presented: Cincinnati, OH, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1993.
23. Anderson, Thomas
Gender Ideology and Fertility Trends in the United States: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979
Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Fertility; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Gender Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

While high levels of gender equity strongly correlate with moderately high levels of fertility among developed countries, contradictory empirical evidence has caused a debate whether the relationship between low gender equity and low fertility holds within these societies. Within the United States, few studies have systematically analyzed individuals' attitudes on gender equity and their associations with fertility outcomes. Of those that have, their evidence remains inconclusive at best. Using data from the NLSY 1979, this paper fills in the gaps in the literature on fertility and gender equity in the United States by analyzing whether gender equity attitudes are predictive of completed family size and birth progressions. I find that both men and women with progressive views on gender equity have lower fertility than their traditional counterparts, though these results were stronger, more consistent, and more significant across models for women.
Bibliography Citation
Anderson, Thomas. "Gender Ideology and Fertility Trends in the United States: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979." Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015.
24. Aratani, Yumiko
Jiang, Yang
Socioeconomic Outcomes of Youths Living in Poverty during the Post-1996 Welfare Reform Era
Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Legislation; Poverty; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines the effect of the 1996 welfare reform on low-income youth's outcomes in young adulthood. In the 1990s, there were major reforms in many of the social and health policies, which became the basis of the current U.S. safety net programs. The most significant policy changes were implemented under the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunities Reconciliation Act. (PRWORA). Using two national data sets, the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth 1979 and 1997, we compared socio-economic outcomes of adolescents who grew up in poverty during the pre- and post-PRWORA era. The results showed that growing up in the post welfare reform era significantly reduced the likelihood of receiving welfare assistance but increased the likelihood of living in poverty during young adulthood. The findings indicate challenges that low-income youth are facing in their transition to the adulthood after U.S. social safety-net programs have shrunk in late 1990s.
Bibliography Citation
Aratani, Yumiko and Yang Jiang. "Socioeconomic Outcomes of Youths Living in Poverty during the Post-1996 Welfare Reform Era." Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015.
25. Argys, Laura M.
Averett, Susan L.
Rees, Daniel I.
Welfare Generosity, Pregnancies and Abortions Among Unmarried Recipients
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 1997
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Abortion; Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Childbearing; Family Studies; Fertility; Marital Status; Modeling; Modeling, Probit; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In an attempt to reduce births to women on welfare, many states have instituted family caps which eliminate increases in welfare payments for recipients who have additional children. Most proponents of family caps believe that any reduction in births will be accomplished through a decrease in pregnancies. However, a reduction in births to recipient mothers may instead result from an increase in abortions. By exploiting state differences in AFDC benefit levels we are able to examine the link between reduced benefits, pregnancy and pregnancy resolution. Using a sample of unmarried AFDC recipients from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we estimate a bivariate probit model of the determinants of pregnancy while on AFDC and, conditional on becoming pregnant, the probability of obtaining an abortion. Our results suggest that that lower welfare benefits are not strongly associated with reductions in pregnancies or increases in abortions.
Bibliography Citation
Argys, Laura M., Susan L. Averett and Daniel I. Rees. "Welfare Generosity, Pregnancies and Abortions Among Unmarried Recipients." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 1997.
26. Argys, Laura M.
Rees, Daniel I.
Do Older Peers Affect Adolescent Behavior?
Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Endogeneity; Risk-Taking; Siblings; Teenagers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Parents, educators, and policymakers expend a great deal of effort trying to provide an environment for adolescents that increases the likelihood of success in school and work, and decreases the likelihood of substance use, criminal behaviors and early parenthood. Factors such as family background and income have been shown to be important determinants of child attainments but increasing attention is being paid to the role played by peers (schools, neighborhoods, friends and roommates) in the determination of adolescent successes and failures. Examinations of peer effects face potential endogeneity problems: neighborhoods and schools are selected by parents; peers and roommates are typically self-selected. In our paper, we take a different approach to measuring peer-effects exogenously. Using data from nationally representative samples of teens, we estimate whether adolescent risk-taking is more prevalent, or occurs at an earlier age, for those who would have more contact with older peers: children with older siblings.
Bibliography Citation
Argys, Laura M. and Daniel I. Rees. "Do Older Peers Affect Adolescent Behavior?" Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002.
27. Argys, Laura M.
Rees, Daniel I.
Impact of Welfare Generosity on the Fertility Behavior of Recipients
Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America, May 1996
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Fertility; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A number of states have recently ended the practice of paying extra benefits to families who have additional children while receiving welfare. Underlying this reform is a belief that AFDC payments are traditionally structured in such a way as to provide recipients with a strong incentive to have more children. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience youth cohort and other sources, we examine the relationship between AFDC payments and fertility behavior. Our results lend some support to the proposition that welfare generosity is linked to the probability of having additional children.
Bibliography Citation
Argys, Laura M. and Daniel I. Rees. "Impact of Welfare Generosity on the Fertility Behavior of Recipients." Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America, May 1996.
28. Argys, Laura M.
Rees, Daniel I.
Searching for Peer Group Effects: A Test of the Contagion Hypothesis
Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2005
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior; Neighborhood Effects; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Risk-Taking; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using state-level variation in kindergarten start dates coupled with information on birth and interview dates to generate an exogenous measure of the relative age of a student's peer group, we find that, controlling for age, females with older peers are more likely to use substances than females with younger peers. In contrast, there is little evidence that having older peers is related to the risky behavior of male adolescents. Because there is no reason to suspect that birth and kindergarten start dates should be correlated with the choice of school, the socioeconomic status of a child's peers, or neighborhood unobservables, we view our results with regard to females as providing support for the idea that peer behavior can be contagious.
Bibliography Citation
Argys, Laura M. and Daniel I. Rees. "Searching for Peer Group Effects: A Test of the Contagion Hypothesis." Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2005.
29. Arkes, Jeremy
Klerman, Jacob Alex
Understanding the Fertility-Economy Link for Teenagers
Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2005
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Contraception; Economics of Minorities; Endogeneity; Ethnic Studies; Racial Studies; Sexual Activity; Teenagers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

During the 1990s, the economy strengthened and teenage fertility and the rate of sexual activity and the lack of contraception decreased sharply. Black female teenagers, who generally experienced greater relative economic gains than white female teenagers, had even greater declines in fertility, the rate of sexual activity, and the lack of contraception. These patterns suggest a potential link between the economy and fertility-related outcomes. This project uses the NLSY-1997 to estimate how changes in the economy affect fertility and its proximate determinants-the rate of sexual activity, contraception use, pregnancies, and abortions-for all teenagers and across race/ethnicity. Relative to previous analyzes, the contributions of our analysis include: (1) using alternative aggregate economic indicators that aren't particular to teenagers (which could be endogenous); (2) using a more recent cohort of teenagers; and (3) performing simulations to calculate how much the economy contributed to changes in teenage fertility-related outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Arkes, Jeremy and Jacob Alex Klerman. "Understanding the Fertility-Economy Link for Teenagers." Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2005.
30. Arminger, Gerhard
Clogg, Clifford C.
Analysis of Panel Data and Related Types of Data with Binary Outcomes Using Finite-Mixture a New Methods: a New Approach for Studying Unobserved Heterogeneity
Presented: Cincinnati, OH, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1993
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Data Quality/Consistency; Heterogeneity; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Modeling, Random Effects; Variables, Independent - Covariate

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We consider a model for repeated observations of binary outcomes that includes a) covariate effects either fixed or time-varying, b) individual-level heterogeneity that can be regarded either as fixed effects or as random effects, and c) nonparametric modeling of the "unobserved" heterogeneity using mixture methods and scaled latent classes. The model as well as the likelihood theory builds on detailed analysis of a special case presented in Lindsay, Cloff, and Grego (JASA, 1991). We examine the relationship of this framework to other models, such as the Rasch model, and other estimation methods, such as conditional maximum likelihood. The likelihood equations and numerical algorithms for their solution are provided in detail. Examples drawn from a popular longitudinal data set (NLSY) are used to illustrate the flexibility of the approach. The chief benefit of the approach is that the "unobserved" heterogeneity can be "completely" characterized in terms of a set of J+l mixing weights (latent class proportions) and a set of J+1 scores for the latent classes (J is the number of waves or number of outcomes). Using this approach and this model we can estimate the underlying distribution posited for the heterogeneity terms and can compare the distribution estimated under different models (e.g., the model without covariate effects and a model with specified covariate effects).
Bibliography Citation
Arminger, Gerhard and Clifford C. Clogg. "Analysis of Panel Data and Related Types of Data with Binary Outcomes Using Finite-Mixture a New Methods: a New Approach for Studying Unobserved Heterogeneity." Presented: Cincinnati, OH, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1993.
31. Armstrong, Elizabeth M.
The Impact of WIC on the Infant-Feeding Decisions of Poor Women: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
Presented: Miami, FL, Population Association of America Meetings, May 1994.
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Breastfeeding; Disadvantaged, Economically; Infants; Morbidity; Mortality; Poverty; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Racial Differences; State Welfare; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Also: Presented: Washington, DC, American Public Health Association Annual Meeting, November 1994

The substantial health and nutritional benefits of breastfeeding may be especially important for disadvantaged women and their children, who suffer higher morbidity and mortality than non-poor populations. Yet poor women in the U.S. are less likely to breastfeed than non-poor women. This paper examines the impact of the federally-funded WIC program on the infant-feeding decisions of poor women, using logistic regression analysis and proportional hazards models on data from the 1990/91 round of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Thirty percent of the WIC recipients in the sample report breastfeeding, compared with 52 percent of women who did not receive WIC. Women who received WIC breastfed on average for 11 weeks, compared with almost 18 weeks among women who did not receive WIC. Receiving WIC decreases the odds of breastfeeding by 32 percent. These findings suggest that participation in WIC is associated with lower rates and shorter durations of breastfeeding among poor women.

Bibliography Citation
Armstrong, Elizabeth M. "The Impact of WIC on the Infant-Feeding Decisions of Poor Women: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." Presented: Miami, FL, Population Association of America Meetings, May 1994.
32. Armstrong, Elizabeth M.
Weiss, Christopher C.
Do American Mothers Treat Sons and Daughters Alike?
Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Child Care; Child Health; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Gender Differences; Infants; Parent-Child Interaction; Parenting Skills/Styles; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Son preference is well documented in parts of the developing world, particularly China, Korea, India and South Asia. In societies where son preference is strong, adverse consequences for girls may be severe, including death. In the U.S. where the stated norm is gender equality, surprisingly little attention to whether childrearing practices differ by gender. This absence seems all the more surprising given the evidence of gender bias in the American primary education system. This paper uses the NLSY to examine gender-differentiated parenting practices (infant feeding, well baby care, child care) in the U.S. Despite prevailing norms of gender equity, we hypothesize that mothers treat boys and girls differently; however, these differences cause less morbidity and fewer lasting developmental effects, because children in the U.S. generally receive adequate nutrition and medical care and child mortality overall is low. Therefore, gender bias in the U.S. may be invisible in infancy.
Bibliography Citation
Armstrong, Elizabeth M. and Christopher C. Weiss. "Do American Mothers Treat Sons and Daughters Alike?" Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002.
33. Armstrong, Elizabeth M.
Weiss, Christopher C.
Self-efficacy, Risk Behaviors and Health Outcomes: Evidence from the NLSY
Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, March 2000
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; CESD (Depression Scale); Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Obesity; Pearlin Mastery Scale; Risk-Taking; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Armstrong, Elizabeth M. and Christopher C. Weiss. "Self-efficacy, Risk Behaviors and Health Outcomes: Evidence from the NLSY." Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, March 2000.
34. Astone, Nan Marie
Dariotis, Jacinda K.
Sonenstein, Freya L.
Pleck, Joseph H.
Men's Differing Work Trajectories and Fatherhood
Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 29-31, 2007.
Also: http://paa2007.princeton.edu/abstractViewer.aspx?submissionId=71111
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Fatherhood; Modeling; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper we ask whether U.S. men can be usefully classified into distinct groups with respect to their trajectories of work effort from adolescence to adulthood. In addition, assuming such groups can be distinguished, we ask how their patterns of fathering differ across these groups. Our data come from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 cohort, and our methods are latent class analysis.
Bibliography Citation
Astone, Nan Marie, Jacinda K. Dariotis, Freya L. Sonenstein and Joseph H. Pleck. "Men's Differing Work Trajectories and Fatherhood." Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 29-31, 2007.
35. Atherwood, Serge
Sanchez-Soto, Gabriela
Timing Effects of College During the School-to-Work Transition: Evidence from the NLSY97
Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): College Degree; College Enrollment; Transition, Adulthood; Transition, School to Work

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

During the transition to adulthood (TTA), college enrollment is seen as an aspirational pathway to a more secure future. In the post-2000 era, the college-going pathway has grown more expensive at the same time a college degree is increasingly seen as a labor market prerequisite. The first cohort of young adults to transition to adulthood post-2000 was born in the early 1980s. Today, they are in their mid- to late-30s and have completed their TTA. This paper explores the timing and determinants of college enrollment, college completion, and entry into the labor force for this cohort using life tables and discrete-time logistic regression models on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997. We find the risk of college enrollment increases sharply for females but decreases for non-white groups. Presence of children in the home and/or being in a union also substantially decreases likelihood of enrollment.
Bibliography Citation
Atherwood, Serge and Gabriela Sanchez-Soto. "Timing Effects of College During the School-to-Work Transition: Evidence from the NLSY97." Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018.
36. Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen
Gittleman, Maury
Does Money Matter? A Comparison of the Effect of Income on Child Development in the United States and Great Britain
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 2001
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Britain, British; Child Development; Cross-national Analysis; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Motor and Social Development (MSD); NCDS - National Child Development Study (British); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Verbal Memory (McCarthy Scale)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

An earlier version of this paper was presented in Ann Arbor, MI, Conference on "Cross-National Comparative Research Using Panel Surveys", October 2000

In this paper, we examine the effect of income on child development, as measured by scores on cognitive, behavior, and social assessments. Children's scores on various cognitive assessments have been shown to be related to success as adults. For instance, Currie and Thomas (1999) find that children's test scores at age seven are positively related to their employment and earnings as adults - even when a rich set of controls are included in the regressions. Consequently, addressing the question of whether higher levels of financial resources help children perform better on achievement tests may inform policies that aim to help children succeed as adults...Our results indicate that the relationship between income and test scores is, in fact, stronger in the US than in Great Britain when no other characteristics of the child or her family are taken into account. However, once controls for background characteristics and the mother's ability are included, the impact of income on child outcomes is very similar in the two countries. Our estimates of the effect of income on child outcomes are in line with those from previous studies that use US data: income has a positive and significant, but small effect on child development.

Bibliography Citation
Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen and Maury Gittleman. "Does Money Matter? A Comparison of the Effect of Income on Child Development in the United States and Great Britain." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 2001.
37. Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen
Gittleman, Maury
Maternal Employment and Adolescent Risky Behavior
Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Alcohol Use; Child Health; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Crime; Drug Use; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Sexual Activity; Smoking (see Cigarette Use); Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Previous examinations of the impact of maternal employment on children have usually focused on young children. In this study, we examine the relationship between maternal employment and risky behavior by adolescents using the NLSY79 Young Adult Supplement. We analyze the link between mothers' employment measured early in life and during adolescence and the decisions of children to smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol, use marijuana, and to engage in sexual activity. Characteristics of the mother that are not measured may affect both employment and her influence on the likelihood that the child engages in risky behaviors. Further, maternal employment will be tied to decisions such as those affecting marital status or spousal employment that may also influence or be influenced by child behavior. We explore three approaches to addressing these econometric issues: (1) inclusion of a wide range of controls for maternal characteristics, (2) instrumental variables, and (3) fixed effects.
Bibliography Citation
Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen and Maury Gittleman. "Maternal Employment and Adolescent Risky Behavior." Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002.
38. Averett, Susan L.
Hotchkiss, Julie L.
The Probability of Receiving Benefits at Different Hours of Work
Presented: San Francisco, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, 1995
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Benefits; Benefits, Fringe; Benefits, Insurance; Gender Differences; Health Care; Health Reform; Vocational Guidance; Wages; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Workers' probability of being offered medical, retirement, and life insurance benefits is estimating using a sample from the 1991 NLSY. Exogeneity of workers' wages and hours of work is rejected and thus instrumented out of the benefits equations. We find that the predicted probability of being offered each of these benefits is less than 50 percent for those traditionally defined as full-time employed (working 35 hours per week). This finding has important implications for the success of welfare reform and the impact of health care reform. We also find that for our sample of young workers, women are more likely to be offered each benefit at any given hours.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L. and Julie L. Hotchkiss. "The Probability of Receiving Benefits at Different Hours of Work." Presented: San Francisco, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, 1995.
39. Averett, Susan L.
Peters, H. Elizabeth
Waldman, Donald M.
Tax Credits, Labor Supply and Child Care: Theory and Measurement
Presented: Denver, CO, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1992
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior; Child Care; Children; Labor Force Participation; Labor Supply; Taxes; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

While the increase in labor supply of mothers with young children since World War II is a well known phenomena, little is understood about the role child care costs play in this increase. This paper is a theoretical and empirical exploration of the effects of the child care tax credit inherent in the U.S. income tax system on female labor supply and choice of child care arrangements. This tax credit provides a subsidy to working families towards both the quantity and quality of child care purchased. This subsidy creates a nonlinear budget set similar to that of a progressive income tax. Data from the NLSY are utilized to estimate the labor supply function of women with young children. The estimates control for the type of child care arrangements made, explicitly allowing women to use market care and informal care. These results give an estimate of the behavioral impacts of subsidizing child care and should be of interest to policy makers.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L., H. Elizabeth Peters and Donald M. Waldman. "Tax Credits, Labor Supply and Child Care: Theory and Measurement." Presented: Denver, CO, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1992.
40. Averett, Susan L.
Stifel, David C.
The Economic Determinants and Cognitive Effects of Childhood Malnutrition in the United States
Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America (PAA) Annual Meetings, March-April 2006
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Birthweight; Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Health; Geocoded Data; Neighborhood Effects; Nutritional Status/Nutrition/Consumption Behaviors; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); School Characteristics/Rating/Safety; Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC); State-Level Data/Policy; Variables, Instrumental

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The U.S. is currently facing a two-pronged battle against child malnutrition -- the prevalence of overweight children has increased dramatically over the past two decades and the percentage of children who are underweight remains unacceptably high. Both forms of malnutrition create well-known public health problems. But, less is known about how childhood over- or underweight affect cognitive functioning, behavior or self-esteem. In this research, we use data from the NLSY to investigate the causes of childhood malnutrition using quantile regression methods. We then use these findings and instrumental variables methods to separately estimate the effects of child malnutrition on self-esteem, cognitive functioning and behavior problems. We use county and state level data on availability of fast food outlets and fast food prices, and school district level data on soda consumption and physical education requirements as instruments to identify the effect of malnutrition on these child outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L. and David C. Stifel. "The Economic Determinants and Cognitive Effects of Childhood Malnutrition in the United States." Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America (PAA) Annual Meetings, March-April 2006.
41. Bacak, Valerio
Incarceration and Health in a Life Course Perspective: A Semiparametric Approach
Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Incarceration/Jail; Life Course

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

There is a growing consensus that incarceration may lead to adverse health outcomes, but there is little direct evidence about the reasons why. In most health related research, incarceration has been measured as a one-off event. Yet the experience of incarceration may have a different impact based on when it takes place for the first time, how long it lasts, and how often it occurs. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, I examine how timing, frequency, and duration modify the impact of incarceration on physical and mental health. With little guidance from theory or empirical research that would indicate the appropriate functional form of the relationship between these characteristics of incarceration and health, I use generalized additive models to derive the form inductively. The analysis is informed by the social stress literature and early prison sociology.
Bibliography Citation
Bacak, Valerio. "Incarceration and Health in a Life Course Perspective: A Semiparametric Approach." Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014.
42. Bacolod, Marigee Ponla
Alternative Opportunities in the Female Labor Market and Teacher Supply and Quality: 1940-1990
Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2002
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Racial Differences; Teachers/Faculty; Tests and Testing; Wage Rates

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper, I estimate the effect of changes in teacher earnings relative to professional earnings opportunities on teacher supply and teacher quality. I analyze data from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series of 1940-1990, the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Men, Young Women, and Youth-79, and the CIRP Freshman Surveys from 1971-1995 of college freshmen from more than 1,700 institutions.

I find that teacher performance on standardized exams declines between 1970 and 1990. Prospective education majors are increasingly being drawn from less selective institutions. Ceteris paribus, a 10 percent increase in entry teacher earnings relative to professionals raises the probability that skilled women choose teaching by 32 to 47 percent for blacks and 18 to 40 percent for whites. Raising relative teacher wages also significantly attracts teachers who perform better on standardized tests and prospective education majors from highly selective institutions. Specification checks imply that the results are robust to various identifying assumptions.

Bibliography Citation
Bacolod, Marigee Ponla. "Alternative Opportunities in the Female Labor Market and Teacher Supply and Quality: 1940-1990." Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2002.
43. Baker, Elizabeth H.
The Effect of Maternal and Own Education on BMI Trajectories from Adolescence to Adulthood
Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Educational Attainment; Life Course; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Mothers, Education; Parental Influences; Transition, Adulthood; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines the effect of own and maternal education on body mass index (BMI) trajectories by gender during the transition to adulthood using a life course perspective. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1997 to 2010 cohort and growth curve models, I find that parent’s education is associated with lower adolescent BMI and slower growth in BMI during the transition to adulthood for both men and women. However, this slower growth in BMI is accounted for by own education and lower and delayed fertility and partnering. Own education is associated with slower growth in BMI, but only among women. I situate these findings using a life course perspective on health and theories concerning the educational gradient in health.
Bibliography Citation
Baker, Elizabeth H. "The Effect of Maternal and Own Education on BMI Trajectories from Adolescence to Adulthood." Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013.
44. Baker, Elizabeth H.
Weight Gain during the Transition to Adulthood among Children of Immigrants: Is Parental Co-Residence Important?
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Children; Immigrants; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Transition, Adulthood; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Immigrants tend to be healthier than their native born peers, despite their low socioeconomic status. One common explanation for this is that immigrants bring cultural norms with them that protect themselves from their health hazardous environments. I examine BMI trajectories from adolescence to young adulthood and whether parental co-residence moderates or mediates the relationship between BMI and generation. Home leaving may take children of immigrants away from the cultural protection of their parents and neighborhoods, but may also be associated with increases in young adult socioeconomic status through college attendance. I find that home leaving is associated with increase in BMI for all generations, but this effect is stronger for the first and second generation. Additionally, only among the third or higher generation is this effect explained by family transitions, partnering and childbearing. Lastly, the reason for home leaving (partnering, college attendance, or other) and its association with BMI is examined.
Bibliography Citation
Baker, Elizabeth H. "Weight Gain during the Transition to Adulthood among Children of Immigrants: Is Parental Co-Residence Important?" Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011.
45. Baker, Paula C.
Mott, Frank L.
Improving Data Quality through CAPI: Evidence from the 1994 NLSY Child and Young Adult Data
Presented: San Francisco, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1995
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI); Data Quality/Consistency; Methods/Methodology; Nonresponse; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Verbal Memory (McCarthy Scale)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The 1994 fielding of the NLS Youth marked the initiation of two new survey components, a comprehensive CAPI interview with the older children of the NLSY mothers and a conversion to CAPI much of the NLSY Child data collection. Launched on the heels of a full scale CAPI fielding of the NLSY in 1993, the 1994 NLSY Young Adult and Child CAPI surveys generally showed improvements in data quality. CAPI interviews were completed with by a Young Adult sample of 980 and a Child sample of 6040. This paper highlights some of the ways in which the introduction of CAPI affected survey completion rates, item nonresponse, and data preparation in the 1994 round of the NLSY Child and Young Adult. We address issues associated with the collection and processing of the child assessment data as well as the in-depth interviews completed with the older children of the female NLSY females.
Bibliography Citation
Baker, Paula C. and Frank L. Mott. "Improving Data Quality through CAPI: Evidence from the 1994 NLSY Child and Young Adult Data." Presented: San Francisco, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1995.
46. Balistreri, Kelly Stamper
Fee, Holly R.
Overweight, Obesity and Health-Related Quality of Life in Early Adulthood
Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Obesity; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Rising levels of obesity are a major problem in the United States. As well as affecting the early onset of disease, recent evidence suggests that obesity is associated with a loss in health related quality of life (HRQoL). The primary objective of this study is to identify the relationship between body weight and health related quality of life during young adulthood. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, we utilize the "Health at 29" questions to construct physical (PCS-12) and mental (MCS-12) SF-12 measures of HQRoL. The SF-12 consists of 12 items that measure eight health domains: physical functioning, physical role limitations, general health, bodily pain, mental health, vitality, social functioning, and emotional role limitations. Multivariate linear regressions, using PCS-12 and MCS-12 as outcome variables, are conducted separately for men and women.
Bibliography Citation
Balistreri, Kelly Stamper and Holly R. Fee. "Overweight, Obesity and Health-Related Quality of Life in Early Adulthood." Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015.
47. Barber, Jennifer S.
Cooksey, Elizabeth C.
Young-DeMarco, Linda
Hurst, Dawn S.
Unintended Childbearing and Children's Cognitive Ability and Achievement
Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2003
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Memory for Digit Span (WISC) - also see Digit Span; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Wantedness

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper analyzes unintended childbearing and children's cognitive ability, paying particular attention to the ways in which families change after an unintended birth. Multilevel OLS and logistic regression analyses of NLSY and NLSY-C show a strong relationship between unintended status births and negative family change. Relative to an intended birth, after an unintended birth family income declines, families are less likely to own their home, have a savings account, and own their car. Mothers with an unintended birth are also less likely to live with their spouse or partner after the birth, and are more likely to be living with their parents. In spite of these rather dramatic negative family changes, children's cognitive ability is resilient to these family changes, at least in terms of the measures used in these analyses (the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test).
Bibliography Citation
Barber, Jennifer S., Elizabeth C. Cooksey, Linda Young-DeMarco and Dawn S. Hurst. "Unintended Childbearing and Children's Cognitive Ability and Achievement." Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2003.
48. Barker, Anna
The Joint Influence of Childhood Mental and Physical Health on Educational Attainment
Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Child Health; Cognitive Ability; College Education; Educational Attainment; Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Noncognitive Skills

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Poor physical health in childhood has enduring implications for adult labor market performance, yet less is known about how mental health affects long term outcomes. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Children 1979, we estimate a series of non-recursive regressions and employ simulations to compute the relative and absolute effects of mental and physical health on cognitive and non-cognitive traits, high school attainment, and college attendance. Preliminary findings suggest physical and mental health jointly affect scholastic achievement, and effects of mental health are larger than those of physical health. In future analyses, we compare findings using other data sets, the National Child Development Study 1958 and the British Cohort Study 1970, to check the generalizability and robustness of our conclusions. Initial findings suggest ignoring early mental well-being may dramatically underestimate the effects of early conditions on scholastic achievement and are predictive of future labor market success.
Bibliography Citation
Barker, Anna. "The Joint Influence of Childhood Mental and Physical Health on Educational Attainment." Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014.
49. Bartholomew, Kyle R.
Kamp Dush, Claire M.
Does Family Instability Reduce Adult Offspring Socioeconomic Outcomes?
Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Family Circumstances, Changes in; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Occupational Prestige; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Currently there is a debate in the literature investigating the association between family instability and adult offspring socioeconomic outcomes (i.e. education, income, occupation prestige). The current scholarship is limited by noncausal methodology, old data, limited data range, inconsistent measurement of family instability, and a young adult offspring sample. Using a sibling fixed effects analysis with all available waves of the NLSY79 and the NLSY79CYA, this study investigates the association between family instability and adult offspring socioeconomic outcomes while addressing the weaknesses in the existing research. Results suggest that family instability is associated with adult offspring education attainment for males and females and with occupation prestige for males. Further, this study finds that family instability is better modeled as a moderator for the association between offspring age and socioeconomic outcomes. Specifically, with each instance of family instability, the natural increase of socioeconomic outcomes that occurs with age is significantly decreased resulting in lower socioeconomic attainment.
Bibliography Citation
Bartholomew, Kyle R. and Claire M. Kamp Dush. "Does Family Instability Reduce Adult Offspring Socioeconomic Outcomes?" Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016.
50. Bartholomew, Kyle R.
Kamp Dush, Claire M.
New Evidence for the Intergenerational Transmission of Family Instability
Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Age at Birth; Cohabitation; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Marital Instability; Marriage; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Mothers, Education; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Stable, committed relationships are linked to positive adult and child outcomes, but many adults, and parents, frequently transition into and out of marriage and cohabitation. This study investigated the intergenerational transmission of repartnering using women from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and their offspring in the Children and Young Adults sample. Negative binomial regression and sibling fixed-effects results established that maternal and offspring repartnering are associated and that neither economic hardship nor inherited maternal characteristics accounted for this significant association. Further, both maternal repartnering prior to offspring age 18, and post 18, were associated with offspring repartnering. Results supported social learning theory, which posits that offspring learn relational skills and commitment by observing their parents' relationships and imitating them in their own relationships. These findings suggest that repartnering spans generations and that researchers should investigate potential positive, and negative implications of parental repartnering on adult outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Bartholomew, Kyle R. and Claire M. Kamp Dush. "New Evidence for the Intergenerational Transmission of Family Instability." Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015.
51. Bartik, Timothy
Hershbein, Brad
The Relationship Between Family Income Background and the Returns to Education
Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): College Degree; Educational Returns; Family Background; Family Income; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Poverty; Socioeconomic Background

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Drawing upon the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we document a startling empirical pattern: the career earnings premium from a four-year college degree (relative to a high school diploma) for persons from low-income backgrounds is nearly half (in proportional terms) what it is for those from more-fortunate backgrounds. We establish the prevalence and robustness of these differential returns to education across race, gender, and the earnings distribution, finding that they are driven by whites and men and by differential access to the right tail of the earnings distribution. Exploiting the richness of the family background variables in our data and external sources, we employ several decomposition strategies to explore the role of neighborhood characteristics, school quality, college selectivity, field of study, location, and preferences in explaining the phenomenon. We conclude with implications for how greater education may affect income and inequality.
Bibliography Citation
Bartik, Timothy and Brad Hershbein. "The Relationship Between Family Income Background and the Returns to Education." Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017.
52. Baumann, Robert William
Cosslett, Stephan
Reagan, Patricia Benton
Measuring Returns to Migration Using the Method of Maximum Simulated Likelihood: An Application to Migration among Poor Whites
Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Disadvantaged, Economically; Employment; Endogeneity; Income; Migration; Migration Patterns; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We estimate a three-equation model of wages, migration and employment using the method of maximum simulated likelihood for a sample of 1129 disadvantaged white males from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth 1979. We show that Appalachian natives experience higher returns to migration than comparably disadvantaged whites from the rest of the United States. Failure to treat migration as endogenous biases estimates of the returns to migration towards zero for both groups, with a larger bias for Appalachians. This suggests that individuals with lower earnings in their current location are more likely to migrate. Appalachian migrants experience an average increase in hourly wages of $2.29 per hour compared to an increase of $0.62 per hour (1990 dollars) for non-Appalachian poor white migrants. Although part of the large gain for Appalachian migrants reflects unmeasured differences in regional cost of living, there appears to be substantial returns to out-migration from Appalachia.
Bibliography Citation
Baumann, Robert William, Stephan Cosslett and Patricia Benton Reagan. "Measuring Returns to Migration Using the Method of Maximum Simulated Likelihood: An Application to Migration among Poor Whites." Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002.
53. Bautista-Leon, Andrea
Sanchez-Soto, Gabriela
The Impact of International Migration on Occupational Trajectories During the Transition to Adulthood: A Binational Study of Mexicans in the United States and Return Migrants in Mexico
Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cross-national Analysis; Hispanics; Migration; Occupational Attainment; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The objective of this paper is to explore the trajectories of occupational attainment of Mexican immigrants in the United States and return migrants in Mexico. Following a life course perspective, we are interested in the mechanisms of status attainment for Mexicans with migration experience, and how patterns of occupational attainment vary for immigrants established in the U.S. relative to migrants who returned to Mexico. We compare Mexicans who returned to Mexico to Mexicans still in the U.S. by pooling data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997 Cohort and the Mexican Migration Project to obtain a binational life history dataset. Our data includes migration and occupational histories, as well as other life course indicators. We estimate Generalized Estimation Equations (GEE) to compare the determinants of entering different occupations, models account for sociodemographic characteristics, migration characteristics, and life course characteristics.
Bibliography Citation
Bautista-Leon, Andrea and Gabriela Sanchez-Soto. "The Impact of International Migration on Occupational Trajectories During the Transition to Adulthood: A Binational Study of Mexicans in the United States and Return Migrants in Mexico." Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018.
54. Baydar, Nazli
Grady, William R.
Predictors of Birth Planning Status and Its Consequences for Children
Presented: Cincinnati, OH, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1993
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Development; Childbearing; Children; Children, Behavioral Development; Cognitive Development; Fertility; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Wantedness

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper investigates the predictors of having a wanted, mistimed or unwanted birth, and the consequences of birth planning status on children's developmental status. Whether an unintended birth is "unwanted" or "mistimed" is determined by: 1) the costs of the birth; and, 2) whether those costs are fixed or transitory. When the costs of a birth are high and fixed, all future births would be "unwanted". The analysis is based on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Since 1982, pregnancy history and planning status information was obtained from all NLSY women on an annual basis. Planning status questions were asked of the mothers on the average at the fifth month of the pregnancy, and the status of 84% of children were recorded before their birth. Our target group of children consists of all children born between 1982 and 1984 NLSY surveys. Two child developmental outcomes are considered: Behavioral-emotional development and cognitive development.
Bibliography Citation
Baydar, Nazli and William R. Grady. "Predictors of Birth Planning Status and Its Consequences for Children." Presented: Cincinnati, OH, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1993.
55. Baydar, Nazli
Slusher, Chuck
Charng, Hong-Wen
Gritz, R. Mark
Mom's Money or Dad's Money: Resources Provided to Children
Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America, March 1999
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Children; Income; Maternal Employment; Variables, Instrumental

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The association between income and the resources provided to children was investigated. In particular, the income from different sources was hypothesized to have different effects on the stimulation resources that mothers provided to their children. An important problem in estimating the effects of income from different sources on investments in children is that the decisions regarding investments in children and sources of income in the household may have some common unobserved determinants. In order to address this issue a two-stage estimation method was used, where a set of instrumental variables helped identify the effects of maternal employment, maternal earning, paternal earnings, unearned income, and income from public assistance programs on stimulation resources. Data from 6- to 9-year-old Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) were used. The results indicate differences in the effects of income from different sources on stimulation resources. Paternal earnings had a positive and significant effect on stimulation resources in families of all race/ethnicity groups. Maternal earnings did not have a significant effect on stimulation resources. Welfare income had a negative effect on stimulation resources in white families only. The results indicate that contribution to family income may not be strongly associated with control over resources allocation practices and underscore importance of studying household money management practices directly.
Bibliography Citation
Baydar, Nazli, Chuck Slusher, Hong-Wen Charng and R. Mark Gritz. "Mom's Money or Dad's Money: Resources Provided to Children." Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America, March 1999.
56. Bearak, Jonathan M.
Some Men Earn More, Some Men Earn Less: Which Men Earn More When They Marry?
Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Earnings; Earnings, Husbands; Marriage; Wages, Men

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article investigates the effect of marriage on the male earnings distribution in an analysis of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979-2010). Recent scholarship questions the direction of causation between marriage and earnings because the average man’s earnings begin to rise shortly before marriage. However, prior research has vastly oversimplified the functional form of the marriage premium. The evidence that selection into marriage rather than effects of marriage explain men’s marriage premium pertains not to all but a subset of men – those at the bottom of the earnings distribution – a group of men who are also less likely to marry and remain married. For men higher in the distribution, marriage elevates earnings. Thus, ironically, marriage may have a causal effect on male earnings – just not necessarily on the earnings of the poor men on whom social scientists and policymakers focus the most.
Bibliography Citation
Bearak, Jonathan M. "Some Men Earn More, Some Men Earn Less: Which Men Earn More When They Marry?" Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015.
57. Beattie, Brett
Relationship Transitions among First-Time Cohabitors: Predicting Marriage or Dissolution in a Competing Risks Framework
Presented: San Francisco CA, Population Association of America Meetings, May 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Fertility; Marital Dissolution; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study assesses the relative risk of moving into a marriage relationship among cohabiting couples as opposed to dissolution. Exchange theory is used to explore the link between human and economic capital attainment and the likelihood of marriage. Using longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997 we are able to assess how both personal and couple level variables affects the competing risks of marriage and dissolution as compared to continuing to cohabit. It was found that income variables did little to increase the risk of marriage; however, not knowing your partner's income had strong effects on the hazard of both marriage and dissolution. It was also found that fertility variables play a large role, with pregnancy increasing marriage risk and decreasing dissolution. Interestingly, having a biological child present decreased the risk of dissolution and this effect grew stronger over time.
Bibliography Citation
Beattie, Brett. "Relationship Transitions among First-Time Cohabitors: Predicting Marriage or Dissolution in a Competing Risks Framework." Presented: San Francisco CA, Population Association of America Meetings, May 2012.
58. Bennett, Ian M.
Mykyta, Laryssa
Elo, Irma T.
Does Literacy Predict Self-Rated Health and Chronic Illness in Midlife?
Presented: Dallas, TX, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2010
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Educational Attainment; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Illnesses; Life Course; Literacy; Mortality

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper contributes to the literature on literacy and health across the life course. Literacy is associated with a range of poor health-related outcomes, including mortality among older adults in the United States. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) 1979, we examine whether literacy assessed at ages 16-24 is independently associated with poor/fair self-rated health status and chronic conditions at midlife. Results from logistic regression analyses reveal that respondents with low literacy (<7th Reading Grade Level (RGL)) had significantly higher odds of reporting fair/poor self-rated health compared to those with high literacy (>=12th grade RGL) even after controlling for socio-demographic variables, including educational attainment. Although low literacy also exhibited significant bivariate association with chronic illness, neither literacy nor educational attainment retained a significant association with chronic disease in the fully adjusted model. Together these results indicate that literacy contributes to the risk of poor/fair self-rated health status in mid-life independent of educational attainment and poverty history. The lack of association between chronic illness and literacy may be a result of the age of the sample for whom cardiovascular health is not yet a major factor.
Bibliography Citation
Bennett, Ian M., Laryssa Mykyta and Irma T. Elo. "Does Literacy Predict Self-Rated Health and Chronic Illness in Midlife?" Presented: Dallas, TX, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2010.
59. Bennett, Neil G.
The Future of Remarriage in the United States: Its Determinants and Model-Based Projections
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Divorce; Marriage; National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH); Socioeconomic Factors

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We develop a parametric model of remarriage patterns (by duration since divorce) in the United States. Applying this model to several data sets, we seek to estimate the magnitude and direction of the association between a number of socioeconomic factors and the remarriage process, and how those associations have changed over time (i.e., by divorce cohort). Further, by artificially truncating the data at a variety of alternative durations and conducting out-of-sample forecasting, we test the model's ability to project the remaining remarriage experience for a given divorce cohort of women. We then forecast the proportion of women who will ultimately remarry for cohorts of women who have yet to complete their remarriage experience.
Bibliography Citation
Bennett, Neil G. "The Future of Remarriage in the United States: Its Determinants and Model-Based Projections." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011.
60. Benson, Rebecca Irene
Like Mother, Like Daughter? Maternal Education and BMI
Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); College Graduates; High School Completion/Graduates; Mothers and Daughters; Mothers, Education

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Adults with highly educated parents tend to have lower BMI than their peers with less highly educated parents, but selection and causation are both plausible explanations. I estimate the causal effect by using mothers' BMI as a counterfactual for the BMI of their daughters using data from the NLSY79 and NLSY79 Young Adults. I fit multilevel models of observations nested within daughters nested within mothers, using daughters' BMI and the difference between mothers' and daughters' BMI at the same age as dependent variables. Daughters of college graduates have lower BMI than daughters of high school graduates, but there is no difference in their departure from their mothers' BMI. Daughters of high school non-graduates have the same BMI as the daughters of high school graduates but exceed their mothers' BMI less. These findings suggest the relationship between parental education and BMI is due to selection rather than causal effects of education.
Bibliography Citation
Benson, Rebecca Irene. "Like Mother, Like Daughter? Maternal Education and BMI." Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016.
61. Berger, Lawrence Marc
Family Resources, Family Structure, Public Policies, and Child Maltreatment Risk: A Longitudinal Analysis
Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2004
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Child Health; Children, Health Care; Children, Home Environment; Family Resources; Family Structure; Income; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Poverty; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

There is limited research on the mechanisms through which poverty and child maltreatment are connected. This paper uses data from the NLSY to estimate the effects of family resources, family structures, and public policies on child maltreatment risk. These relationships are also explored over time using child fixed-effects models. "Maltreatment risk" is operationalized in terms of the adequacy of the child's physical environment, emotional and cognitive support, parental spanking behaviors, and medical care. Preliminary results suggest that income and poverty impact routine medical and dental care, the quality of the caregiving environment, and spanking behaviors. In addition, single-parent families and families with a biological mother and non-biological father figure tend have lower quality caregiving environments than mother-father families, and changes in family structure tend to put children at greater risk of maltreatment. Finally, this analysis provides some evidence that more generous welfare policies may serve as protective factors for children.
Bibliography Citation
Berger, Lawrence Marc. "Family Resources, Family Structure, Public Policies, and Child Maltreatment Risk: A Longitudinal Analysis." Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2004.
62. Berger, Lawrence Marc
Cancian, Maria
Maternal Re-Partnering and Non-Resident Father Investments in Children
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Child Support; Cohabitation; Fathers, Absence; Fertility, Multiple Partners; Parental Investments

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A considerable body of research suggests that paternal re-partnering is associated with decreased non-resident father investments in children. Fewer studies, however, have examined the influence of maternal re-partnering on non-resident father investments. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine associations of maternal re-partnering (cohabitation or marriage formation with a new partner) with non-resident father visitation and child support payment, paying particular attention to the role of residential moves that may accompany new partnerships. Preliminary results from standard regression models with extensive controls, as well as random effects and fixed effects regressions, reveal consistent evidence that maternal re-partnering is associated with decreased father involvement and increased geographic distance between mothers' and fathers' households. We find less consistent evidence of links between maternal re-partnering and formal child support payments. Finally, new partner births are consistently associated with decreased child support payments, but less consistently with father-child contact.
Bibliography Citation
Berger, Lawrence Marc and Maria Cancian. "Maternal Re-Partnering and Non-Resident Father Investments in Children." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011.
63. Berger, Lawrence Marc
Hill, Jennifer L.
Waldfogel, Jane
Family Leave and Child Outcomes: Evidence from the NLSY
Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Breastfeeding; Child Health; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Maternal Employment; Pre/post Natal Health Care

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

While family leave policies have been advocated on the grounds that they allow new mothers to take longer maternity leaves, thus promoting better child outcomes, the empirical evidence on the connection between leave policies, leave-taking, and child outcomes is scarce. In this paper, we utilize data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to estimate both the effect of family leave coverage on leave-taking, and the effect of leave-taking on child outcomes. Our data include detailed measures of family leave coverage, usage, and length of leave, child health and development, and parental behaviors. By shedding light on the pathway from family leave policies to child outcomes, the results prove relevant not only to the literature on the effects of early experiences on child outcomes, but also to the current policy debate about allowing more workers to take leaves and for longer periods of time.

Berger, Hill and Waldfogel (2002) find that family leave coverage is associated with more breast-feeding and that children whose mothers did not have family leave coverage scored lower on tests of their cognitive ability at ages 3 and 4. They also document that women who return to work between 0 and 6 weeks following the birth of a child are less likely to breast-feed, to have taken their child to a well baby visit and to have had their child immunized.

Bibliography Citation
Berger, Lawrence Marc, Jennifer L. Hill and Jane Waldfogel. "Family Leave and Child Outcomes: Evidence from the NLSY." Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002.
64. Berger, Lawrence Marc
Hill, Jennifer L.
Waldfogel, Jane
Parental Leave Policies, Early Maternal Employment, and Child Outcomes in the U.S.
Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2004
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Breastfeeding; Child Health; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Maternal Employment; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper explores links between parental leave policies, the length of time mothers remain at home after giving birth, and cognitive, behavioural, and health related outcomes for children. We use state leave laws and unionization rates as instruments to estimate the effect of (instrumented) early maternal employment on a series of child outcomes in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Health related outcomes include whether the child received preventive "well-baby" care and the frequency of that "well-baby" care in the first year of life, whether the child was breast-fed and the duration of breast-feeding in the first year of life, and whether the child was fully immunized by age 18 months. We also examine the effects of (instrumented) early maternal employment on child cognitive and behavioural outcomes assessed at age 3 or 4. Preliminary results suggest that the shortfall in parental leave coverage in the U.S. may affect child well-being.
Bibliography Citation
Berger, Lawrence Marc, Jennifer L. Hill and Jane Waldfogel. "Parental Leave Policies, Early Maternal Employment, and Child Outcomes in the U.S." Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2004.
65. Berger, Lawrence Marc
Houle, Jason N.
Rising Household Debt and Children's Socioemotional Well-being Trajectories
Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Well-Being; Debt/Borrowing; Social Emotional Development

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Household debt increased dramatically over time, becoming a substantial aspect of family finances. Yet, there has been limited rigorous research on whether particular types and amounts of household debt are associated with child well-being. We use data from NLSY79 and Children of the NLSY79 and Hierarchical Linear Models, which take advantage of both between- and within-individual variation, to estimate associations of amounts and types (home, education, auto, unsecured) of parental debt with child socioemotional well-being, net of a host of selection factors. Results suggest that unsecured debt is associated with growth in child behavior problems over time, whereas this is not the case for other types of debt. We also find some evidence that increased education debt is associated with decreases over time in child behavior problems. Moreover, these associations vary by socioeconomic status with less advantaged groups experiencing larger negative influences of unsecured debt.
Bibliography Citation
Berger, Lawrence Marc and Jason N. Houle. "Rising Household Debt and Children's Socioemotional Well-being Trajectories." Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018.
66. Berger, Lawrence Marc
Waldfogel, Jane
Determinants of Out-of-Home Living Arrangements for Children: To What Extent Do Family Resources, Family Structures, and Public Policies Make a Difference?
Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2003
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Family Structure; Foster Care; Parents, Single; Residence; Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF); Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A large and growing number of children in the U.S. spend some part of their childhood in living arrangements that do not include their birth parents. This paper uses data from the NLSY to estimate the effects of income and poverty, family structure, and income support policies on the probabilities that children are living in various out-of-home settings. Results suggest that lower-income, single-parent, and mother-partner families are more likely to have children living out-of-home in a given year. Higher AFDC/TANF benefits are associated with decreases in the probability that a family has a child living in a child welfare service setting, but increases in the probability that a family has a child living with relatives. Higher foster care payments are associated with increases in out-of-home placements. This research holds implications for predicting the ways in which changes in policies that affect family resources and structures may influence childrens living arrangements.
Bibliography Citation
Berger, Lawrence Marc and Jane Waldfogel. "Determinants of Out-of-Home Living Arrangements for Children: To What Extent Do Family Resources, Family Structures, and Public Policies Make a Difference?" Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2003.
67. Berry, Eddy Helen
Toney, Michael B.
Cromartie, John B.
Migration During the Relatively Stationary Mid-Life Years: Migration Among Mid-Lifers By County Context
Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2003.
Also: http://paa2003.princeton.edu/abstractViewer.asp?submissionId=61893
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Geocoded Data; Life Cycle Research; Migration; Migration Patterns; Rural Areas; Rural/Urban Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Initial migration among 18-25 year olds, when overall mobility levels are highest, is largely driven by widely shared life-cycle activities such as seeking education or exploring employment. Less is known about forces shaping (a) the migration decision or (b) the destination choices of 25-34 year old migrants, an age when income increases and family-building proliferates. For example, in rural areas the immigration of 25-34 year olds is more geographically concentrated than the outmigration of younger adults. As a result, many counties gain population among 25-34 year olds while areas with high net migration losses are distinguished more by low immigration than high outmigration. To examine this process, migration is examined, using the NLSY79 geocode data, to identify factors that trigger migration during the relatively stationary age 25-34 life phase. Individual variables include presence of children; marriage/divorce; employment; and migration history. Contextual variables including metro-nonmetro; retirement; or amenity county-types are examined.
Bibliography Citation
Berry, Eddy Helen, Michael B. Toney and John B. Cromartie. "Migration During the Relatively Stationary Mid-Life Years: Migration Among Mid-Lifers By County Context." Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2003.
68. Billari, Francesco
Sironi, Maria
Internet and the Timing of Births
Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Computer Use; Fertility

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Technological innovations directly related to fertility have been explicitly linked to the timing of births, i.e. with postponement in the case of contraceptive technology and with "recuperation" in the case of assisted reproductive technology. We argue that the diffusion of the Internet also plays a role as an "enabling" factor in fertility choices, with a potential effect on the timing of fertility. After discussing the pathways, we hypothesize Internet access to contribute to lowering fertility in earlier ages and stages of the life course, and to raising fertility in later ages and stages of the life course. We also hypothesize that these age- and stage-specific effects are stratified by gender and socioeconomic status. We conduct analyses using longitudinal data from the US (NLSY97) to assess these hypotheses.
Bibliography Citation
Billari, Francesco and Maria Sironi. "Internet and the Timing of Births." Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016.
69. Bitler, Marianne Parcella
Currie, Janet
The Impact of the WIC Program on Pregnancy, Infant, and Child Outcomes
Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2003
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Birth Outcomes; Child Health; Infants; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, infants and Children (the WIC program) provides direct nutritional supplements and nutritional advice to pregnant, postpartum and lactating women, infants and children who are income eligible and are deemed to be nutritionally-at-risk. Numerous studies have concluded that the WIC program is beneficial for infants. However, these studies have been criticized for failing to control adequately for unobserved characteristics of mothers that might explain both WIC participation and better birth outcomes. Using nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we investigate whether previous findings about the effect of WIC on infant and pregnancy outcomes hold in more recent data. We also extend the fairly limited existing literature on children's outcomes. We use both a fixed-effects and an instrumental-variables strategy to correct our estimates for possible positive selection into the WIC program.
Bibliography Citation
Bitler, Marianne Parcella and Janet Currie. "The Impact of the WIC Program on Pregnancy, Infant, and Child Outcomes." Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2003.
70. Black, Dan A.
Smith, Jeffrey A.
Evaluating the Evidence from the Literature on the Returns to College Quality
Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2002
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): College Education; Male Sample

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper makes three contributions to the literature on the earnings effects of college quality. First, we present evidence on the returns to college quality for men from the NLSY. Our evidence assumes that the rich data in the NLSY suffice to control for the non-random selection of students. Second, we show that studies using only a single variable, such as mean test scores to measure quality understate its effects. Such studies ignore the fact single measures represent error-ridden proxies for the underlying quality. Third, we examine the support problem. If high quality universities have very few low quality students, then the earnings effects in studies that use linear models depend heavily on the linear functional form restriction. We find that the support problem is important but not over-whelming since there are some, but not many, low ability students at good universities and high ability students at low quality universities.
Bibliography Citation
Black, Dan A. and Jeffrey A. Smith. "Evaluating the Evidence from the Literature on the Returns to College Quality." Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2002.
71. Blau, David M.
Robins, Philip K.
Child Care Demand and Labor Supply of Young Mothers Over Time
Presented: Toronto, ON, Population Association of America Meetings, May 1990
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Child Care; Children; Fertility; Labor Supply; Maternal Employment; Mothers; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

An analysis of panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) on fertility, employment and child care decisions of young women over time is examined. The women in the NLSY can be characterized as being in a volatile stage of their lives, when many economic and demographic factors are changing. (Periodical Abstracts)
Bibliography Citation
Blau, David M. and Philip K. Robins. "Child Care Demand and Labor Supply of Young Mothers Over Time." Presented: Toronto, ON, Population Association of America Meetings, May 1990.
72. Blau, David M.
van der Klaauw, Wilbert
The Impact of Social and Economic Policy on the Family Structure Experiences of Children in the United States
Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 29-31, 2007.
Also: http://paa2007.princeton.edu/abstractViewer.aspx?submissionId=70396
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Child Support; Cohabitation; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Divorce; Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); Family Structure; Marital Status; Modeling; Taxes; Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF); Wage Rates

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We analyze the determinants of family structure change. We consider the major proposed explanations for the dramatic changes in family structure in the U.S.: changes in (1) public assistance policy, child support enforcement, divorce laws, and tax laws; (2) labor market opportunities facing men and women; and (3) marriage market conditions. We model the behavior of women who make union and childbearing decisions, but we derive from the model the consequences of these decisions for the family structure experienced by children. We use panel data from the NLSY79 to analyze the fertility, union formation, union dissolution, type of union (cohabiting versus married), and father identity (biological versus step) choices of women born from 1957 to 1964. We use the estimated model to evaluate the impacts of changes in policies and labor and marriage market conditions on the family structure experiences of children growing up during the early 1970s through 2004.
Bibliography Citation
Blau, David M. and Wilbert van der Klaauw. "The Impact of Social and Economic Policy on the Family Structure Experiences of Children in the United States." Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 29-31, 2007.
73. Bloom, David E.
Conrad, Cecilia
Miller, Cynthia K.
Child Support, (Re)Marriage, and the Economic Well-Being of Children
Presented: San Francisco, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, 1995
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Child Support; Children, Well-Being; Fathers, Absence; Heterogeneity; Marriage; Modeling; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Simultaneity; Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP); Variables, Independent - Covariate

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper explores whether the payment of child support influences marriage rates among nonresident fathers. Two avenues through which female-headed families can alleviate economic hardship are the receipt of child support payments and marriage (or remarriage). But the pool of men eligible to marry women who head families consists in large measure of unmarried fathers, many of whom have a legal obligation to pay (and some of whom actually do pay) child support. These child support obligations may diminish a man's willingness to undertake the financial obligations associated with marriage and may also diminish a man's desirability as a marriage partner. We examine this relationship by analyzing data contained in the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, and the National Survey of Families and Households (Waves I and 11). We develop and estimate a two-equation statistical model, one equation for the hazard of marriage among nonresident fathers, with child support entered as a time-varying covariate, and a second (jointly-estimated) equation for the payment of child support, which includes state child support policies as regressors (which help to identify the marriage equation). This simultaneous system allows us to estimate the effect of child support on the likelihood of marriage controlling for unobserved heterogeneity among nonresident fathers related to their payment of child support.
Bibliography Citation
Bloom, David E., Cecilia Conrad and Cynthia K. Miller. "Child Support, (Re)Marriage, and the Economic Well-Being of Children." Presented: San Francisco, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, 1995.
74. Bloom, David E.
Trussell, James
What are the Determinants of Delayed Childbearing and Permanent Childlessness in the United States?
Presented: Pittsburgh, PA, Population Association of America Meetings, 1983
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Childbearing; Children; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Fertility; Heterogeneity; Schooling; Variables, Independent - Covariate

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper presents estimates of delayed childbearing and permanent childlessness in the United States and the determinants of those phenomena. The estimates are derived by fitting the Coale-McNeil marriage model to survey data on age at first birth and by letting the parameters of the model depend on covariates. Substantively, the results provide evidence that the low first birth fertility rates experienced in the l970s were due to both delayed childbearing and to increasing levels of permanent childlessness. The results also indicate that: (1) delayed childbearing is less prevalent among black women than among non-black women; (2) education and labor force participation are important determinants of delayed childbearing; (3) the influence of education and labor force participation on delayed childbearing seems to be increasing across cohorts; (4) education is positively associated with heterogeneity among women in their age at first birth; (5) the dispersion of age at first birth is increasing across cohorts; (6) race has an insignificant effect on childlessness; and (7) education is positively associated with childlessness, with the effect on education increasing and reaching strikingly high levels for the most recent cohorts.
Bibliography Citation
Bloom, David E. and James Trussell. "What are the Determinants of Delayed Childbearing and Permanent Childlessness in the United States?" Presented: Pittsburgh, PA, Population Association of America Meetings, 1983.
75. Bloome, Deirdre
Family Structure, Race, and Intergenerational Income Mobility in the United States
Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Family Background; Family Structure; Income; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mobility; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The declining prevalence of two-parent families helped raise income inequality over recent decades. What role does family structure play in reproducing income inequality across generations? If family structure shapes how parents transmit economic advantages to their children, then recent shifts in family life may perpetuate inequality between groups defined by childhood family structure. Moreover, because of large racial differences in single-parent families' prevalence, family-structure differences in mobility may also perpetuate economic inequalities between racial groups. Using NLSY data, I combine parametric and nonparametric methods to explore how family structure and race shape intergenerational mobility. I find that individuals from single-parent families are much more mobile than individuals from two-parent families. Their mobility indicates instability: difficulties maintaining middle-class incomes generate weak intergenerational ties. High downward mobility among people from single-parent homes suggests a new form of “perverse equality,” as historically-disadvantaged demographic groups are less “positively constrained” by family background.
Bibliography Citation
Bloome, Deirdre. "Family Structure, Race, and Intergenerational Income Mobility in the United States." Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014.
76. Bloome, Deirdre
Dyer, Shauna
Zhou, Xiang
Educational Inequality, Educational Expansion, and Intergenerational Income Mobility in the United States
Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mobility, Economic

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

How has intergenerational income mobility remained stable in the United States while educational inequalities have risen? Scholars predicted that mobility would decline as college graduates became increasingly likely to have higher-income parents and higher-income adult families than people without college degrees. We show that mobility remained stable because rising educational inequalities were offset by two factors. First, because mobility is highest among college graduates, educational expansion---more people completing college, whatever their parents' income---increased income mobility. Second, non-educational pathways linking parents' and children's incomes weakened. We introduce new methods to connect trends in intergenerational income mobility, educational inequality, and educational expansion. Using National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data, 1979 and 1997 cohorts, we reveal that massive educational expansion only partially offset rising educational inequality. Income mobility remained stable across cohorts because educational expansion and non-educational change---including delayed transitions to adulthood---put upward pressure on mobility.
Bibliography Citation
Bloome, Deirdre, Shauna Dyer and Xiang Zhou. "Educational Inequality, Educational Expansion, and Intergenerational Income Mobility in the United States." Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017.
77. Boardman, Jason D.
Powers, Daniel A.
Low Birth Weight, Race/Ethnicity, and Developmental Outcomes among Children in the United States
Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Birth Outcomes; Birthweight; Cognitive Development; Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Marital Status; Modeling, Multilevel; Mothers, Education; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Poverty; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Factors; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using six waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Child Data (1986-1996), we evaluate the dynamic nature of biological and social risk factors from ages 6 to 14. We find the following: (1) birth weight is positively related to developmental outcomes, net of important social and economic controls; (2) the relative significance of moderately low birth weight status (1,500-2,500 grams) vis-a-vis race/ethnicity and mother's education is quite small; and (3) while the observed differential between moderately low birth weight and normal birth weight children decreases, the black-white differential in test scores increases in magnitude as children increase in age.
Bibliography Citation
Boardman, Jason D. and Daniel A. Powers. "Low Birth Weight, Race/Ethnicity, and Developmental Outcomes among Children in the United States." Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002.
78. Boertien, Diederik
Bernardi, Fabrizio
Diverging Destinies and Inequality of Opportunity Between Socioeconomic and Ethnic Groups in the United States
Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Delinquency/Gang Activity; Ethnic Differences; Family Structure; Socioeconomic Background; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Family structure figures prominently in debates on inequality of opportunity. Recent empirical research, however, has questioned how important family structure is in creating unequal opportunities between children from different socio-economic backgrounds. In this article, we aim to provide an extensive documentation of the contribution of family structure to socioeconomic and ethnic inequality of opportunity in the United States.

We use data from the NLSY 1997, and study ethnic and socioeconomic background differences in substance use and delinquency during adoloscence as well as health, income, educational attainment, unemployment, and life satisfaction during adulthood. We use Oaxaca-Blinder decompositions to estimate to what extent variation in family structures can explain socioeconomic and ethnic background differences in these outcomes. Preliminary results suggest that family structure explains very few socioeconomic background differences in outcomes, but could possibly play a modest role in explaining differences in income and unemployment between ethnic groups.

Bibliography Citation
Boertien, Diederik and Fabrizio Bernardi. "Diverging Destinies and Inequality of Opportunity Between Socioeconomic and Ethnic Groups in the United States." Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018.
79. Bohm, Maggie Y.
Lee, Sang Lim
Toney, Michael B.
Inter-Religious Marriage and Migration
Presented: Detroit, MI, Population Association of America Meetings, April-May 2009.
Also: http://paa2009.princeton.edu/download.aspx?submissionId=90184
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Marriage; Migration; Religion

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study analyzes the influences of inter-religious marriage and the different levels of church attendance within couples on migration. We hypothesize that the propensity for migration is higher for inter-religious couples than for intra-religious couples and for couples who attend church at different frequencies. To examine the hypotheses, we used age, education, and length of residence as controls in logistic models. Theories that have been utilized in examining the effects of inter-group marriages, especially inter-racial marriages, on the behavior of couples provide theoretical guidance for the analysis. Largely, this research, as well as research on other differences between husbands and wives, indicates that inter-group couples have higher migration rates than intra-groups couples. The NLSY79 was used to analyze the relationships between these aspects of religious identities and migration and between church attendance and migration. The result showed slightly lower migration odds for inter-group couples than for intra-group couples.
Bibliography Citation
Bohm, Maggie Y., Sang Lim Lee and Michael B. Toney. "Inter-Religious Marriage and Migration." Presented: Detroit, MI, Population Association of America Meetings, April-May 2009.
80. Boller, Kimberly
Bridges, Lisa
Evans, V. Jeffery
Hearn, Gesine
Options for NICHD Funding of the NLSY Child Assessment
Presented: San Francisco, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1995
Cohort(s): NLS General
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Child Care; Child Health; Cognitive Development; Family Characteristics; Fertility; Life Course; Mothers, Health; Parents, Single; Social Emotional Development

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Since 1982, NICHD has supported the collection of fertility and maternal/child health information in each round of the NLSY's data collection. Beginning in 1986 the NICHD substantially increased its commitment to the NLSY by providing funding for biennial assessments of the physical, cognitive, and social development of children born to the women of the NLSY cohort. By doing so, NICHD has pioneered a new type of cohort, longitudinal study which combines demographic information on the life course of youth with developmental psychology. NICHD support of the NLSY has resulted in a wealth of data used by researchers to examine topics such as adolescent fertility, child care utilization, and the effects on child development of parent and family characteristics such as maternal work, divorce and single-parent households. In addition, the NLSY has become a rich source of basic data regarding children and families within the United States. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of possible options for future commitments to the NLSY, and the impact that changes in current commitments would have on the scientific utility of the data. The paper proceeds in five sections.
Bibliography Citation
Boller, Kimberly, Lisa Bridges, V. Jeffery Evans and Gesine Hearn. "Options for NICHD Funding of the NLSY Child Assessment." Presented: San Francisco, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1995.
81. Brady-Smith, Christy
Hofferth, Sandra L.
Patterns of Early Maternal Employment and Child Outcomes: An Analysis of Children from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Associaton of America Annual Meeting, March 2001
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Children, Academic Development; Children, Behavioral Development; Cognitive Development; Maternal Employment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We examine associations between maternal employment patterns in the first 3 years of life and child outcomes at age 3 to 5 using data from the 1997 Panel Study of Income Dynamics-Child Development Supplement (N = 465). Associations are examined separately for non-Hispanic white and African American children. For non-Hispanic white children, maternal employment that began in the 1st year of the child's life and continued through the 2nd or 3rd year (early entry) was negatively associated with verbal achievement, but not with math achievement or behavior problems. For African American children, early entry was not directly associated with child outcomes. Analyses examined work intensity and child, family, parenting, and home environment characteristics as moderators of these associations. Findings are discussed in terms of their congruence with past research conducted with the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and relevance to current U.S. policy.
Bibliography Citation
Brady-Smith, Christy and Sandra L. Hofferth. "Patterns of Early Maternal Employment and Child Outcomes: An Analysis of Children from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Associaton of America Annual Meeting, March 2001.
82. Braga, Breno
Schooling, Experience, Career Interruptions, and Earnings
Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Unemployment; Wages; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper investigates whether the returns to work experience vary with education. Different from existing literature, I distinguish the returns to actual experience from the returns to potential experience. While I find that returns to potential experience do not vary across education groups, I estimate that more educated workers have a higher wage increase with actual experience. This result is not explained by known sources of potential experience bias, as more educated workers have higher employment attachment throughout their careers. In order to rationalize these findings, I discuss a new source of potential experience bias generated by wage losses after non-working periods. Indeed, I find evidence that more educated workers suffer higher wage losses after periods of unemployment. This result explains the greater downward bias of potential experience for more educated workers.
Bibliography Citation
Braga, Breno. "Schooling, Experience, Career Interruptions, and Earnings." Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015.
83. Brand, Jennie E.
Heterogeneous Effects of Higher Education on Civic Participation
Presented: Dallas, TX, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2010
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior, Prosocial; College Education; Education; Schooling; Selectivity Bias/Selection Bias

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

American educational leaders and philosophers have long valued schooling for its role in preparing the nation's youth to be civically engaged citizens. Numerous studies have found a positive relationship between education and subsequent civic participation. However, little is known about possible variation in effects by selection into higher education, a critical omission considering education's expressed role as a key mechanism for integrating disadvantaged individuals into civic life. With data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, I disaggregate effects and examine whether civic returns to higher education are largest for disadvantaged low likelihood or advantaged high likelihood college goers. I find evidence for significant heterogeneity in effects: civic returns to college are greatest among individuals who have a low likelihood for college completion. Returns decrease as the propensity for college increases.
Bibliography Citation
Brand, Jennie E. "Heterogeneous Effects of Higher Education on Civic Participation." Presented: Dallas, TX, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2010.
84. Brand, Jennie E.
The Social and Economic Context of Worker Displacement
Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Displaced Workers; Earnings; Economic Changes/Recession; Life Course; Unemployment; Well-Being

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Job displacement is an involuntary disruptive life event with a far-reaching impact on workers' life trajectories. Research suggests that displacement is associated with subsequent unemployment, long-term earnings losses, and lower job quality; declines in psychological and physical well-being; loss of psychosocial assets; and social withdrawal. Contexts of widespread unemployment, although typically associated with larger economic losses, may lessen the social-psychological impact of job loss. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), I consider how the economic and social-psychological effects of worker displacement differ depending upon the social and economic context.
Bibliography Citation
Brand, Jennie E. "The Social and Economic Context of Worker Displacement." Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016.
85. Brand, Jennie E.
Davis, Dwight R.
Heterogeneous Effects of College on Family Formation Patterns among Women
Presented: Detroit, MI, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2009.
Also: http://paa2009.princeton.edu/download.aspx?submissionId=91835
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Family Formation; Labor Force Participation; Women's Education

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We use panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY). The NLSY is a nationally representative sample of 12,686 respondents who were 14-22 years old when they were first surveyed in 1979. The NLSY consists of three sub-samples: (1) a crosssectional sample of 6,111 respondents designed to be representative of non-institutionalized civilian 1979 youth; (2) a sample of 5,295 respondents designed to over-sample civilian Hispanic, black and economically disadvantaged 1979 youth; and (3) a sample of 1,280 respondents who were enlisted in the military as of 1978. These individuals were interviewed annually through 1994 and are currently interviewed on a biennial basis. The NLSY has been used extensively for study of access to and the impact of education.

Educational attainment is a significant predictor of womens family formation patterns (Becker 1991; Rindfuss, Bumpass, and St. John 1980; Rindfuss, Morgan, and Offut 1996) and labor force participation (Bianchi 1995). Overall, education delays family formation and increases participation in the labor force. While highly educated women have postponed both marriage and parenthood in recent decades, less-educated women have postponed marriage more than parenthood. As a result, non-marital births have risen dramatically among less-educated women relative to highly educated women. Despite a substantial literature on the effects of education on family formation patterns among women, few studies evaluate potential heterogeneity in these effects. Women's significantly increasing level of educational attainment (Buchman and DiPrete 2006) motivates renewed and careful attention to the impact of education on family formation patterns, particularly among college-educated women who have a low likelihood of college completion. Women at the margin of college completion are those for whom the expansion of higher education exerts its greatest impact.

Bibliography Citation
Brand, Jennie E. and Dwight R. Davis. "Heterogeneous Effects of College on Family Formation Patterns among Women." Presented: Detroit, MI, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2009.
86. Brand, Jennie E.
Simon Thomas, Juli
Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Quality: A Reassessment
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Family Structure; Marital Satisfaction/Quality; Marital Status; Propensity Scores

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Prior research has established a relationship between premarital cohabitation and subsequent marital outcomes, with cohabitors generally reporting lower marital quality. Using preliminary data from the NLSY97 and borrowing heavily from the strengths of propensity scores, we employ a novel method for concurrently examining the impact of two perspectives (social selection and experience of cohabitation) commonly used to explain the negative relationship outcomes cohabitors experience. Results reveal that the experience of cohabitation is negatively related to marital quality but only when selection factors are not included in the model. We find (preliminary) support for the social selection perspective, thereby supporting prior work. Procedures for estimating the full model are then articulated. This paper, then, makes several contributions, the primary being the ability to model selection into the experience of cohabitation in the same model. These results serve to underscore the complex pathways between union formation, family structure, and marital outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Brand, Jennie E. and Juli Simon Thomas. "Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Quality: A Reassessment." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011.
87. Brand, Jennie E.
Simon Thomas, Juli
The Effects of Parental Job Displacement on Children's Socioeconomic and Social-Psychological Outcomes
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Children, Home Environment; Displaced Workers; Family Circumstances, Changes in; Health Factors; Health, Mental; Marital Disruption; Maternal Employment; Parental Influences; Socioeconomic Factors

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The effects of parental job displacement on the lives of American children have seldom been more relevant than in the current era of massive economic upheaval. Despite a large body of research associating job displacement with subsequent non-employment, earnings losses, job quality declines, poor physical and mental health, family disruption, and social withdrawal, the effects of parental job displacement on children's well-being is scarce. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY), we examine the effects of parental job displacement on children's subsequent socioeconomic and social-psychological outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Brand, Jennie E. and Juli Simon Thomas. "The Effects of Parental Job Displacement on Children's Socioeconomic and Social-Psychological Outcomes." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011.
88. Brand, Jennie E.
Xie, Yu
Moore, Ravaris L.
Effects of Parental Divorce on Children's Psychosocial Skills
Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Age at First Intercourse; Depression (see also CESD); Divorce; Educational Outcomes; Parental Influences; Parental Marital Status; Pearlin Mastery Scale; Social Emotional Development

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A large literature suggests parental divorce leads to worse educational and socioeconomic outcomes among children. A recent study by Kim (2011) highlights the role of parental divorce in the development of children's cognitive and noncognitive skills. However, we contend that the development literature points to important asymmetry between these skills. While cognitive skills stabilize relatively early in childhood, psychosocial skills evolve and change through young childhood, thus allowing family environments to play a sizeable role in shaping psychosocial skills. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and the National Longitudinal Survey's Child-Mother file (NLSCM), we assess the effects of parental divorce on children's psychosocial skills. We also evaluate the degree to which psychosocial skills mediate the relationship between parental divorce and children's educational outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Brand, Jennie E., Yu Xie and Ravaris L. Moore. "Effects of Parental Divorce on Children's Psychosocial Skills." Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014.
89. Branigan, Amelia R.
The Penalty of Obesity on Grade Point Average: Evaluating Mechanisms through Variation by Gender, Race, and School Subject
Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Grade Point Average (GPA)/Grades; High School Curriculum; Obesity; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Why obesity would be associated with grade point average (GPA) but not with test-based measures of achievement remains a puzzle. Here, I test whether the associations between obesity and GPA across race, sex, and academic course subjects follow patterns expected if the relationship functions largely through social pathways. I hypothesize a larger negative association between obesity and GPA for girls in English, where femininity is privileged, than in math, where femininity is perceived to be a detriment. Among White girls in the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997, obesity in high school is associated with a significantly larger GPA penalty in English than in math, while no subject difference is found for White boys or minorities of either sex. This study adds to a growing literature suggesting that the relationship between obesity and socioeconomic outcomes may result in large part from how institutions interact differently with bodies of different sizes.
Bibliography Citation
Branigan, Amelia R. "The Penalty of Obesity on Grade Point Average: Evaluating Mechanisms through Variation by Gender, Race, and School Subject." Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014.
90. Breinholt, Asta
What's Love Got to Do with It? The Emotional Climate of the Home, Cultural Capital, and Children's Educational Performance
Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Children, Academic Development; Home Environment; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Parental Investments; Parenting Skills/Styles; Punishment, Corporal; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In the study of the intergenerational transmission of inequality, cultural capital accounts have neglected the emotional climate of the home. This paper investigates whether the emotional climate of the home moderates the effect of cultural capital on children's educational performance. I use data on children aged 6-7 from the NLSY79-CYA from 1986-2006. To address unobserved characteristics affecting both parenting and children's educational performance, I compare the parenting of grown-up sisters and apply fixed effect models. In line with previous studies, I find a negative effect of physical punishment and a positive effect of parents' active cultural investments on children's educational performance. Surprisingly, parents' emotional responsiveness does not affect children's educational performance. Neither emotional responsiveness nor physical punishment moderates the effect of parents' active cultural investments on educational performance. This may be due to unobserved characteristics affecting both educational performance and the co-presence of physical punishment and parents' active cultural investments.
Bibliography Citation
Breinholt, Asta. "What's Love Got to Do with It? The Emotional Climate of the Home, Cultural Capital, and Children's Educational Performance." Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017.
91. Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta
Scott, Mindy E.
Lilja, Emily
Single Custodial Fathers’ Involvement and Parenting during Adolescence and Outcomes in Emerging Adulthood
Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2008.
Also: http://paa2008.princeton.edu/abstractViewer.aspx?submissionId=81444
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Disconnected Youth; Fathers, Influence; High School Completion/Graduates; Parental Influences; Parents, Single; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study uses nationally representative data from the NLSY97 (Rounds 1 through 7) to examine the effects of single custodial fathers’ involvement and parenting of adolescents on offspring outcomes during emerging adulthood. Results suggest that the greatest proportion of single custodial fathers exhibited permissive parenting styles. Single custodial fathers did not differ from fathers in two biological parent homes in their levels of closeness, support, or awareness. Results also indicate that offspring that reside with a single father during adolescence have reduced odds of completing high school and greater odds of being disconnected during emerging adulthood compared to offspring that reside with two biological parents. Findings suggest that residing in a single father household during adolescence continues to affect offspring well-being as they enter emerging adulthood.
Bibliography Citation
Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta, Mindy E. Scott and Emily Lilja. "Single Custodial Fathers’ Involvement and Parenting during Adolescence and Outcomes in Emerging Adulthood." Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2008.
92. Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta
Zaff, Jonathan
Effects of Father Involvement on Adolescent Outcomes in Immigrant and Native Born Families
Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Family Background; Family History; Fathers, Involvement; Immigrants; Risk-Taking

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

While there has been growing interest in father-adolescent relationships, much needs to be learned to determine how the quality of father involvement impacts youth risk behaviors. Current findings have provided only a preliminary picture and even less is known about the impact of father involvement on immigrant youth. Immigrant children constitute one of the fastest growing child populations in the U.S. Therefore, examining how father involvement is related to risk behaviors among this sub-population with unique needs is important for policy makers, practitioners and parents. We present three hypotheses that have been supported by our preliminary analysis of the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, (1997-1999) and which will be tested using a Cox regression analysis: 1) high levels of father involvement are related to reduced levels of risk behaviors; 2) immigrant status reduces the likelihood of risk behaviors; 3) father involvement moderates the relationship between immigration status and risk behaviors.
Bibliography Citation
Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta and Jonathan Zaff. "Effects of Father Involvement on Adolescent Outcomes in Immigrant and Native Born Families." Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002.
93. Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta
Zaff, Jonathan
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Father Involvement and Youth Transition into Risky Behaviors in Immigrant and Native-Born Families
Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2003
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavioral Problems; Fathers, Involvement; Immigrants

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study explores how father involvement is related to adolescent risk behaviors among youth in first and second-generation immigrant families and US native-born families. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study or Youth (1997 - 1999) and discrete time regressions, we test three hypotheses: 1) high levels of father involvement are related to reduced likelihood of engaging in risk behaviors; 2) immigrant status (being first or second-generation youth) reduces the likelihood of involvement in risky behaviors; and 3) father involvement interacts with immigration status, race or gender in its effects on youth risk behaviors. Findings indicate that father involvement, and being an immigrant youth (1st or 2nd gen) is associated with reduced risky behaviors. Two-way interactions indicate that father involvement does not interact with gender, race or youth immigration status in predicting risky behaviors.
Bibliography Citation
Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta, Jonathan Zaff and Kristin Anderson Moore. "Father Involvement and Youth Transition into Risky Behaviors in Immigrant and Native-Born Families." Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2003.
94. Brown, Rachel R.
Kamp Dush, Claire M.
Reciprocal Associations Between Marital Timing Expectations and Changing Economic and Relationship Circumstances in Cohabiting Individuals
Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Age at First Marriage; Cohabitation; Expectations/Intentions; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Whereas many cohabitors may believe that they will marry their partners one day, there may be identifiable barriers that prevent them from marrying. If these conditions improved, cohabiting individuals might be more certain of marriage. Symbolic Interaction Theory would posit that individuals may change their expectations of marriage as context changes. Conversely, Marital Horizon Theory would predict that those who hope to marry sooner change behavior to make marriage more attainable and likely. This study examined how changes in marital expectations both predicted and were predicted by changes in circumstances--both economic and relational--using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Child and Young Adult Cohort. We found at least marginal support for both theoretical explanations, so continued analyses prior to the conference will clarify the association between marital expectations and circumstances through additional variables, models, and breakdowns by gender, age, and socioeconomic status.
Bibliography Citation
Brown, Rachel R. and Claire M. Kamp Dush. "Reciprocal Associations Between Marital Timing Expectations and Changing Economic and Relationship Circumstances in Cohabiting Individuals." Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016.
95. Brown, Rachel R.
Kamp Dush, Claire M.
The Intergenerational Transmission of Marital Expectations and Age at First Marriage: Evidence from Mothers and Children in the NLSY79 and NLSY79 Young Adults
Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Age at First Marriage; Cohabitation; Expectations/Intentions; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Marriage; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Parents' own marital timing desires and their age at first marriage may be associated with their offspring's marital timing desires and the timing of their own first unions. Understanding the determinants of marital timing is critical because it has implications for marital functioning and divorce; an earlier age at marriage is associated with increased risk of divorce. We examine the intergenerational transmission of marital timing desires and age at first marriage in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort (N = 1501 women) and 1979 Child and Young Adult cohort (N = 2177 biological offspring of the 1979 cohort). Preliminary analyses showed that both mothers' desires to marry late, measured when she was in adolescence/emerging adulthood, and mothers' later age of marriage were significantly associated with their offspring's later desired age of marriage. Next, we plan to examine the offspring's age at first marriage and cohabitation as outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Brown, Rachel R. and Claire M. Kamp Dush. "The Intergenerational Transmission of Marital Expectations and Age at First Marriage: Evidence from Mothers and Children in the NLSY79 and NLSY79 Young Adults." Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015.
96. Bryan, Brielle
Total Income Trajectories Over the Life Course Post-Incarceration
Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Economic Well-Being; Incarceration/Jail; Income; Life Course

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In the focus on the reentry period and labor market discrimination that dominates most of the literature on the economic wellbeing of former prisoners, we have failed to make a full accounting of the financial stability of formerly incarcerated Americans as they navigate the remainder of their lives. As a result, we lack information on how often individuals are able to bounce back after incarceration and how many continue to struggle as they age. Nor do we know which types of former prisoners manage to eventually attain stability. I address these questions by examining total income packages (earned income plus transfer income, spouse's earnings, and other sources of income) over the life course of former prisoners using NLSY79 data. I consider how the composition of former prisoners' income packages changes over the life course and the role of race, as well as employment, marriage, and divorce in determining trajectories.
Bibliography Citation
Bryan, Brielle. "Total Income Trajectories Over the Life Course Post-Incarceration." Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018.
97. Buckles, Kasey S.
Munnich, Elizabeth L.
Birth Spacing and Sibling Outcomes
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011 (Updated May 2011).
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Births, Repeat / Spacing; Children, Well-Being; Educational Attainment; Educational Outcomes; Fertility; Modeling, OLS; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Siblings; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper investigates the effect of the age difference between siblings (spacing) on educational achievement. We use a sample of women from the 1979 NLSY, matched to reading and math scores for their children from the NLSY79 Children and Young Adults Survey. OLS results suggest that greater spacing is beneficial for older siblings, though only for low socioeconomic-status (SES) families. For high-SES families, greater spacing has no beneficial effect and is associated with lower test scores for younger siblings. However, because we are concerned that spacing may be correlated with unobservable characteristics, we also use an instrumental variables strategy that exploits variation in spacing driven by miscarriages that occur between two live births. The IV results indicate that a one-year increase in spacing increases test scores for low-SES older siblings by about 0.2 standard deviations. For younger siblings there appears to be no causal impact of spacing on test scores.
Bibliography Citation
Buckles, Kasey S. and Elizabeth L. Munnich. "Birth Spacing and Sibling Outcomes." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011 (Updated May 2011).
98. Budig, Michelle Jean
Boon or Bust? Sex Differences in Returns to Earnings for Self-Employment
Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Earnings; Family Characteristics; Gender Differences; Human Capital; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Mothers; Mothers, Income; Occupations; Self-Employed Workers; Sex Roles

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

While sex differences in participation in self-employment are well documented, sex differences in the effects of self-employment on earnings are not. Does self-employment increase or decrease workers' earnings? Do the returns of self-employment to earnings differ by sex? If so, what mechanisms can explain this difference? Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979-98), I examine how returns to earnings for self-employment vary by sex, family status, and occupation. Fixed effect models include controls for human capital, occupational characteristics, and industrial/occupational sex segregation. Findings indicate that childless professional women receive an equivalent return to earnings for self-employment compared with professionally employed men. However, while all men benefit from self-employment, all mothers, and all women in non-professional occupations, have negative returns to self-employment. Findings are consistent with arguments that women use self-employment to balance work and family demands and this amenity may compensate for the negative returns mothers receive.
Bibliography Citation
Budig, Michelle Jean. "Boon or Bust? Sex Differences in Returns to Earnings for Self-Employment." Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002.
99. Budig, Michelle Jean
Lim, Misun
Cohort Differences and the Marriage Premium: Emergence of Gender-Neutral Household Specialization Effects
Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Earnings, Husbands; Earnings, Wives; Gender Differences; Marriage; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Wage Differentials

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Past research finds marriage premiums for men, occasionally women, attributable to Becker's theory of household specialization. We ask, do these premiums 1) persist among the millennial cohort of workers, 2) reflect changing selection into marriage across cohorts, and 3) differ by the gender division of spousal work hours? Using fixed-effects models and NLSY79 and NLSY97 data, we compare cohort, gender, and household specialization differences in the marriage premium. Despite declining gender-traditional household specialization, the millennial cohort reveals larger marriage premiums, for both women and men. While positive selection on unobserved factors explains less of the marriage premium among millennial men, it fully explains millennial women's marriage premium, relative to baby boomers. Household specialization matters only among millennials, where it is gender neutral: both male and female breadwinners earn significantly larger marriage premiums, while husbands and wives specializing in nonmarket work earn no premium, or even a marriage penalty, when employed.

Also presented at Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016.

Bibliography Citation
Budig, Michelle Jean and Misun Lim. "Cohort Differences and the Marriage Premium: Emergence of Gender-Neutral Household Specialization Effects." Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016.
100. Budig, Michelle Jean
Lim, Misun
Hodges, Melissa J.
Fugiero, Melissa
It’s Not Enough to Stay in School: Race and Gender Differences in the Wage Returns of Educational Attainment
Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Gender Differences; Racial Differences; Wage Differentials; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using the 1979-2010 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), we test whether African-Americans and Caucasians experience different returns to earnings for educational attainment. We examine multiple specifications of education: years of education, highest degree obtained, and field of degree obtained. Control variables include human capital, job characteristics, family structure, and demographic characteristics. We find African-Americans receive lower returns to education measured as highest grade completed, net of extensive control variables. Most of this racial difference in returns is concentrated among workers with graduate degrees, particularly among PhDs. Among men, whites receive significantly higher returns for MBAs and PhDs in the social sciences and humanities. Among women, whites receive significantly higher returns for graduate degrees in humanities and legal studies. Some of these racial differences are due to differential placement in occupations and industries after degree completion.
Bibliography Citation
Budig, Michelle Jean, Misun Lim, Melissa J. Hodges and Melissa Fugiero. "It’s Not Enough to Stay in School: Race and Gender Differences in the Wage Returns of Educational Attainment." Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013.
101. Bulanda, Ronald E.
Beyond Provisions: The Relationship between Poverty and Parenting among Single Mothers
Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2005
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Parents, Behavior; Parents, Single; Poverty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The primary aim of this study is to assess how poverty status influences the parenting of single mothers. A common approach in the literature assessing the parenting of single mothers is to target only low-income mothers. Currently we do not know how poverty influences variations in parenting within single mother families. The results from this study offer several important contributions, including the identification of the conditions in which poor families demonstrate positive parenting behaviors. In this work, the results suggest the poverty status of single mothers to be primarily unrelated to their parenting. Specifically, the parental style, support, and monitoring of single mothers is not associated with their poverty status. In contrast, the parenting measure related to the poverty status of poor single mothers may be indicative of a positive parenting approach. Poor single mothers are more involved in establishing limits for their adolescent children
Bibliography Citation
Bulanda, Ronald E. "Beyond Provisions: The Relationship between Poverty and Parenting among Single Mothers." Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2005.
102. Bulanda, Ronald E.
Poor Parents, Poor Parenting? The Influence of Poverty
Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Children, Behavioral Development; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Family Influences; Parenting Skills/Styles; Poverty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study investigates the relationship between family poverty status, parenting, and children's behavioral outcomes. A social-contextual approach is employed to warrant an isolated assessment of parenting only within married two parent families. In the analyses, a sociodemographic profile of parenting is constructed, illustrating how parenting style, control, and support varies across poor statuses. Then, the interactions of poverty and parenting strategies are examined in predicting negative child outcomes, including delinquency. Results of this study have implications for the home environments of impoverished children, as well as programs designed to improve the economic well-being of families. This study uses data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth 1997 (NLSY97). The preliminary results suggest parenting styles differ by poverty status for both married mothers and fathers. Also, maternal monitoring and paternal support are associated with family poor status. Subsequent tests will illustrate what role these relationships play in explaining children's behavioral outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Bulanda, Ronald E. "Poor Parents, Poor Parenting? The Influence of Poverty." Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2004.
103. Burchett-Patel, Diane
Gryn, Thomas A.
Mott, Frank L.
Families of Men: Exploring Relationship Dynamics with the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Meetings, March 1999
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Fathers, Involvement; Fertility; Male Sample

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper, we will explore the limits of paternal responsibility in a longitudinal context. Using data from the 1987 to 1996 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we examine the upper limits of paternal responsibility for the period and compare this with a more traditional cross-sectional perspective examining single-year paternal responsibility. We will contrast single-year (1996) reports for both biological and nonbiological children, in and out of the man's household, with the cumulative reports, as reported at any survey point over the 1987 to 1996 period. In addition to an overall examination of these patterns and ratios, we will contrast evidenced patterns for men who have followed different relationship profiles over the period. This includes a comparison of men who have been in a stable marriage arrangement with men who have been primarily in partnership arrangements and men who have followed less stable relationship patterns.
Bibliography Citation
Burchett-Patel, Diane, Thomas A. Gryn and Frank L. Mott. "Families of Men: Exploring Relationship Dynamics with the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Meetings, March 1999.
104. Burgard, Sarah
Zajacova, Anna
Dyer, Shauna
Wage Gains, but Few Health Returns to Some College: A Role for Employment Histories?
Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): College Enrollment; Employment, History; Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Recent evidence suggests that adults with some college but less than a bachelor's degree do not have better health than high school graduates, countering the standard expectation for an educational gradient. We propose that relatively unstable, suboptimal employment histories could account for the lack of health gains from their additional schooling. Using the NLSY97, we examine (1) employment histories by educational attainment among young adults with postsecondary schooling, and (2) assess whether varying employment histories explain educational differences in physical and mental health. Preliminary results suggest that adults with some college earn more than HS graduates but are not different in their health scores or number of job changes, and they are more likely to work night or irregular shifts. Cross-sectional employment characteristics do not explain the health pattern at the some-college level, but employment history analyses (pending) may reveal a stronger effect of this mediator. [Also presented at Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017]
Bibliography Citation
Burgard, Sarah, Anna Zajacova and Shauna Dyer. "Wage Gains, but Few Health Returns to Some College: A Role for Employment Histories?" Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017.
105. Burnett, Kristin
Sociodemographic Profile of Children Experiencing Living in a Maternal Cohabiting Household: Current Estimates and Trends over Time
Presented: Detroit, MI, Population Association of America Meetings, April-May 2009
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Family Income; Family Structure; Marital Status; Parents, Single; Poverty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

During recent decades, cohabitation has increased dramatically. A large portion of these couples live with dependents, thus, more children are experiencing cohabiting parent households. Since maternal cohabitation is associated with many negative outcomes for children, it is important to understand which subgroups are most likely to experience maternal cohabitation to identify who is most at risk of experiencing these negative outcomes and who might benefit most from policy interventions. In this descriptive study, I will use recent longitudinal data (Children/Young Adults of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979) with prospective family structure histories to explore how children's exposure to maternal cohabitation differs across various factors and how these patterns have changed across recent cohorts. The factors to be examined include race/ethnicity, gender, age (of mother and child), socioeconomic status (household income, poverty status, maternal educational attainment), region, urbanicity, religiosity (of mother) and maternal marital status at birth.
Bibliography Citation
Burnett, Kristin. "Sociodemographic Profile of Children Experiencing Living in a Maternal Cohabiting Household: Current Estimates and Trends over Time." Presented: Detroit, MI, Population Association of America Meetings, April-May 2009.
106. Burnett, Kristin
The Relationships of Time-Varying Family Structure and Poverty Status to Child Trajectories of Mathematical Achievement
Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America (PAA) Annual Meetings, March-April 2006.
Also: http://paa2006.princeton.edu/abstractViewer.aspx?submissionId=61568
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Children; Cohabitation; Family Income; Family Structure; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Parents, Single; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Poverty; Stepfamilies; Variables, Independent - Covariate

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Previous research shows a substantial relationship between family structure and children's mathematics achievement, but there is still much debate about the way that families' socioeconomic resources influence this association, especially during different periods of children's life course. Additionally, because cohabitation has become more prevalent than ever before, it is important to separate the effects of cohabiting parent and cohabiting stepfamily structures from the more commonly studied categories of married biological parents, single-parents, and married stepfamilies. Therefore, this study will use growth curve modeling of CNLSY data to investigate how the time-varying covariates of poverty status and five possible family structures each relate to math achievement test score gains throughout childhood.
Bibliography Citation
Burnett, Kristin. "The Relationships of Time-Varying Family Structure and Poverty Status to Child Trajectories of Mathematical Achievement." Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America (PAA) Annual Meetings, March-April 2006.
107. Canals-Cerda, Jose J.
Pre-Marital Birth, Marriage, and Welfare
Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Fertility; Hispanics; Marriage; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper investigates the transition into premarital birth or marriage for a sample of young women from the NLSY. Overall, welfare has a significant effect on a woman's decision to marry and an insignificant effect on an unmarried woman's fertility decision. We find the strongest welfare effect on the likelihood of marriage among disadvantaged women, and the strongest positive effect of welfare on fertility among Hispanic women. Most of the observed differences in behavior between white women and disadvantaged women are the result of differences in endowments. The women that experience a premarital birth are characterized by a high probability of fertility and low marital prospects over their teen years.
Bibliography Citation
Canals-Cerda, Jose J. "Pre-Marital Birth, Marriage, and Welfare." Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2004.
108. Cancian, Maria
Changes in Assortative Mating: Implications of the Increasing Labor Force Participation of Married Women
Presented: San Francisco, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, 1995
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Earnings, Husbands; Earnings, Wives; Labor Force Participation; Marital Status; Wage Growth; Wages, Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

As more married women work, is a woman's position in the marriage market increasingly dependent on her potential market wage? This paper addresses this question with an analysis of patterns of assortative mating for two cohorts of young women from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. In order to avoid the confounding affect of changes in the impact of marriage on wives' post-marriage work, data on pre-marriage wages is used to estimate the relationship between wives' wages and husbands' earnings. The estimates suggest that women's wages are important in explaining who they marry. However, they suggest little growth in the importance of wages over the time period considered.
Bibliography Citation
Cancian, Maria. "Changes in Assortative Mating: Implications of the Increasing Labor Force Participation of Married Women." Presented: San Francisco, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, 1995.
109. Caputo, Jennifer
Pavalko, Eliza K.
Hardy, Melissa A.
Midlife Work and Women's Long-Term Health and Mortality
Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Labor Force Participation; Mortality

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

While paid work is a well-established predictor of health, several gaps in our knowledge about the relationship between work and later health and mortality remain, including whether these benefits remain stable over long periods and whether they are dependent on job characteristics and experiences. We draw on over three decades of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women to assess how labor force participation over a period of twenty years during midlife affects mental and physical health and mortality over the following fourteen to twenty-three years. We find that persistent work earlier in life continues to predict improved health and longevity many years later as women pass retirement, even after accounting for many health-linked variations in this work experiences and the presence of later life work. These findings add to knowledge about the cumulative nature through which key adult social experiences shape health as individuals enter later life. Note: A similar paper was presented in Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018.
Bibliography Citation
Caputo, Jennifer, Eliza K. Pavalko and Melissa A. Hardy. "Midlife Work and Women's Long-Term Health and Mortality." Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018.
110. Carbino, Jessica
Seltzer, Judith A.
Homeleaving at the Transition to Adulthood: Moving Out vs. Economic Independence
Presented: San Francisco CA, Population Association of America Meetings, May 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Economic Independence; Economic Well-Being; Mobility, Residential; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Increases in the percentage of young adults who live with their parents bring renewed attention to homeleaving in the transition to adulthood. We ask what factors predict youths’ first physical departure from parents’ home. We also describe who leaves the parental home but remains economically dependent on parents. We then investigate differences between the predictors of physical homeleaving when the youth remains economically dependent and the predictors of homeleaving accompanied by economic independence. We use unique data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 that distinguish youths’ physical location from their status as economically dependent on parents. Individuals’ physical location affects labor market opportunities, the availability of social welfare programs, and parents’ ability to monitor young adults’ behavior. Our findings will shed light on homeleaving and economic independence, two dimensions of the transition to adulthood that are frequently treated as equivalent in demographic surveys.
Bibliography Citation
Carbino, Jessica and Judith A. Seltzer. "Homeleaving at the Transition to Adulthood: Moving Out vs. Economic Independence." Presented: San Francisco CA, Population Association of America Meetings, May 2012.
111. Carlson, Daniel Lee
Changes in Family Formation: Baby Boomers' Life Course Expectations for Marriage and Parenthood and Their Ability to Meet Them
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011.
Also: http://paa2011.princeton.edu/hps/PAA2011PreliminaryProgram.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Family Formation; Family Studies

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Carlson, Daniel Lee. "Changes in Family Formation: Baby Boomers' Life Course Expectations for Marriage and Parenthood and Their Ability to Meet Them." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011.
112. Carlson, Marcia Jeanne
How Does Family Structure Matter? Father Involvement and the Behavior of Young Adolescents
Presented: Chicago, IL, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1998
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); CESD (Depression Scale); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Depression (see also CESD); Fathers, Absence; Fathers, Involvement

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper looks at how one aspect of family structure influences adolescent outcomes. In particular, I examine the effect of the nature, quality and quantity of father-child interaction on the behavior of adolescents ages 10 to 14. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, I estimate a regression model to determine whether father closeness and involvement, as self-reported by adolescents, influences behavioral index scores after controlling for relevant social, economic and demographic characteristics. Results indicate that father involvement, regardless of father's residential location, has important consequences for both internalizing and externalizing behavior of adolescents.
Bibliography Citation
Carlson, Marcia Jeanne. "How Does Family Structure Matter? Father Involvement and the Behavior of Young Adolescents." Presented: Chicago, IL, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1998.
113. Carlson, Marcia Jeanne
Pilkauskas, Natasha
VanOrman, Alicia
Examining the Antecedents of U.S. Nonmarital Fathering using Two National Datasets
Presented: Dallas, TX, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2010
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Event History; Fatherhood; Fathers; Fathers, Biological; Fertility; National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG); Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The dramatic rise in U.S. nonmarital childbearing in recent decades has generated considerable attention from both researchers and policymakers alike, particularly with respect to the implications for women and children. In turn, an extensive literature has examined the factors that predict women's nonmarital childbearing. Far less is known about the antecedents of nonmarital fatherhood, largely because data about men, especially low-income men who are disproportionately unmarried fathers, have been much less readily available. In this paper, we use data from two national datasets with multinomial logit models and event history analysis to examine the antecedents of contemporary U.S. nonmarital fathering. Preliminary results suggest that black and Hispanic men are much more likely to have a child outside of marriage, and higher education and older age at first sex strongly diminish the likelihood of having a nonmarital birth. We discuss the implications of our results for future research and public policy.
Bibliography Citation
Carlson, Marcia Jeanne, Natasha Pilkauskas and Alicia VanOrman. "Examining the Antecedents of U.S. Nonmarital Fathering using Two National Datasets." Presented: Dallas, TX, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2010.
114. Carlson, Marcia Jeanne
Turner, Kimberly J.
Fathers Unequal: Men as Partners and Parents in an Era of Rapid Family Change
Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Family Influences; Fatherhood; Fathers; Fathers, Influence; Fathers, Involvement

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

While the rising inequality in U.S. family life and its implications has received growing scholarly attention, less well understood is the fact that these family changes have had profoundly different implications for women versus men—mothers versus fathers. In the context of rising/high family instability, mothers are more likely to live with their children, while fathers are likely to live away from their children. In this paper, I present new evidence about fathers’ roles with children and rising inequality in fatherhood that has emerged over the last half century, drawing on data from the Current Population Survey (1976-2010) and the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Fathers’ diminished roles in family life—and growing inequality in such, likely has profound implications for children, mothers, fathers themselves, and society.
Bibliography Citation
Carlson, Marcia Jeanne and Kimberly J. Turner. "Fathers Unequal: Men as Partners and Parents in an Era of Rapid Family Change." Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014.
115. Caspary, Gretchen Lynn
Longitudinal Effects of Parental Welfare Receipt on Children and Adolescents
Presented: Chicago, IL, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1998
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Birth Outcomes; Childbearing, Adolescent; Children; Cohabitation; Divorce; Family Structure; Food Stamps (see Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program); Marriage; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Parental Influences; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); School Completion; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The purpose of this paper is to test the effects of parental welfare receipt (Aid to Families with Dependent Children and Food Stamps) on children and adolescents. In the first part of the study I am using National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) Mother-Child Data to relate parental history of welfare receipt to cognitive and behavioral outcomes measured in children aged 6-7. Cognitive outcomes include the Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT): Math, Reading Recognition, and Reading Comprehension, and, for behavioral outcomes, the Behavior Problems Index. In the second phase of the study I examine welfare receipt data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and outcomes in adolescents, including: level of schooling completed; teen nonmarital births; employment; own welfare receipt; and own family structure, including cohabitation, marriage and divorce.
Bibliography Citation
Caspary, Gretchen Lynn. "Longitudinal Effects of Parental Welfare Receipt on Children and Adolescents." Presented: Chicago, IL, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1998.
116. Cassirer, Naomi
Braungart-Rieker, Julie
Leclere, Felicia
Ziembroski, Jessica
Maternal Employment and Children's Behavioral and Cognitive Development Over Time
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March 2001
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Behavioral Development; Cognitive Development; Maternal Employment; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines the effects of maternal employment on children's cognitive and behavioral development from preschool through adolescence. Current research offers mixed evidence as to whether maternal employment is harmful, inconsequential, or beneficial for children's outcomes, but is limited by its reliance on cross-sectional research designs to study development outcomes that are dynamic and process-oriented. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), a panel study of a national sample of youth aged 14-21 in 1979. In 1986, the NLSY began collecting data on the children of female respondents, including behavioral and cognitive assessments. We use the linked child-mother data and hierarchical growth curve models to examine the effects of maternal work arrangement on children's cognitive and behavioral outcomes at initial assessment and on children's behavioral and cognitive trajectories from 1986 to 1996.
Bibliography Citation
Cassirer, Naomi, Julie Braungart-Rieker, Felicia Leclere and Jessica Ziembroski. "Maternal Employment and Children's Behavioral and Cognitive Development Over Time." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March 2001.
117. Cavanagh, Shannon
Skalamera, Julie
Crosnoe, Robert
Health Behaviors and the Transition to Adulthood During the Great Recession
Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Economic Changes/Recession; Geocoded Data; Sleep; Transition, Adulthood; Unemployment Rate

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

As youth transition to adulthood—facing new social expectations, traversing new contexts, and establishing independence—their health behaviors tend to become less healthy. Recently, this transition has collided with a challenging historic context, the Great Recession. Using data from The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Cohort Child and Young Adult Sample (n = 3,096), we embed health behavior trajectories across the transition to adulthood in the context of the Great Recession. We examine multi-year trajectories of smoking, drinking, and sleep among young adults during the Great Recession but who differ in the extent their communities have been affected. Our findings suggest that, in hardest hit local economies, young adults experienced sleeping penalties and, among younger youth, drinking increases, relative to youth in less acutely affected communities. The collision of the transition to adulthood with the Great Recession may therefore have long-term implications for inequalities in health behaviors.
Bibliography Citation
Cavanagh, Shannon, Julie Skalamera and Robert Crosnoe. "Health Behaviors and the Transition to Adulthood During the Great Recession." Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016.
118. Cavanagh, Shannon
Smith, Chelsea
Behler, Rachel
Ressler, Robert Wayne
Cozzolino, Elizabeth
Economic Volatility and Union Formation in Young Adulthood
Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Economic Changes/Recession; Geocoded Data; Marital History/Transitions; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The romantic lives of young adults have undergone profound change. Still, many continue to form unions during this life stage. Building on literature that highlights the significance of economic resources in shaping unions and life course theory's emphasis on linked lives and historical context, we consider how economic volatility, measured within families of origin, communities in which they live, and the historic moment (e.g., the Great Recession), can shape how young people's romantic lives unfolds. Using a sample drawn from the NLSY79-YA and geocode data, we estimated union formation sequences using person-month data and explored how sources of economic volatility shaped young people's romantic lives. Overall, three sequences emerged: mostly single, early cohabitation, and early and persistent marriage. Remaining single was the modal category. Income-to-needs volatility was associated with cohabitation, with young people raised in more volatile households, net of important covariates, more likely to cohabit than others.
Bibliography Citation
Cavanagh, Shannon, Chelsea Smith, Rachel Behler, Robert Wayne Ressler and Elizabeth Cozzolino. "Economic Volatility and Union Formation in Young Adulthood." Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017.
119. Ceballos, Miguel
Maternal and Infant Health of Mexican Immigrants in Chicago: A Comparative Analysis of Local and National Data
Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Ethnic Studies; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Immigrants; Infants; Migration; Mothers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper investigates the mechanisms influencing maternal and child health by examining the effect of the migration process on the health of the Mexican-origin (Mexican American and Mexican immigrant) population living in South Chicago. Specifically, this study examines the existence of the epidemiological paradox: the empirical finding that health outcomes of infants born to Mexican-origin women are better than or equal to the health outcomes of infants born to U.S.-born white women. This paper also examines the less-studied finding: the health outcomes of the Mexican-origin population deteriorate with increased duration in the United States. Data analyzed comes from a study of recently pregnant Mexican-origin women of single and multiple parity from South Chicago. The study contains survey and medical record data on maternal and infant health, socioeconomic, and behavioral variables. This paper provides a comparative analysis of this data with such national datasets as the HHANES, NHANES, NLSY, and NSFG.
Bibliography Citation
Ceballos, Miguel. "Maternal and Infant Health of Mexican Immigrants in Chicago: A Comparative Analysis of Local and National Data." Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002.
120. Chao, Shih-Yi
Work Conditions and Marriage Dissolution
Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Marital Dissolution; Marital Satisfaction/Quality; Working Conditions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The new economy in the United State influences deeply on employment, marriage and family. Although previous research paid attention upon the relationship between work and marital dissolution, the mechanisms are still unclear. The study uses 1979-2010 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, which is national representative dataset, and follows the lives of American youth born between 1957 and 1964. The study employ demands-resources (JD-R) model to specify the mechanisms of working conditions, as well as consider both individual-level and contextual-level working conditions to see the impacts of specific dimensions of work on marriage dissolution, and disentangle the black box regarding mechanisms of education disparity in marital quality and stability. The preliminary descriptive result shows that people who stay in marriage have less number of job, and have better work conditions, such as paid vacation, paid sick day, parental leave, child care provided by companies, flexible schedule, health insurance, and job satisfaction.
Bibliography Citation
Chao, Shih-Yi. "Work Conditions and Marriage Dissolution." Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015.
121. Chaparro, Juan
Occupational Choice and Returns to Skills in the United States: Evidence from the NLSY79 and O*NET
Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015. Also presented at the Midwest Economics Association annual meeting, March 2015.
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Job Requirements; Occupational Choice; Occupational Information Network (O*NET); Skills; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Occupational choices carry substantial information about a worker's human capital. They are informative about a worker's education, experience and skills. Workers, however, self-select into occupations. Therefore, occupational indicators are endogenous variables in any wage equation. This paper defines an occupation as a vector in a space of skill requirements, and proposes an instrumental variables approach to deal with endogeneity. I combine data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 Cohort (NLSY79), with data from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET), a publicly available database sponsored by the U.S. Department of Labor. By doing so, I instrument the math requirements of a worker's occupation in 2010 with the math requirements of the worker's preferred occupation back in 1979. A similar instrument is used for language requirements. Such procedure allows me to measure the wage return to math and language skills for individuals represented by the NLSY79 sample.
Bibliography Citation
Chaparro, Juan. "Occupational Choice and Returns to Skills in the United States: Evidence from the NLSY79 and O*NET." Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015. Also presented at the Midwest Economics Association annual meeting, March 2015..
122. Cheng, Siwei
The Accumulation of (Dis)Advantage: Dynamics of the Wage Effect of Marriage over the Life Course for Men and Women
Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Gender Differences; Life Course; Marriage; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Wage Effects; Wage Gap; Wage Growth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper extends current understandings of the wage effect of marriage by examining its long-term dynamics over the life course for men and women respectively. Applying fixed-effect models to 103,392 person-year observations of the NLSY79 data, I found that (1) marriage is associated with higher rate of wage growth for men, yet lower rate of wage growth for women; (2) the positive association between marriage and wage growth for men is mainly attributable to work experience while the negative association between marriage and wage growth for women is mainly attributable to childbearing; (3) the gender difference in the pattern of variations in the wage effect of marriage over the life course causes the gender wage gap to grow over the life time. And the two mechanisms account for 1/3 and 1/5, respectively, of the total growth in the gender wage gap due to marriage over a 20-year life span.
Bibliography Citation
Cheng, Siwei. "The Accumulation of (Dis)Advantage: Dynamics of the Wage Effect of Marriage over the Life Course for Men and Women." Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014.
123. Cheng, Siwei
Brand, Jennie E.
Zhou, Xiang
Xie, Yu
Who Benefits First? Whose Benefits Last? Economic Returns on College Over the Life Cycle
Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): College Degree; Earnings; Educational Returns; Life Cycle Research; Propensity Scores

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Most prior research on the college premium focuses on earnings at a certain age or averaged across the lifetime. We believe, however, that there are three important reasons for considering these college returns as varying over the life cycle. First, the economic benefits of college may emerge slowly rather than instantaneously over the career, therefore, college may be associated with a higher initial earnings as well as faster earnings growth rate. Second, individuals with varying propensity of attending college may also reap the returns to college at different life stages, which leads to the heterogeneity in the college premium across the propensity spectrum. Third, the life cycle variations in college premium may further depend on family and personal characteristics. Applying propensity-score based methods to data from NLSY79, our preliminary findings show that these three arguments are supported by empirical evidence in the United States.
Bibliography Citation
Cheng, Siwei, Jennie E. Brand, Xiang Zhou and Yu Xie. "Who Benefits First? Whose Benefits Last? Economic Returns on College Over the Life Cycle." Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018.
124. Cheng, Yen-Hsin Alice
Adolescent Obesity and First Union Outcomes in Young Adulthood: Does Dating Experience Tell the Story?
Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Cohabitation; Dating; Marriage; Modeling; Obesity; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study uses the NLSY97 data to explore the impact of adolescent overweight/obesity on the timing of forming a first union, both cohabitation and marriage. With a longitudinal sample of 5,385 adolescents age 12 to 18 at wave 1, the influence of body weight measured in wave 1 (1997) is analyzed along with time-varying annual dating and weight status history in discrete-time event history models. The findings show that dating activities only explain a small proportion of the negative association between being overweight/obese in wave 1 and the lower likelihood of experiencing a first cohabitation or marriage by young adulthood. For first marriage, the negative association became non-significant once the time-varying weight status measure is included. For cohabitation, an intriguing suppression effect is revealed with the inclusion of annual weight status in the model. A gendered pattern of weight effect on timing of first union is also observed.
Bibliography Citation
Cheng, Yen-Hsin Alice. "Adolescent Obesity and First Union Outcomes in Young Adulthood: Does Dating Experience Tell the Story?" Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013.
125. Cherlin, Andrew J.
Talbert, Elizabeth
Yasutake, Suzumi
Changing Fertility Regimes and the Transition to Adulthood: Evidence from a Recent Cohort
Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): College Education; Fertility; High School Completion/Graduates; Marital Status; Parental Marital Status; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Recent demographic trends have produced a distinctive fertility regime among young women and men in their teenage years and twenties. Data from the NLSY, 1997 cohort, show that by the time the cohort had reached ages 25-30 in 2010, 83% of births reported by women and 88% of births reported by men had occurred to non-college graduates. In addition, 59% of births had occurred outside of marriage. Moreover, 67% of women (and 65% of men) who reported a birth had at least one child outside of marriage, a figure that rose to 74% among women (and 71% among men) without 4-year college degrees. It is now unusual for non-college-graduates who have children in their teens and twenties to have all of them within marriage. The implications of these developments are discussed in light of differing transitions to adulthood of non-college-graduates versus college-graduates and growing social class inequalities in family patterns.
Bibliography Citation
Cherlin, Andrew J., Elizabeth Talbert and Suzumi Yasutake. "Changing Fertility Regimes and the Transition to Adulthood: Evidence from a Recent Cohort." Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014.
126. Chipman, Claire
Religious Roots and Consequences of Women's Work-Family Configurations in Adulthood
Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Family Formation; Family Models; Religion

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This project contributes a more comprehensive understanding of the reciprocal relationships between religion, work, and family. Using NLSY79 data, I uncover six work-family configurations for American women using LCA; timing of family experiences and education are key in differentiating these configurations. I integrate these configurations into a model of religious involvement, using adolescent religiosity to predict work-family configurations and then predicting service attendance in adulthood with the configurations. I find evidence for a link between affiliation with an evangelical religious tradition in adolescence and early family formation. Additionally, there is a strong link between religious service attendance and one particular group of women: married, college-educated women with children. Their adolescent and adult religious participation suggest that the positive effects of religion, such as social and financial support, are concentrated within this privileged group of women. This project also demonstrates the importance of considering religion when studying work and family pathways.
Bibliography Citation
Chipman, Claire. "Religious Roots and Consequences of Women's Work-Family Configurations in Adulthood." Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018.
127. Choi, Kate H.
Women's Education, International Migration and the Educational Attainment of the Next Generation: The Tale of Two Countries
Presented: Dallas, TX, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2010
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cross-national Analysis; Demography; Educational Attainment; Educational Returns; Fertility; Hispanics; Immigrants; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Migration; Mothers, Education

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

I examine the role of migration in the reproduction of education in Mexico and the U.S. Specifically, I investigate how women's education shape their migration behavior and how the resulting changes in migration affect marriage, fertility, and offspring's education. To accomplish this goal, I construct a demographic model that takes into account transmission of education, migration, marriage, and fertility. I then use the constructed demographic model to simulate the effects of hypothetical changes in the educational characteristics of women in Mexico and estimate their effects on the distribution of schooling in the next generation in Mexico and the U.S. Improvements in women's education in Mexico have beneficial effects on the distribution of schooling in both countries. The beneficial effects are offset by the lower rates of fertility among better educated women, but reinforced by the more favorable matches that women make. Migration reinforces the effects in the U.S. and offsets the effects in Mexico.
Bibliography Citation
Choi, Kate H. "Women's Education, International Migration and the Educational Attainment of the Next Generation: The Tale of Two Countries." Presented: Dallas, TX, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2010.
128. Choudhury, Sharmila
Why Are So Many Older Women Poor? Late-Life Events or Life-Long Circumstances?
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 1997
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Event History; Income; Life Cycle Research; Poverty; Widows

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper analyzes the circumstances that explain the large numbers of aged women in poverty. Previous research has found that advanced age, widowhood, and living alone are important determinants of aged poverty. Central to many of these explanations is the view that older women become poor due to particular events that occur in old age. However, many women who encounter these events never experience poverty. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, this paper examines the nature,incidence, and length of poverty spells of women as they age in order to understand the precursors of late-life poverty. The results indicate the extent to which aged poverty is an extension of early-life poverty conditions rather than a consequence of late-life negative shocks to income. Emphasis is placed on the identification of early-life predictors of poverty in old age and in determining which women are particularly at risk.
Bibliography Citation
Choudhury, Sharmila. "Why Are So Many Older Women Poor? Late-Life Events or Life-Long Circumstances?" Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 1997.
129. Chowdhury, Afra R.
Influence of Parent-Daughter Relationship on American Teenagers Early Sexual and Reproductive Behavior
Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s):

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The study analyses the effect of parents' relationship with their daughter on her risk of pregnancy during adolescence. Prior research suggests a positive association between growing up in a non-intact family and the risk of teenage pregnancy. Reproductive and sexual behaviors of adolescents also differ according to their childhood socialization, level of social and parental control and family instability. This article investigates the impact of parent-daughter relationship in early adolescence (12 to 14 years) and its effect on overall teenage sexual behavior and the risk of becoming pregnant in different family settings. Nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 is analyzed with a discrete time hazard model to investigate the effects of the quality of youth parent relationship on the hazard of becoming sexually active before or at age 15, and the risk of teenage pregnancy. A logistic regression model is used to measure the risk of not using contraceptive during the first intercourse.
Bibliography Citation
Chowdhury, Afra R. "Influence of Parent-Daughter Relationship on American Teenagers Early Sexual and Reproductive Behavior." Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2004.
130. Clarkberg, Marin
Birth Spacing and Maternal Involvement in the US: Employment, Breastfeeding and the Timing of Second Births
Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Meetings, March 25-27, 1999
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Births, Repeat / Spacing; Breastfeeding; Employment; Fertility; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Women's employment and fertility behaviors have important links, and it is clear the women's employment delays the onset of fertility and reduces total fertility. This study examines the association between women's employment and another aspect of fertility behaviors: birth spacing. Additionally, I consider the potential effects of breastfeeding and the relationship it may have with employment in influencing birth spacing. I use data from 4,402 first time mothers in the NLS-Y in proportional hazards event history models, with employment after the first birth measured as a time-varying variable. The results indicate that once controls are entered into the model, employment slows the timing of second births among bottle-feeding mothers only. Further, breastfeeding is significantly associated with closer birth spacing. This positive effect of breastfeeding on the hazard of second birth is strong among mothers who breastfeed. These results suggest that breastfeeding mothers may be a select group. For example, they may be highly "baby oriented." Yet, controls for ideal family size and sex role ideology do not attenuate breastfeeding's effect on birth spacing. Alternatively, it may be that women who find themselves able to breastfeed and return to work post-partum may have more resources--at home, at work and/or within themselves--which enable them to proceed to a subsequent pregnancy more swiftly.
Bibliography Citation
Clarkberg, Marin. "Birth Spacing and Maternal Involvement in the US: Employment, Breastfeeding and the Timing of Second Births." Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Meetings, March 25-27, 1999.
131. Clarkberg, Marin
Hynes, Kathryn
Childbearing and Women's Employment: Parity Differences in Job Exits
Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Exits; Fertility; First Birth; Maternal Employment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Childbearing reduces female labor force participation, but most mothers will both return to work and bear another child. Yet, little is known about how higher parity births affect maternal employment. We consider two explanations for the negative impact of childbearing on female employment. First, families compare the gains to female employment to the costs of "outside" child care. Second, some women have an underlying preference to stay home look at the onset of childbearing as an opportunity to exit the work force. These processes work together to contribute to job exits around a first birth, but the balance of these forces may change as parity increases, as many mothers have left the work force already. To examine these processes, we estimate continuous time event historical models of job exits surrounding first versus higher parity births using data on women from the 1979 through 1998 waves of the NLSY.
Bibliography Citation
Clarkberg, Marin and Kathryn Hynes. "Childbearing and Women's Employment: Parity Differences in Job Exits." Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002.
132. Clarke, Lynda
Cooksey, Elizabeth C.
Joshi, Heather
Wiggins, Richard D.
McCulloch, Andrew
Consequences of Family Disruption for the Cognitive and Behavioral Development of Children in Britain and the United States
Presented: Chicago, IL, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1998
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Britain, British; Children, Behavioral Development; Children, Home Environment; Children, Well-Being; Cognitive Development; Cross-national Analysis; Families, Two-Parent; Family Circumstances, Changes in; Family Structure; Family Studies; Marital Disruption; Modeling; NCDS - National Child Development Study (British)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Does the increasing number of children living outside a conventional two-parent nuclear family, mean bad news for children? Is cognitive and emotional development being harmed by the breakdown of the family, or has a moral panic been overstated'? Evidence comes from the second generation of the British NCDS (1958 birth cohort), collected in 1991, when the study members were 33, and the American NLSY (1958-1965 cohorts), interviewed in 1992, when the subsample of their children studied were at least 4. Models relating family structure to child well-being are presented with and without adjustment for other emographic, social and economic circumstances. A multi-variate, multi-level strategy estimates heterogeneity within and between families. Simple associations between family disruption and child well-being are shown to be mediated through material and other factors. The high variability in the data defies deterministic modelling but there appear to be differing associations in the two countries.
Bibliography Citation
Clarke, Lynda, Elizabeth C. Cooksey, Heather Joshi, Richard D. Wiggins and Andrew McCulloch. "Consequences of Family Disruption for the Cognitive and Behavioral Development of Children in Britain and the United States." Presented: Chicago, IL, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1998.
133. Colen, Cynthia G.
Ramey, David
Breast Is Best: Estimating the Long-term Consequences of Breastfeeding for Childhood Wellbeing Using Sister Comparisons
Presented: San Francisco CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2012
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Breastfeeding; CESD (Depression Scale); Child Health; Depression (see also CESD); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Pre/post Natal Behavior; Siblings; Sisters

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Since the 1970s, breastfeeding has witnessed a resurgence. Besides being economical, it is thought that breast milk contributes to beneficial health outcomes during the perinatal period and for many years to come. However, empirical evidence concerning long-term effects of breastfeeding on childhood wellbeing remains unclear. This is primarily a function of the fact that, on average, breastfed children are different from their bottle-fed counterparts along several demographic dimensions. The overarching objective of this study is to estimate the extent to which breastfeeding influences the health trajectories of children in the United States. We rely on a multipronged analytic strategy that includes growth curve models, propensity score matching, and sibling comparisons. Each approach offers a more rigorous test of the hypothesis that breastfeeding contributes to enduring positive childhood outcomes by more closely approximating the counterfactual question – what would the health of this infant be like if he/she had not been breastfed.
Bibliography Citation
Colen, Cynthia G. and David Ramey. "Breast Is Best: Estimating the Long-term Consequences of Breastfeeding for Childhood Wellbeing Using Sister Comparisons." Presented: San Francisco CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2012.
134. Colen, Cynthia G.
Reczek, Corinne
Zhang, Zhe
Grandparents Know Best: Multigenerational Coresidence and Psychological Distress During Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood
Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Coresidence; Depression (see also CESD); Family Structure; Grandparents; Household Composition

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite the noteworthy proportion of children who reside in multigenerational households, relatively little is known about how this family structure influences child and adolescent wellbeing. We use 18 years of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) in conjunction with latent growth curve regression models to assess the extent to which multigenerational coresidence during childhood impacts psychological distress through adolescence and young adulthood. Moreover, we investigate whether this effect depends on the duration or timing of multigenerational coresidence. Although adolescents who lived with a grandparent during childhood have higher initial depression (CES-D) scores, the rate at which these scores decline is significantly faster than adolescents who never lived with a grandparent. Children who were exposed to multigenerational coresidence during their first year of life experienced particularly rapid increases in psychological functioning, suggesting this period of the lifecourse is critical when considering the effects of family structure on wellbeing.

Also presented at Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016

Bibliography Citation
Colen, Cynthia G., Corinne Reczek and Zhe Zhang. "Grandparents Know Best: Multigenerational Coresidence and Psychological Distress During Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood." Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016.
135. Collins, Nancy
Does Women's Part-Time Experience Limit Mobility
Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March 2000
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Earnings, Wives; Job Aspirations; Life Course; Occupational Aspirations; Part-Time Work; Wives, Work; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study is an effort to add to the existing, though scant, literature on the labor force mobility of women working part-time, the primary participants in part-time work. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) spanning the years 1979 to 1998, this study focuses on how women's accrual of part-time work experience over the life course affects their ability to move between different levels of labor market attachment (i.e. part-time versus full-time and non-work). No prior study distinguishes between choice and constraint in women's participation in part-time work. This study's inclusion of data on attitudes toward women's roles within the family and work is a first attempt to control for a woman's taste for part-time employment. This study expects to find that even after controlling for tastes and ability, participation in part-time work constrains a woman's ability to enter full-time work.
Bibliography Citation
Collins, Nancy. "Does Women's Part-Time Experience Limit Mobility." Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March 2000.
136. Cook, Steven T.
Delgado, Enilda Arbona
Coping With a Pre-Maritally Conceived Birth
Presented: Chicago, IL, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1998
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Birth Outcomes; Childbearing, Adolescent; Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; College Enrollment; Family Structure; Financial Assistance; High School Completion/Graduates; Marital Status; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Births that occur to young women, especially those which are conceived before first marriage, will likely result in difficult decisions about where and with whom she should live, and how she should support herself and her child. These decisions will likely be influenced by personal characteristics of the young mother and her living arrangements before the conception. We use data from the 1979-1992 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to examine the distributions of living arrangements and financial support arrangement of young women after a premaritally conceived birth. We also model the effects of pre-conception characteristics on post-birth outcomes using multinomial logistic regressions. Our findings show that minority status, and coming from a non-intact family tend to reduce the likelihood of marriage after a premarital conception, and reduce the private financial resources available to the new mother. High school graduation and college attendance, on the othe r hand, increase the likelihood of staying off welfare.
Bibliography Citation
Cook, Steven T. and Enilda Arbona Delgado. "Coping With a Pre-Maritally Conceived Birth." Presented: Chicago, IL, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1998.
137. Cooksey, Elizabeth C.
Mott, Frank L.
Gender Differences in Sexual Activity: What Role do Parents Play in Shaping Behaviors?
Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America (PAA) 2008 Annual Meeting, April 17-19, 2008
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Sexual Activity; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Parent-Child Interaction

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The social context in which adolescent sexual activity occurs has changed considerably in the recent past. Our prior research suggests that the effects of maternal sexual experience have differential impact on male and female teens. In this paper, we will attempt to unpack potentially different messages about sex given by mothers who experienced early sexual initiation themselves by using current data on mother child interactions relevant to sexual activity. We use data from the 1979-2004 waves of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) and their associated child files from 1986 onwards, plus the 1996-2006 NLSY79 Young Adult data. Our sample includes youth from two different cohorts: those who are 14-16 in 1996 and those who are 14-16 in 2006. Results from this project will be an important step forward to better understanding the familial dynamics of a key dimension of the transition to adulthood.
Bibliography Citation
Cooksey, Elizabeth C. and Frank L. Mott. "Gender Differences in Sexual Activity: What Role do Parents Play in Shaping Behaviors?" Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America (PAA) 2008 Annual Meeting, April 17-19, 2008.
138. Cooksey, Elizabeth C.
Mott, Frank L.
Hango, Darcy William
Why Do Some Adolescents Have Risky Sex? The Role of Family Background, Childhood Behaviors and Adolescent Relationships
Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Contraception; Life Course; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Sexual Activity; Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs); Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

More than half of American youth have had sexual intercourse by the time they turn 18. Despite recent increases in condom use among adolescents, many teens fail to engage in "safe" sexual practices and hence put themselves at risk of both unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Using a life course perspective and data from the NLSY from 1979 through 2000, we explore the question of why some youth engage in risky sex whereas others either abstain from intercourse altogether, or engage in safe sexual practices at various ages between 15 and 20. Drawing on our own previous research findings, as well as the findings of others concerning the importance of romantic relationships to the likelihood of sexual intercourse, we pay particular attention to how relationship profiles in early adolescence might relate to later patterns of sexual behavior, and to potentially important differences in relationship trajectories and sexual practices by race and gender.
Bibliography Citation
Cooksey, Elizabeth C., Frank L. Mott and Darcy William Hango. "Why Do Some Adolescents Have Risky Sex? The Role of Family Background, Childhood Behaviors and Adolescent Relationships." Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002.
139. Cooksey, Elizabeth C.
Mott, Frank L.
Neubauer, Stefanie A.
Relationship Trajectories Among American Adolescents
Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, March 2000
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Age at First Intercourse; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Ethnic Differences; Hispanics; Racial Differences; Sexual Activity; Sexual Experiences/Virginity

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

INTRODUCTION EXCERPT: In this research, we focus on the role that friendship groups and relationship patterns in middle childhood and early adolescence might play in either speeding up or delaying sexual debut. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) mother and child data bases, we profile the gender and age balance of friendship groups, and the nature and intensity of heterosexual relationships as youth mature from middle childhood through the early adolescent years. We then explore whether or not these early friendship and relationship patterns appear linked through differential tendencies to become sexually active. Are there distinctly normative progression pathways in early adolescent relationships? Is there evidence that early sexual activity may be linked with distinctly non-normative prior friendship and relationship patterns? In our explorations, we play close attention to variations between boys and girls, and between black, non-Hispanic white and Hispanic youth.
Bibliography Citation
Cooksey, Elizabeth C., Frank L. Mott and Stefanie A. Neubauer. "Relationship Trajectories Among American Adolescents." Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, March 2000.
140. Cooney, Rosemary S.
Cullinan, Meritta B.
Occupational Sex Segregation and Mobility: The Early Careers of White Women and Men
Presented: Toronto, Canada, Population Association of America Meetings, May 1990
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Dual Economic Theory; Duncan Index; Gender Differences; Mobility; Mobility, Occupational; Occupational Prestige; Occupational Segregation; Occupational Status; Occupations, Female

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the NLS of Young Men and Young Women, this study examines the link between occupational sex segregation and the early career mobility of young white women and men who began their careers in the early 1970s. For the substantial majority of women and men who remain within the sex sector of their initial job, employment in female occupations significantly reduces opportunities for mobility and provides less reward for initial education. The more limited mobility of women is related not only to their initial concentration in female occupations, but also to barriers that limit subsequent access to and retention in the more favorable opportunity structure associated with male occupations. The process of attainment is fundamentally altered when individuals change sex sectors with the status of first job being unrelated to later occupational achievement. The disruption of this link points to the importance of considering occupational sex segregation when studying labor market segmentation.
Bibliography Citation
Cooney, Rosemary S. and Meritta B. Cullinan. "Occupational Sex Segregation and Mobility: The Early Careers of White Women and Men." Presented: Toronto, Canada, Population Association of America Meetings, May 1990.
141. Cotter, David A.
Gender Differences in Labor Force Participation: Multilevel Analyses
Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March 1999
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Labor Force Participation; Labor Market Demographics

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this study, we utilize multilevel techniques to analyze the effect of the demand for female labor on gender differences in labor force participation across metropolitan area (MA) labor markets after controlling for micro-level factors known to influence participation. We develop measures of the gendered demand for labor by indexing the degree to which the occupations in a labor market are skewed toward usually male or female occupations. Logistic regression techniques are used to compute standard micro-level models of labor force participation for young adults from the NLSY and 1990 PUMS. We then test to what extent gender differences in labor force participation co-vary with our measure of the demand for female labor across MAs. In both the NLSY and PUMS data, a higher demand for female labor is significantly related to a smaller gender penalty in the odds of labor force participation, even after extensive micro controls.
Bibliography Citation
Cotter, David A. "Gender Differences in Labor Force Participation: Multilevel Analyses." Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March 1999.
142. Cramer, James C.
Family Structure and Infant Health
Presented: Chicago, IL, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1987
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Birthweight; Child Health; Childbearing; Family Structure; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Height, Height-Weight Ratios; Household Composition; Income; Morbidity; Mortality; Mothers; Mothers, Height

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The risks of low birthweight and infant morbidity and mortality are higher for teenage and unmarried mothers than for other mothers. These risks are conditional: the difference in risks between married and unmarried mothers is small among adolescents and large among older mothers. An explanation of the conditional risks is proposed in terms of income and family structure. Teenage and unmarried mothers have low incomes, hence the higher risks; among unmarried teenage mothers, the effects of low income are mitigated by living at home with relatives and receiving financial assistance from relatives. This hypothesis is tested with data on birthweight for white mothers, using the NLSY. The expected patterns of low income and residential and financial assistance from relatives are indeed found; differences in income and assistance by age and marital status are very large. However, income and family assistance are unrelated to birthweight and most of its proximate determinants, e.g., weight gain, prenatal care, or smoking. Thus, income and family assistance do not explain the effects of age and marital status on birthweight among white mothers. Smoking and pre-pregnancy weight-for-height do explain these effects; weight gain and prenatal care are also important. These results suggest that youth subcultures, media advertising and images, and personal preferences, not income, are the factors responsible for poor pregnancy outcomes among teenage and unmarried white mothers.
Bibliography Citation
Cramer, James C. "Family Structure and Infant Health." Presented: Chicago, IL, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1987.
143. Cramer, James C.
Patterns of Poverty and Financial Assistance Among Premature Mothers
Presented: Baltimore, MD, Population Association of America Meetings, 1989
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Child Care; Childbearing; Household Composition; Life Cycle Research; Mothers; Poverty; Racial Differences; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Women who deviate from the normative life cycle by bearing children "too soon" relative to the proscribed age or sequence of events (e.g. teenage or unwed mothers) can be called "premature mothers." One of the most pressing problems experienced by premature mothers is a high incidence of poverty. This paper user NLSY data to describe patterns of poverty among premature mothers from before birth until three years after birth, by race and ethnicity. Patterns of assistance from relatives and from public programs, and relationships among the types of assistance, also are described. Several factors associated with patterns of poverty and assistance are examined.
Bibliography Citation
Cramer, James C. "Patterns of Poverty and Financial Assistance Among Premature Mothers." Presented: Baltimore, MD, Population Association of America Meetings, 1989.
144. Crosnoe, Robert
Smith, Chelsea
Structural Advantages, Personal Capacities, and Young Adult Functioning during the Great Recession
Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Economic Changes/Recession; Family Formation; Family Structure; Grade Point Average (GPA)/Grades; Pearlin Mastery Scale; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Past research has demonstrated that severe economic downturns can have a major impact on the life course, and the Great Recession is unlikely to be an exception. Informed by life course theory, we describe how the transition into adulthood may have been sped up or slowed down by the Great Recession and how these effects may have varied according to family backgrounds and psychological/behavioral capacities. Historical comparisons of multiple cohorts of young adults in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth--Young Adult cohort revealed some evidence that the Great Recession slowed down school enrollment, labor force entry, partnering, and becoming a parent among 18-25 year olds. The prevalence was especially low in the supposed recovery year of 2010, and school enrollment was the least affected status. This slow-down was more age group-specific for family roles. Variation by family background and psychological/behavioral factors was minimal.
Bibliography Citation
Crosnoe, Robert and Chelsea Smith. "Structural Advantages, Personal Capacities, and Young Adult Functioning during the Great Recession." Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015.
145. Crystal, Stephen
Johnson, Richard W.
The Changing Retirement Prospects of American Families: Impact of Labor Market Shifts on Economic Outcomes
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 1997
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Family Income; Family Size; Gender Differences; Inflation; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Labor Economics; Labor Force Participation; Labor Market Outcomes; Retirement; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Changes in the labor market over the past 25 years, including overall wage stagnation and increases in inequality, may affect retirement prospects for the baby boom cohorts. Using data from National Longitudinal Surveys of Mature Women and Young Women, we compare income trajectories for families from the baby boom birth cohorts with families from earlier cohorts. Our findings suggest that the overall retirement prospects of Baby Boomers are no worse than the prospects faced by cohorts born 20 years earlier. Adjusting for inflation and differences in family size, mean family income at midlife was higher for women born after World War II than for women born in the 1920s and 1930s, primarily because of increasing labor force participation by married women and declining family sizes. However, retirement outcomes for particular subgroups, namely single men and those with limited education, are unlikely to match outcomes experienced by their parents' generation.
Bibliography Citation
Crystal, Stephen and Richard W. Johnson. "The Changing Retirement Prospects of American Families: Impact of Labor Market Shifts on Economic Outcomes." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 1997.
146. Currie, Janet
Medicaid and Medical Care for Children
Presented: Cincinnati, OH, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1993
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Child Health; Children, Health Care; Medicaid/Medicare; Racial Differences; Siblings; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We use longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Surveys to compare the medical care received by children covered by Medicaid to that of other similar children. Using sibling differences, and changes over time for the same child, we find that Medicaid coverage increases the probability that all children receive routine checkups and also increases the number of doctor visits for illness among white children. The racial disparity in the number of visits may be linked to the fact that black children with Medicaid coverage are less likely to see a private physician than other children.
Bibliography Citation
Currie, Janet. "Medicaid and Medical Care for Children." Presented: Cincinnati, OH, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1993.
147. Currie, Janet
Cole, Nancy
Does Participation in Transfer Programs During Pregnancy Improve Birth Weight?
Presented: Denver, CO, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1992
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Birthweight; Breastfeeding; Maternal Employment; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Siblings; Transfers, Public; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Currie, Janet and Nancy Cole. "Does Participation in Transfer Programs During Pregnancy Improve Birth Weight?" Presented: Denver, CO, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1992.
148. Currie, Janet
Thomas, Duncan
Does Head Start Make a Difference?
Presented: Miami, FL, Population Association of America Meetings, May 1994
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Child Health; Disadvantaged, Economically; Educational Attainment; Ethnic Differences; Family Background; Head Start; Health Care; Hispanics; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Racial Differences; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Although there is broad bi-partisan support for Head Start, there is little quantitative evidence that the program has long-term positive effects. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey's Child-Mother file, we examine the impact of the program on a range of child outcomes. After controlling for selection into the program using fixed effects methods we find positive effects of participation in Head Start on the test scores of white and Hispanic children that persist among children over 8 years old. We also find that these children are less likely to have repeated a grade. However we find no effects on the test scores or schooling attainment of African-American children. White children who attend Head Start are more likely to preventive health care, while the evidence suggests that African-American enrollees receive such care earlier than they otherwise would have. These racial differences do not seem to be explained by the relatively disadvantaged economic position of African-Americans.
Bibliography Citation
Currie, Janet and Duncan Thomas. "Does Head Start Make a Difference?" Presented: Miami, FL, Population Association of America Meetings, May 1994.
149. Currie, Janet
Thomas, Duncan
Welfare Policy and Child Welfare
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 1997
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Child Health; Children, Well-Being; Cognitive Development; Food Stamps (see Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program); Heterogeneity; Modeling; Siblings; Transfers, Financial; Transfers, Public; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Even as welfare reforms are enacted, there is little scientific evidence about the impact of income transfer programs on one of their key targets: children at risk. This paper attempts to fill that gap by investigating the impact of parental participation in these programs on the well-being of their children. The focus is on the protective effect of income received from AFDC and Food Stamps on the health and cognitive development of young children. Drawing on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we examine the effects of participation in welfare programs and the income received from those programs on child welfare. To address the fact that welfare participants are not randomly drawn from the population, we treat program participation as a choice made by mothers and compare the impact of participation on siblings. Failure to account for unobserved heterogeneity in this way turns out to be key and leads to the inference that welfare experience causes children to be worse off. Moreover, simply comparing whether a child has been on welfare with a sibling who has not does not capture the diversity of experiences. It is when we turn to time-specific models of welfare experiences and also compare the effect of welfare income with other resources that the effects on child well-being are clearest. There appear to be significant benefits to those children who have short spells on welfare at critical times in their lives and these benefits appear to be long-lasting.
Bibliography Citation
Currie, Janet and Duncan Thomas. "Welfare Policy and Child Welfare." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 1997.
150. Curry, Matthew K.
Gender Differences in College Effects on Employment across Economic Context
Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): College Education; Economic Changes/Recession; Gender Differences; Labor Force Participation; Unemployment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Seven years after the Great Recession began, the labor market has still not fully recovered. Empirical evidence suggests that the negative effects of the recession were not uniform across the population. In fact, employment losses were greatest among men and the less-educated. However, it is unclear whether college acted as a buffer during tough economic times or whether differences between educational groups are due to selection bias, where the most able both graduate college and obtain good jobs. It is also unclear whether any treatment effects of college differ by gender. Using NLSY-97 data and doubly robust estimation, I test whether treatment effects of college completion are responsive to changes in economic context for young men and for young women. Preliminary results suggest gender differences in college’s protective effect during recessions, with the average young man benefiting most from college during poor economic contexts.
Bibliography Citation
Curry, Matthew K. "Gender Differences in College Effects on Employment across Economic Context." Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015.
151. Curry, Matthew K.
How Recessions Affect Returns to College
Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): College Degree; College Graduates; Educational Attainment; Employment; Labor Force Participation; Propensity Scores

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The Great Recession has been the worst economic downturn in the United States since the 1930s. Five years after it began, the labor market has still not recovered. The popular press has highlighted the hardships faced by recent college graduates, but empirical evidence from sociologists and economists suggests that this woe may be misplaced. In fact, college graduates seem to be doing relatively well compared to their less educated peers. However, it is unclear whether college acts as a buffer during tough economic times or whether differences between educational groups are due to selection bias, where the most able both graduate college and obtain good jobs. Using NLSY-97 data and propensity score matching, I test whether causal returns to college are responsive to changes in economic context. Furthermore, I investigate heterogeneity of these effects to test whether college completion is more or less valuable during recessions for different populations.
Bibliography Citation
Curry, Matthew K. "How Recessions Affect Returns to College." Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013.
152. Curry, Matthew K.
The Great Recession and Causal Effects of College for Young Workers
Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): College Graduates; Economic Changes/Recession; Higher Education; Propensity Scores

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

During the aftermath of the Great Recession, many press accounts focused on the difficulties facing recent college graduates, concerned that worsening economic conditions had rendered 4-year college degrees significantly less valuable. However, data collected by sociologists and economists suggests a different picture, as they note that college graduates did well during the recession and recovery compared to those with less education. Still, it remains unclear whether college acted as a protective factor during the economic downturn or if the positive effect of higher education was merely a product of differential selection into college. Using panel data from the NLSY-97 and propensity score matching to control for selection bias, I test whether the causal effects of college on socioeconomic outcomes for young adults changed during the Great Recession, and whether any changes in these effects have been homogenous across the population.
Bibliography Citation
Curry, Matthew K. "The Great Recession and Causal Effects of College for Young Workers." Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014.
153. Curtis, Katherine J.
High Hopes and the Highway: The Influence of Expectations on Migrant Occupational Attainment
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 2001
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Duncan-Blau Survey; Earnings; Economic Changes/Recession; Economics of Gender; Economics, Regional; Job Aspirations; Job Promotion; Job Status; Migration; Occupational Aspirations; Occupational Status

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Research has found that migration between communities in the United States is associated with disproportionate gains in occupational status for men, either across generations or within the same lifetime. The reasons for this relationship are ambiguous, although some of the occupational gains are due to high levels of educational attainment among migrants. Others suspect a high level of psychological imitative (Blau and Duncan, 1967). Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) are used to focus on one measure of initiative, subjective occupational expectations in late adolescence, as an explanation of migrant status gains for both men and women. In addition to initiative or expectations, the effects of socioeconomic and geographic characteristics on occupational attainment are considered. Results suggest that the influences of expectations may operate through educational and, depending on the measure of occupational attainment, effects vary by gender and geographic context.
Bibliography Citation
Curtis, Katherine J. "High Hopes and the Highway: The Influence of Expectations on Migrant Occupational Attainment." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 2001.
154. D'Amico, Ronald
Maxwell, Nan L.
Employment During the School-to-Work Transition: An Explanation for Subsequent Black-White Wage Differentials and Bifurcation of Black Income
Presented: Toronto, Canada, Population Association of America Meetings, May 1990
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Dropouts; Employment; Income; Labor Force Participation; Racial Differences; Regions; Transition, School to Work; Wage Differentials; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines the divergence in black-white income and bifurcation in black income for young males in the 1980s. By integrating school-to-work transition literature with black-white research on vintage effects and income bifurcation, a framework is established for linking employment during the school-to-work transition and subsequent wage divergence. The authors empirically confirm this link using data from the NLSY. The results suggest that the higher rates of black youth joblessness during the 1980s directly translate into black-white wage divergence of youth and bifurcation of black income.
Bibliography Citation
D'Amico, Ronald and Nan L. Maxwell. "Employment During the School-to-Work Transition: An Explanation for Subsequent Black-White Wage Differentials and Bifurcation of Black Income." Presented: Toronto, Canada, Population Association of America Meetings, May 1990.
155. Daniels, Kimberly A.
Educational Attainment, Romantic Relationships, and Non-Marital Fertility
Presented: Dallas, TX, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2010
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Cohabitation; Dating; Educational Attainment; Family Formation; Fertility; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

While two-fifths of births in the United States occur outside of marriage overall, nearly seventy percent of births to women with less than a high school education are non-marital compared to seven percent of those to college educated women (Mincieli, Manlove, McGarrett, Moore, and Ryan 2007). We focus on improving our understanding of this variation by examining the role of dating, cohabiting, and marital relationships in educational differences in non-marital fertility. Non-marital fertility may be influenced by differences in relationship formation or the effects of relationships that are formed due to fertility. For example, more highly educated women may delay forming relationships and/or the relationships they form may have a lesser influence on non-marital fertility compared those formed by women with less education. We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort and examine non-marital fertility for female respondents in the first three years after leaving school.
Bibliography Citation
Daniels, Kimberly A. "Educational Attainment, Romantic Relationships, and Non-Marital Fertility." Presented: Dallas, TX, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2010.
156. Dariotis, Jacinda K.
What Predicts Fertility Intention Persistence and Change During Adolescence and Middle Adulthood?
Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2005
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Family Formation; Family Studies; Fertility; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

To what extent do family formation intentions change or remain persistent? This research question is assessed using both The Intergenerational Study of Families and Children and the NLSY-79. This study examines fertility intention reports (how many children people intend to have) from adolescence through middle adulthood to evaluate how and why these intentions change or persist over the course of development from age 15 to 45. Change may range from small to large differences in the number of intended children. All potential change combinations are examined in terms of factors that predict small changes (i.e., adjacent value changes - intention change from one child to two children, vice versa, and so on), large changes (i.e., value changes exceeding one - intention change from one child to three children or four children, vice versa, and so on), and qualitatively different changes (i.e., intention of wanting no children to wanting any children and vice versa).
Bibliography Citation
Dariotis, Jacinda K. "What Predicts Fertility Intention Persistence and Change During Adolescence and Middle Adulthood?" Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2005.
157. Dariotis, Jacinda K.
Joyner, Kara
Curtin, Sally C.
Sonenstein, Freya L.
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Peters, H. Elizabeth
Sexual Behaviors Across 9 National Cohorts of Young Males and Females Ages 15-19
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011.
Also: http://paa2011.princeton.edu/download.aspx?submissionId=112016
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult, NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Sexual Activity; National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth); National Survey of Adolescent Males (NSAM); National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG); Pregnancy, Adolescent; Sexual Behavior; Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Overview
Although adolescent pregnancy and STI/HIV transmission are preventable, (1) youth aged 15 to 24 contribute 18.9 million new STD cases in the US annually, (2) youth under age 20 account for 750,000 pregnancies a year, and (3) youth aged 15 to 24 were responsible for 20,000 new HIV cases, half of the 40,000 total, in 2006. What places these youth at risk are their sexual behaviors, with timing of first sex denoting the length of risk exposure.

Using nine nationally representative cohorts (NSLY79, NSAM88, NSFG88, NSAM95, NSFG95, ADD-Health, NLSY97, NSFG2002, and NLSY79YA), we examine cohort and sex differences in being sexually experienced and corroborate associations and trends across different data sets. Our samples are limited to male and female never-married youth ages 15 to 19 at the time they were reporting on their sexual behavior. We identify trends over time in being sexually experienced for 15 to 19 year old males and females. We find a monotonic decrease in the percent of 15-19 year old males being sexually experienced over cohorts. For females aged 15-19, we find an increase and then decrease from earlier to later cohorts. These results have significant implications for public health sexual outcomes among youth and for studies that examine sexually experienced youth, especially timing of first sex.

Bibliography Citation
Dariotis, Jacinda K., Kara Joyner, Sally C. Curtin, Freya L. Sonenstein, Kristin Anderson Moore and H. Elizabeth Peters. "Sexual Behaviors Across 9 National Cohorts of Young Males and Females Ages 15-19." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011.
158. Deleire, Thomas
Kalil, Ariel
Who Becomes a Multigenerational Grandmother? Selection into Multigenerational Households
Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2005
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Coresidence; Family, Extended; Grandmothers; Parents, Single

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Who becomes a multigenerational grandmother? Multigenerational coresidence is increasingly prevalent among adult single mothers with children. Research on the effects of multigenerational coresidence on children, however, is equivocal, though our recent study (DeLeire and Kalil, 2002) found that teenagers in multigenerational families have better educational and behavioral outcomes than even teenagers in 2-biological parent families. Understanding issues of who chooses to form a multigenerational household is necessary for understanding whether observed positive benefits of multigenerational coresidence are merely the result of selection. To address this question, we use data on a sample of 640 grandmothers from the NLSY-CS, 44% of whom have co-resided with their daughter and grandchild
Bibliography Citation
Deleire, Thomas and Ariel Kalil. "Who Becomes a Multigenerational Grandmother? Selection into Multigenerational Households." Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2005.
159. Delgado, Enilda Arbona
Sandefur, Gary D.
Racial and Ethnic Differences in Legitimation
Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America, May 1996
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Childbearing, Adolescent; Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Ethnic Differences; Fertility; First Birth; Marital Status; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Studies of racial and ethnic differences in the probability of legitimation tend to focus on the difference between African Americans and Whites, while omitting the legitimation rate of Latina women. During the 1975-78 period, "eight percent of premaritally conceived first births to black teenagers [were] being legitimated, whereas 58 percent of premaritally conceived first births to white teenagers were legitimated" (O'Connell and Moore, p23). Although, similar results were reported by Parnell et al., they also found the expectations of marital union formation to be important in determining racial differences in legitimation. Black women are less likely to anticipate an early marriage, but those that do are more likely to legitimate a premarital conception than white women with similar expectations. This paper explore differences in legitimation between blacks, Latinas, and whites. This is done by examining two key events: (1) a conception prior to marriage that is carried to term and (2) marriage subsequent to the conception of the child, either before or after the child is born. In addition, marriages that occur prior to birth are examined.
Bibliography Citation
Delgado, Enilda Arbona and Gary D. Sandefur. "Racial and Ethnic Differences in Legitimation." Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America, May 1996.
160. Desai, Sonalde
Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay
Mother or Market? Effects of Maternal Employment on the Intellectual Ability of 4-Year-Old Children
Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1988
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Child Care; Child Development; Children; Employment; Family Income; Gender Differences; General Assessment; Maternal Employment; Mothers; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Desai, Sonalde and P. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale. "Mother or Market? Effects of Maternal Employment on the Intellectual Ability of 4-Year-Old Children." Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1988.
161. Desai, Sonalde
Michael, Robert T.
Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay
Exploring the Mechanisms through which Employment Affects Women's Childrearing Practices
Presented: Toronto, Canada, Population Association of America Meetings, May 1990
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Child Care; Child Development; Childbearing; Children; General Assessment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Composition; Maternal Employment; Mothers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the Children of the NLSY, this paper examines the effect of employment on emotional support and cognitive stimulation provided by mothers to their preschool age children. Measures of childrearing practices are based on mother reports as well as interviewer observations, from a short form of HOME [Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment]. The results suggest that mother's cognitive stimulation of the children seems to suffer substantially when the mother is employed, but only in the households with middle or higher levels of income. Moreover and conversely, mother's emotional support of children appears to be greater when the mother is employed, but only in the households with lower levels of income.
Bibliography Citation
Desai, Sonalde, Robert T. Michael and P. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale. "Exploring the Mechanisms through which Employment Affects Women's Childrearing Practices." Presented: Toronto, Canada, Population Association of America Meetings, May 1990.
162. Devor, Camron Suzann
Stewart, Susan D.
Parental Divorce, Educational Expectations, and Educational Attainment among Young Adults
Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): College Enrollment; Divorce; Educational Attainment; Parental Influences; Parental Marital Status

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Most research on parental divorce and academic achievement has focused on children and adolescents. There are few studies of young adults, and most focus on undergraduate education. Yet, education beyond a bachelor's degree has become increasingly important in ensuring one's future economic success. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, this study investigated whether and how parental divorce affects young adults' educational attainment, measured by attainment of a bachelor's degree, a graduate or professional degree, or enrollment in a graduate/professional program. A secondary goal was to assess the role of parental educational expectations. Results indicate that parental divorce and lower educational expectations among parents were associated with lower educational attainment among young adults. Lower parental educational expectations did not explain lower educational attainment for young adults with divorced parents. Future research should explore factors that explain lower rates of educational attainment among young adults with divorced parents.
Bibliography Citation
Devor, Camron Suzann and Susan D. Stewart. "Parental Divorce, Educational Expectations, and Educational Attainment among Young Adults." Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015.
163. Diaz, Christina
Fiel, Jeremy E.
How Young Mothers Manage: Is There Evidence for Heterogeneity after an Early Birth?
Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Educational Attainment; Fertility; Heterogeneity; Income; Motherhood; Pregnancy, Adolescent; Propensity Scores

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The socioeconomic consequences of teenage childbearing have received much attention over the past 40 years. While some argue that teenage fertility substantially hinders women’s educational attainment and earnings, others claim that the socioeconomic prospects of these women are often limited regardless of early motherhood. Recent methodological advances have resulted in more plausible estimates of the effect of teenage childbearing, but these studies focus on average treatment effects and overlook systematic variation. We ask if there is evidence for heterogeneity in the effects of teen birth on educational attainment and income, and whether the sources of this heterogeneity are tied to the resources and attributes of young mothers. We use propensity score-based methods to assess effect heterogeneity, but go further to test theoretically relevant explanations of such heterogeneity. Our findings help identify the types of young women who are likely to struggle as mothers and help us learn how others succeed.
Bibliography Citation
Diaz, Christina and Jeremy E. Fiel. "How Young Mothers Manage: Is There Evidence for Heterogeneity after an Early Birth?" Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014.
164. Diaz, Christina
Nobles, Jenna
The Intergenerational Production of the Health Gradient: Evidence among Immigrant Families
Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March-April 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Child Health; Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-B, ECLS-K); Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Height; Immigrants; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Our project has two aims:
1. To assess how early in life socioeconomic patterns in health among second generation children begin to diverge from the socioeconomic patterns in health among their parents.
2. To test competing hypotheses about the intergenerational mechanisms that produce a health gradient among children in the absence of a similar gradient among parents. Although many aspects of health could be considered, our study will emphasize height, weight, chronic health conditions, and activity-limiting illness. These measures are collected from both parents and children in both the ECLS-B and NLSY-97 data sets.
Bibliography Citation
Diaz, Christina and Jenna Nobles. "The Intergenerational Production of the Health Gradient: Evidence among Immigrant Families." Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March-April 2011.
165. Dickert-Conlin, Stacy
Houser, Scott
Li, Yun
Ondrich, Jan
Earned Income Tax Credit, Premarital Pregnancy, and Duration to Marriage
Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2003
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); Family Structure; Marriage; Taxes; Transfers, Financial

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) is a refundable tax credit paid to low-income families who work, with the largest credits going to families with children. The increasing role of the tax system as a means for transferring income to families raises the concern that, like welfare, there may be unintentional incentives implicit in the EITC that discourage marriage. The structure of the EITC may lead to "marriage penalties"; however, the EITC may also subsidize marriage. Large expansions in the EITC during the 1990s provide an excellent source of variation for investigating whether the EITC influences family structure. We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to consider the question of whether the EITC influenced family structure decisions. We control for characteristics like welfare generosity in the respondent's state, age, education, and number of children, in addition to controlling for the change in the individual's EITC incentives for marriage.
Bibliography Citation
Dickert-Conlin, Stacy, Scott Houser, Yun Li and Jan Ondrich. "Earned Income Tax Credit, Premarital Pregnancy, and Duration to Marriage." Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2003.
166. Dillon, Eleanor Wiske
Smith, Jeffrey A.
Determinants of Mismatch Between Student Ability and College Quality
Presented: Detroit MI, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2009.
Also: http://paa2009.princeton.edu/download.aspx?submissionId=91536
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); College Characteristics; College Education; School Completion; School Progress; Schooling, Post-secondary; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

For many people a college education is one of the most significant investment decisions they will make, both in terms of the costs of going to college and of the potential returns to that investment. We consider how students and their families make the decision of which, if any, college they will attend. While most college-bound students attend a school whose quality is fairly proportional to the student's ability, there are many relatively weak students at competitive schools and even more high-ability students at relatively low quality schools.

A poor match between student and school characteristics can have a number of negative consequences for the student. Workers receive an extra wage premium for attending a high quality college, so a student who attends a school for which she is overqualified may be foregoing some of her potential returns to attending college. Students who are over- or under-qualified for their school may be less likely to graduate and more likely to transfer or take extra time to complete their degree.

Bibliography Citation
Dillon, Eleanor Wiske and Jeffrey A. Smith. "Determinants of Mismatch Between Student Ability and College Quality." Presented: Detroit MI, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2009.
167. DiPrete, Thomas A.
McDaniel, Anne
Family, Gender, and Educational Outcomes in Elementary and Middle School
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-B, ECLS-K); Educational Attainment; Educational Outcomes; Family Studies; Fathers, Biological; Fathers, Presence; Gender Differences; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Schooling

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

It is now well established that girls typically outperform boys in school and have higher levels of educational attainment. Recent research suggests that the gender gap in educational attainment is related to family resources, in that the attainment gap appears to be smaller in families with more highly educated parents. Using data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of 1979 and 1997 along with data from the ECLS-K, we provide evidence that the gender gap in educational performance at various points in the educational career is smaller in families with more highly educated parents, and that the gender gap in behavior problems -- which has been linked to educational attainment in previous research -- may also be smaller in these families. The presence of a biological father in the household may also be linked to the size of the gender gap in behavior problems in elementary and middle school.
Bibliography Citation
DiPrete, Thomas A. and Anne McDaniel. "Family, Gender, and Educational Outcomes in Elementary and Middle School." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011.
168. Dodini, Samuel
The Gender Career Interruption Gap: Measuring the Cumulative Prevalence of Labor Force Dropout Due to Caregiving
Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Child Care; Gender Differences; Labor Force Participation; Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP); Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

While a rich literature examines women's work patterns, the gender gap in cumulative prevalence of work interruptions due to caregiving remains unaddressed. Using a synthetic cohort life table approach with data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation and longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, I estimate the cumulative prevalence of experiencing a career interruption of six months or more to devote to caregiving of a child. In the SIPP, I find that the average full-time woman is 27 percentage points more likely to experience a work interruption of six months or more than the average full-time man by the 20th year of their career. Among working women, I also find significant racial/ethnic, income, regional, and occupational heterogeneity in prevalence.
Bibliography Citation
Dodini, Samuel. "The Gender Career Interruption Gap: Measuring the Cumulative Prevalence of Labor Force Dropout Due to Caregiving." Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018.
169. Doren, Catherine
Diverging Trajectories or Parallel Paths? The Gender Earnings Gap by Education in Life Course Perspective
Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): College Graduates; Earnings; Educational Attainment; Gender Differences; Life Course; Wage Gap

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

When men and women enter their working years, the gender earnings gap is small, but it opens considerably as they age and pass through key phases of the life course. Although the literature has established that men and women's earnings diverge with age, many studies looking at earnings trajectories focus on college graduates. Corresponding explanations posed for men's greater success may also disproportionately apply to college graduates. Given vast differences in fertility timing, marriage rates, employment opportunities, and potential marriage partners between college graduates and those with less education, age trajectories in the gender earnings gap may vary markedly by education. In this paper, I explore variations in gender differences in earnings trajectories across education levels. I find that college graduates see a strong divergence in spite of beginning with nearly equal earnings. Those with less education see a considerably larger gap early on, but less change thereafter.
Bibliography Citation
Doren, Catherine. "Diverging Trajectories or Parallel Paths? The Gender Earnings Gap by Education in Life Course Perspective." Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016.
170. Doren, Catherine
Do Some Mothers Pay a Higher Price? Variation in Motherhood Wage Penalties by Education, Parity, and Fertility Timing
Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Childbearing; Educational Attainment; Maternal Employment; Motherhood; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Fertility timing and the number of children women have vary by education, but research examining education variation in motherhood effects has given relatively little attention to how timing and parity shape motherhood wage penalties. Using fixed-effects models and data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, I estimate heterogeneous effects of motherhood by age at the transition to motherhood, by parity, and by ages at later births, considering how these effects differ by whether women have a college degree. I find that the transition to motherhood, regardless of its timing, has substantial wage penalty for less educated mothers, while college-educated mothers see a premium. Analyses of timing show that this premium is only realized if they delay childbearing until their late twenties and grows with further delays. All women see wage penalties for later births, although these penalties do not vary by education and are largely unshaped by delays.
Bibliography Citation
Doren, Catherine. "Do Some Mothers Pay a Higher Price? Variation in Motherhood Wage Penalties by Education, Parity, and Fertility Timing." Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018.
171. Doren, Catherine
Parity and Women's Labor Force Participation
Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Event History; Exits; Labor Force Participation; Maternal Employment; Motherhood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Many mothers leave the labor force during their childbearing years, although not all those who leave do so after their first birth. Ethnographic accounts often describe mothers who continue working after their first child only to leave upon having a second or third, yet the demographic literature has largely focused on labor force exit at the initial transition to motherhood. This may obscure differences in the likelihood that mothers work by parity. In this paper, I aim to understand when in their fertility trajectories women are most likely to exit the labor force. With data from the NLSY79 cohort, I use event history methods to predict probabilities of labor force exit across women's childbearing years, giving attention to the association between parity and labor force participation. I also consider parity-specific variation in exits across mothers who have had different numbers of children by the end of their childbearing years.
Bibliography Citation
Doren, Catherine. "Parity and Women's Labor Force Participation." Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017.
172. Doren, Catherine
Grodsky, Eric
What Skills Can Buy: Transmission of Advantage through Cognitive and Noncognitive Skills
Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); College Degree; College Enrollment; Family Income; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mothers, Education; Parenting Skills/Styles; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Pearlin Mastery Scale; Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Although never far from social scientists' attention, interest in the intergenerational flow of advantage and disadvantage has recently gained prominence in both academic and popular venues. Income inequality is rising (Western et al. 2012) and with it inequality in direct investments in children (Kornrich and Furstenberg 2013) and academic achievement tied to parental income (Reardon 2011). While income and wealth as resources undoubtedly contribute to the intergenerational transmission of social status, we argue that they are at least partly endogenous to parents' cognitive and noncognitive skills and advantages bestowed by these skills rather than material resources themselves are driving much of the observed relationship between capital and children's educational attainment. We analyze the NLSY 1979 cohort and their children to disentangle the effects of parent skills from those of resources. Preliminary findings suggest that more than half of the association of resources and educational attainment is traceable to parent skills.
Bibliography Citation
Doren, Catherine and Eric Grodsky. "What Skills Can Buy: Transmission of Advantage through Cognitive and Noncognitive Skills." Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015.
173. Doren, Catherine
Lin, Katherine
The Gender Earnings Gap Across the Life Course: Variation by Race, Educational Attainment, and Family Status
Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Earnings; Educational Attainment; Gender Differences; Life Course; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Racial Differences; Wage Gap

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Not only do women, on average, earn less than men do, but this gender gap in earnings increases as men and women age. While many have called for an intersectional approach to gender inequality in the labor market, few have empirically examined the extent to which men's and women's earnings diverge across the life course, and whether these patterns differ by race and educational status. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and estimate growth curve models of annual earnings, paying attention to differences by race and educational attainment in the levels and slopes of earnings for men and women from ages 22 to 47. Our findings provide empirical support for intersectionality by race, gender, and education in the labor market, as well as mixed evidence for processes of cumulative (dis)advantage in earnings inequality over the life course.
Bibliography Citation
Doren, Catherine and Katherine Lin. "The Gender Earnings Gap Across the Life Course: Variation by Race, Educational Attainment, and Family Status." Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017.
174. Dorius, Cassandra J.
Reconceptualizing Family Instability to Include Measures of Childbearing: The Practical Value of Assessing Multiple Partner Fertility
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Family Structure; Family Studies; Fertility; Fertility, Multiple Partners; Marital Instability; Marital Status

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper wrestles with the issue of whether family instability should be reconceptualized to include measures of childbearing. To make this case, I explore how women's multiple partner fertility provides a single trajectory of instability and childbearing that clearly distinguishes MPF women from those who would otherwise look very similar when assessing instability alone. The goals of this project are three fold: (1) to provide the first national-level estimates of women's multiple partner fertility prevalence; (2) to describe how multiple partner fertility women differ from single partner fertility women on a range of attitudinal, behavioral, and socio-demographic characteristics that may underlie causes and consequences of lifetime instability; and (3) to use these findings to demonstrate that traditional measures of instability might not adequately capture the dynamic nature of modern families, while more integrative measures of instability and childbearing may offer substantive and theoretical advances to this line of inquiry.
Bibliography Citation
Dorius, Cassandra J. "Reconceptualizing Family Instability to Include Measures of Childbearing: The Practical Value of Assessing Multiple Partner Fertility." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011.
175. Dorius, Cassandra J.
The Long-Term Consequences of Having Children with More than One Man: Assessing Women’s Wages, Depression and Physical Health at Midlife
Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Depression (see also CESD); Fertility, Multiple Partners; Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Mothers; Propensity Scores; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The last thirty years have witnessed increasing social and economic inequality among American families. In the discourse about causal mechanisms behind these patterns, the ways families form and dissolve has proven integral, with children brought up by two biological parents advantaged relative to all others. Because children are most commonly raised by mothers after a relationship dissolution, exploring women’s relationship and childbearing histories provides unique insights into the family processes that may affect women’s and children’s access to socioeconomic resources. This paper explores how having children with more than one person (MPF) may influence the creation and perpetuation of family-level inequalities by reducing women’s economic, metal, and physical well-being over time. A potential outcomes approach with propensity scores weights is used to address these questions while controlling for selection into this family form. Preliminary findings suggest MPF may exacerbate mental and physical health disparities at age 40, but not wages.
Bibliography Citation
Dorius, Cassandra J. "The Long-Term Consequences of Having Children with More than One Man: Assessing Women’s Wages, Depression and Physical Health at Midlife." Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013.
176. Duncan, Greg J.
Lee, Kenneth T. H.
Kalil, Ariel
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.
Maternal Age and Child Achievement
Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Age at Birth; Age at First Birth; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Births, Repeat / Spacing; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Drawing data from the Children of the NLSY79, we estimate differences in teenage achievement and problem behavior for children born to younger and older mothers. We distinguish between the value for children of being born to a mother who delayed her first birth and the value of the additional years between her first birth and the birth of the child whose outcomes are under study. We find that each year the mother delays a first birth is associated with between a .025 sd and .042 sd increase in school achievement and a .038 sd reduction in teen behavior problems. Coefficients are at least half as large for additional years between the first and given birth, even in the presence of controls for family fixed effects. Our mediational analyses shows that the primary pathway by which delaying first births benefits children is by enabling mothers to complete more schooling.
Bibliography Citation
Duncan, Greg J., Kenneth T. H. Lee, Ariel Kalil and Kathleen M. Ziol-Guest. "Maternal Age and Child Achievement." Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015.
177. Dunifon, Rachel
Is Maternal Work Behavior Affected by Children's Health and Behavioral Problems?
Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002.
Also: http://paa2002.princeton.edu/abstractViewer.asp?submissionId=60038
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Health; Maternal Employment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In the current policy environment, understanding the factors that may hinder or facilitate the employment of low-income women is important. These factors may include the health and behavioral characteristics of children. Thus, this paper asks: 1) How do the behavioral and health characteristics of children affect maternal employment outcomes? 2) What are the roles of poverty and single parenthood in moderating this relationship? 3) In estimating this relationship, how can we control for the ways in which maternal characteristics affect those of the children? Data from the Child Supplement of the NLSY are used. Initial results suggest that children's health limitations are negatively associated with a woman's employment status. Additionally, this relationship is more pronounced for poor women. Detailing instances in which low-income or single-parent women are hindered from economic self-sufficiency due to concerns within their families will allow policy-makers to better understand and predict families' responses to welfare reform.
Bibliography Citation
Dunifon, Rachel. "Is Maternal Work Behavior Affected by Children's Health and Behavioral Problems?" Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002.
178. Dunifon, Rachel
Harris, David R.
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Understanding Race Differences in the Role of Grandparents in Single-Mother Families
Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America (PAA) 2008 Annual Meeting, April 17-19, 2008
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Sexual Activity; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Coresidence; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Depression (see also CESD); Family Structure; Grandparents; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Racial Differences; Risk-Taking; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Our previous work (Dunifon and Kowaleski-Jones, 2007) examined whether children living with single mothers benefit when they also live with a grandparent, finding benefits for white, but not black, children. The goal of this study is to "unpack" these race differences by examining whether they are due to differences in grandparent characteristics such as education, health or age. Using data from the 1979 to 2004 waves of the NLSY mother-child file, we first examine a wide set of child outcomes (test scores, behavior, delinquency, and attitudes) to document where there are race differences in the influence of grandparent co-residence on children. We then seek to explain these race differences, using an extensive set of grandparent characteristics that could themselves differ by race. The goal is to better understand the role grandparents play in single-mother families and how and why this dynamic may differ by race.
Bibliography Citation
Dunifon, Rachel, David R. Harris and Lori Kowaleski-Jones. "Understanding Race Differences in the Role of Grandparents in Single-Mother Families." Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America (PAA) 2008 Annual Meeting, April 17-19, 2008.
179. Dunifon, Rachel
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Family Structure and Child Well-Being: Examining the Role of Parental Social Networks
Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2004
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s):

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using longitudinal data from the NLSY79, this paper examines whether parental social support helps to reduce the negative impact of single-parenthood on children. Two measures of social support are used: how often a family spends time with friends or relatives, and whether a child's grandparent is living in the household. Our analyses focus on two important sub-groups of children: African-Americans and families receiving public assistance. African-Americans are an important sub-group because of the higher prevalence of single-parenthood in African-American families, and because our previous work found significant race differences in the influence of single-parenthood on children. Families receiving public assistance are examined because they are the target of public policies aimed at increasing marriage. Results suggest that the presence of grandparents in the home helps buffer the negative associations between single-parenthood and child delinquency.
Bibliography Citation
Dunifon, Rachel and Lori Kowaleski-Jones. "Family Structure and Child Well-Being: Examining the Role of Parental Social Networks." Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2004.
180. Dunifon, Rachel
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
The Role of Grandparents in Single-Mother Families
Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2005.
Also: http://paa2005.princeton.edu/download.aspx?submissionId=50727
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Coresidence; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Ethnic Studies; Grandparents; Modeling, Random Effects; Parents, Single; Racial Studies

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper asks two research questions: first, does living with a grandparent reduce the potential detrimental influences of single-parenthood on children? Second, does this relationship vary by race or ethnicity? We employ a random effects model using data from the NLSY79 mother-child files. Results from preliminary analyzes suggest that, for black children, grandparent co-residence is not associated with delinquency. For white children, living with a grandparent is associated with reduced delinquency, but not particularly for children living with a single mother. Future work will expand the set of outcomes examined, as well as the age group of children we study.
Bibliography Citation
Dunifon, Rachel and Lori Kowaleski-Jones. "The Role of Grandparents in Single-Mother Families." Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2005.
181. Dunifon, Rachel
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Who's in the House? Effects of Family Structure on Children's Home Environments and Cognitive Outcomes
Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, March 2000.
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Family Structure; Fathers, Biological; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Marital Status; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Three main theories guide our analyses of the potential effects of family structure on children's home environment and achievement outcomes: social support, the biological imperative, and the marital imperative. Our results do not provide uniform evidence clearly supporting only one of these hypotheses. Instead, our findings lend support to a more complex set of conclusions that differ substantially by race. Taken together, we find evidence for the social support theory among whites, and some evidence of the biological imperative among white and black girls. For white girls, living with a spouse who is the biological father is especially beneficial, while for black girls living with a partner who is the biological father is most helpful. For both whites and blacks, we do not find support for the marital imperative theory, and for black boys our results suggest that cohabiting relationships may have great importance for their developmental outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Dunifon, Rachel and Lori Kowaleski-Jones. "Who's in the House? Effects of Family Structure on Children's Home Environments and Cognitive Outcomes." Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, March 2000.
182. Eichenlaub, Suzanne C.
Income Inequality and Health: A Multilevel Analysis Investigating Interactions with (Non)Metropolitan Status, Sex, Income and Race/Ethnicity
Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 29-31, 2007.
Also: http://paa2007.princeton.edu/abstractViewer.aspx?submissionId=71806
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Ethnic Differences; Gender Differences; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Income Level; Racial Differences; Rural/Urban Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using year 2000 data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the U.S. population census summary tape files, I conduct a multilevel analysis to assess the impact of county-level income inequality on self-rated health in the U.S. Additionally, I examine whether the effect of income inequality on health varies by selected characteristics of individuals, as suggested by prior research. I find no evidence of an independent effect of income inequality on health when appropriate control variables are included. And, while I find no significant variation in the effect of income inequality on health by gender, individual income or metropolitan status, I do find that the effect of inequality varies significantly by race/ethnicity. Specifically, I find that the racial/ethnic differentials in health, which are large under conditions of relative equality, converge as income inequality increases. At higher levels of income inequality, there are no statistically significant racial/ethnic differences in health.
Bibliography Citation
Eichenlaub, Suzanne C. "Income Inequality and Health: A Multilevel Analysis Investigating Interactions with (Non)Metropolitan Status, Sex, Income and Race/Ethnicity." Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 29-31, 2007.
183. England, Paula A.
Bearak, Jonathan M.
Budig, Michelle Jean
Hodges, Melissa J.
Is the Motherhood Wage Penalty Worse at the Top or Bottom?
Presented: San Francisco CA, Population Association of America Meetings, May 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Maternal Employment; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Motherhood; Racial Differences; Wage Differentials; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty; Wages, Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper, we ask whether motherhood wage penalties are higher for women at the top or bottom of skill, wage, and race hierarchies. Two recent papers that address the issue of how the penalties vary by skill and wage present a puzzle. In an unpublished but widely cited NBER paper, Wilde, Batchelder, and Ellwood (2010), using the AFQT cognitive skill test as a measure of skill, find the motherhood penalty to be much higher for higher skilled women before and after controls for experience. This makes sense if we think that the jobs that high-skilled women can get are the hardest to combine with the demands of motherhood without performance being affected. Budig and Hodges (2010), using the same (National Longitudinal Analysis of Youth 1979) dataset, and deploying quantile regression, show that the penalty for motherhood (as a proportion of wage) is much larger for low wage women. Part of this is simply that low wage women drop out the most, and thus, when they re-enter, pay a penalty for their lost experience. But even after adjustments for experience, Budig and Hodges found lower wage women to have them to have higher penalties, possibly reflecting the less family-friendly firms they work for, and/or their low bargaining power on matters of flexibility. Because individuals’ skills and their wages are moderately positively correlated, it is a puzzle that low skill women have lower penalties while low wage women have higher penalties. Research has also examined whether black and white women differ in their motherhood penalties with mixed findings (e.g. Budig and England 2001 find no difference while Waldfogel 1997 finds lower penalties for black women). We examine whether the wage penalty for motherhood is proportionately higher or lower for women at higher points in cognitive skill, wage, and race hierarchies. One animating puzzle is that a paper by Ellwood and colleagues found higher penalties for more cognitively skilled women, while a paper using the same data by Budig and Hodges found higher penalties at lower wage levels; given the correlation between skill and wage, it is surprising if both are true. We use all waves of the NLSY79 with fixed effects models and quantile regression. We assess whether penalties (because of and net of experience) are higher for those scoring higher on the AFQT, for those with lower wages, and for black women. We assess the role of marital status in explaining black/white differences in penalties. We attempt a comprehensive portrait of how motherhood penalties vary by advantage.
Bibliography Citation
England, Paula A., Jonathan M. Bearak, Michelle Jean Budig and Melissa J. Hodges. "Is the Motherhood Wage Penalty Worse at the Top or Bottom?" Presented: San Francisco CA, Population Association of America Meetings, May 2012.
184. Esposito, Michael H.
Income's Role in Explaining Black-White Differences in the Educational Gradient in Health: Evidence from the NLSY79 and G-Computation
Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Bayesian; Educational Attainment; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Income; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Although it is well-established that the association among health and education is less strong for Non-Hispanic U.S Blacks than it is for Non-Hispanic U.S Whites, little empirical work has been produced to explain why said racial difference exists. The aim of this paper then, is to clarify the role of one of the more popular explanations of why the health returns to education vary by race: income. In this endeavor, we employ a combination of rich data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979, and G-Computation, a technique which allows us to quantify the role income plays in maintaining Black-White differences in educational gradients while avoiding post-treatment bias. In addition, to alleviate the model specification concerns that come with a G-Computation approach, we make use of a nonparametric machine-learning algorithm (Bayesian Additive Regression Trees) to estimate the regression models necessary to the G-Computation process.
Bibliography Citation
Esposito, Michael H. "Income's Role in Explaining Black-White Differences in the Educational Gradient in Health: Evidence from the NLSY79 and G-Computation." Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015.
185. Fan, Pi-Ling
Marini, Margaret Mooney
Gender Gap in Earnings at Career Entry: Racial and Ethnic Variation
Presented: San Francisco, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, 1995
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Ethnic Differences; Family Influences; Gender Differences; Labor Force Participation; Labor Market Demographics; Occupational Aspirations; Occupational Choice; Racial Differences; Wage Gap

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines gender differences in the process of wage attainment at entry into the U.S. labor force across racial and ethnic groups. We define career entry as entry into the first full-time civilian job held after first leaving full-time education in order to exclude short-term and partial attachments to the labor force during the schooling process. We examine the gender gap in earnings at career entry and evaluate alternative explanations of the wage gap at that point. In addition to traditional measures of human capital, we consider the effects of work and family aspirations, family structure, and access to job-relevant information. We also consider the extent to which occupational and industrial placement is not attributable to the measured characteristics of individuals and may therefore represent the effect of differential treatment by employers. The analysis is carried out using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. We analyze data collected from 1979 to 1991 for the noninstitutionalized civilian U.S. population of youth. For individuals, we merge characteristics of occupations and industries from other sources. Our findings show that gender differences in human capital, occupational aspirations, and occupational and industrial placement all play an important role in explanation of the gender gap in earnings. However, the relative importance of alternative explanatory mechanisms varies for racial and ethnic groups.
Bibliography Citation
Fan, Pi-Ling and Margaret Mooney Marini. "Gender Gap in Earnings at Career Entry: Racial and Ethnic Variation." Presented: San Francisco, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, 1995.
186. Farkas, Janice I.
Women's Participation in Employer Sponsored Pension Plans at Midlife: A Cohort Comparison
Presented: San Francisco, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, 1995
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Benefits; Educational Attainment; Firm Size; Job Status; Life Course; Marital Status; Part-Time Work; Women's Education

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A cohort comparison of women born between 1928-37 and women born between 1944-53 on the likelihood of pension coverage at midlife is conducted. The analysis examines how past and current events that construct the life course trajectory for middle-aged women, ages 35-54, influences the probability of participating in an employer sponsored pension at midlife. The data for the analysis come from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Mature Women and Young Women. The results find that the 1944-53 birth cohort have nearly a 40 percent relative increase in pension coverage compared to the 1928-37 birth cohort. Although differences are observed on the probability of pension coverage between birth cohort by life course trajectories, education, and marital status; increased pension coverage is primarily the result of several exogenous factors--the employee's firm size and the reduced significance of current employment status on pension coverage.
Bibliography Citation
Farkas, Janice I. "Women's Participation in Employer Sponsored Pension Plans at Midlife: A Cohort Comparison." Presented: San Francisco, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, 1995.
187. Fedor, Theresa M.
Berry, Eddy Helen
Reither, Eric N.
Disparities in Birth Weight between Non-Hispanic Blacks and Non-Hispanic Whites: The Effect of Rural Residency
Presented: Dallas, TX, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2010
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Family Structure; Fathers, Absence; Fathers, Presence; Racial Differences; Rural/Urban Differences; Support Networks

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This research assesses the prevalence of low birth weight among non-Hispanic Blacks and non-Hispanic Whites along the rural/urban continuum. Degree of social isolation and lack of social support are proposed mechanisms for explaining the high prevalence of low birth weight observed among Blacks in rural counties. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Child data, the relative odds of low birth weight were estimated for Black and White women via logistic regression. Living in a predominately rural county exacerbates disparities in birth weight outcomes between Blacks and Whites. Logistic regression models also revealed that racial disparities in low birth weight were almost completely accounted for by the presence of the father in the household. Our results highlight the importance of place of residence and family structures for health outcomes among racial minorities.
Bibliography Citation
Fedor, Theresa M., Eddy Helen Berry and Eric N. Reither. "Disparities in Birth Weight between Non-Hispanic Blacks and Non-Hispanic Whites: The Effect of Rural Residency." Presented: Dallas, TX, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2010.
188. Fedor, Theresa Marie
Lee, Sang Lim
A Longitudinal Study of Past Influences on Migration
Presented: Detroit MI, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2009.
Also: http://paa2009.princeton.edu/download.aspx?submissionId=91777
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Life Cycle Research; Migration

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Migration literature usually describes the age pattern of adult migration frequency as highest in young adulthood, with a subsequent gradual decline in the frequency of migration events with age. This tapering off in a person's life describes an assumed universal, life cycle of migration. There is also an embedded assumption that each migration event in an individual's life is independent of all other migration events and that each migration is simply a result of the costs and benefits of a move at that point in time. The idea that each move is independent of other moves, coupled with a universally applied life cycle of migration for an individual has partially stemmed from data limitations bred from cross-sectional studies. This research utilizes longitudinal data that enables a more thorough analysis of the two assumptions listed above.

We hypothesize that each migration event is correlated to other migration events in an individual's life. A migration event is defined as a change in county of residence, defined by federal information processing standards codes (FIPS codes). This study shows that the age of an individual's first adult migration differentially influences subsequent migration events. The frequency of primary migration events declines with age, meaning that there are fewer total numbers of primary migrations at later ages. But those who experience a primary migration at age 28 as opposed to age 18, for example, will begin their migration life cycle at that point, leading to a higher chance of subsequent migrations. By grouping cases by age at first migration, or primary migration, new patterns emerge that give a more detailed description of how migration occurs. Disaggregation by age group of first migration event reveals that the universally applied life cycle of migration as a gradual taper with age, no longer remains true. In fact, the same pattern as described in the life cycle of migration still occurs on the individual level, but this pattern begins at different time points based on the age of primary migration.

Bibliography Citation
Fedor, Theresa Marie and Sang Lim Lee. "A Longitudinal Study of Past Influences on Migration." Presented: Detroit MI, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2009.
189. Fee, Holly R.
Obesity and Union Status at First Birth Among Women
Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): First Birth; Marital Status; Obesity

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

For adolescents aged 12 to 19, the prevalence rate of obesity has more than tripled since 1980 (Fryar, Carroll, and Ogden 2012); and for adults aged 20 and older, the percentage who are obese has more than doubled in that same time period (Fryar, Carroll, and Ogden 2012). Individuals of childbearing age are now more likely to be obese than their predecessors and this trend is likely to redefine family formation behaviors. This study examines how obesity is associated with union status at first birth using national, longitudinal data from the 1997-2011 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97). Discrete-time logistic regression models reveal when obese women experience a first birth they are more likely to do so in a nonmarital union than marital union compared to normal weight women.
Bibliography Citation
Fee, Holly R. "Obesity and Union Status at First Birth Among Women." Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016.
190. Fernandes, April
How Far up the River? Assessing the Health Consequences of Criminal Justice Contact
Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Arrests; Criminal Justice System; Health Care; Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Incarceration/Jail

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The rapid and steady increase of incarceration has had substantial consequences on health outcomes due to exposure and transmission of disease. Research has shown that physical and mental health outcomes for imprisoned populations are affected by residence in a carceral institution. The exposure to individuals with communicable diseases facilitates the transmission of disease while the stress of incarceration and lack of adequate medical facilities assist in exacerbating existing conditions. Given that the jail population grew in line with prison incarceration during this period, the health effects of less severe forms of criminal justice contact should be investigated. Using the NLSY97, I will explore both the transmission and exacerbation of previous medical illnesses as a result of short jail stays, arrests and convictions. In addition, I will also ascertain the effect on mental health as a result of criminal justice contact, controlling for treatment availability inside and outside of the institution. [Also presented at Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017]
Bibliography Citation
Fernandes, April. "How Far up the River? Assessing the Health Consequences of Criminal Justice Contact." Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013.
191. Fernandes, April
On the Job or in the Joint: Employment Outcomes and Criminal Justice Contact
Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Arrests; Employment; Incarceration/Jail; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Existing research has shown that the rise of incarceration that occurred during the prison boom had a substantial effect on the ability of former inmates to retain and procure employment. Given that the jail population grew in line with prison incarceration during this period, the effects of less severe forms of criminal justice contact should be investigated. The conditions and circumstances that render long-term incarceration impactful are also present for arrests, convictions and jail stays. Contact of any form causes separation from society, which can hinder the attainment and maintenance of employment. Furthermore, the stigma from a criminal or arrest record can inhibit employment prospects due to the proliferation of background checks for potential employees. Using the NLSY97, this project explores employment outcomes as a result of arrests, convictions and jail stays. Preliminary results suggest that both employment and wages are negatively affected across all lower level forms of contact.
Bibliography Citation
Fernandes, April. "On the Job or in the Joint: Employment Outcomes and Criminal Justice Contact." Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014.
192. Ficano, Carlena K. Cochi
Aid to Families With Dependent Children (AFDC) and Mandatory Work/Training: Identifying the Fertility and Exit Effects
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 1997
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Fertility; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Quits; State Welfare; Training, Occupational; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines the fertility and exit responses of welfare recipients to the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) work training initiatives in place between 1979 and 1992. Assuming that mandatory work/training represents a net increase in the cost of welfare receipt, conventional search theory predicts a behavioral response once a woman's youngest child reaches the age at which work/training program participation becomes mandatory. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and state welfare policy data, I estimate the probability of two potential responses, birth and welfare exit, as a function of the age of a recipient's youngest child. The empirical analysis employs a competing risk hazard model in which I control separately for 1) variation in the age of the youngest child exemption, and 2) recipiency status. Estimation results provide theoretically consistent evidence of a birth response to mandated work/training and a weak exit response which runs counter to theoretical predictions.
Bibliography Citation
Ficano, Carlena K. Cochi. "Aid to Families With Dependent Children (AFDC) and Mandatory Work/Training: Identifying the Fertility and Exit Effects." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 1997.
193. Fiel, Jeremy E.
SES-Based Effect Modification and Intergenerational Educational Stratification
Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Academic Development; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Educational Attainment; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mothers, Education; Parental Influences; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study claims that an important aspect of intergenerational educational stratification is the way socioeconomic background modifies the effects of important determinants of attainment. With longitudinal data on recent cohorts of children, I use semiparametric decomposition methods to show that differential returns to children's skills and circumstances, beyond disparities in these attributes, are important contributors to intergenerational educational inequality. This is particularly consequential for bachelor's degree attainment, as the weaker returns to the attributes of low-SES than high-SES youth exacerbate inequality and may stifle efforts to promote upward mobility. The findings also show that problematic parametric assumptions in typical linear models obscure this modification.
Bibliography Citation
Fiel, Jeremy E. "SES-Based Effect Modification and Intergenerational Educational Stratification." Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016.
194. Fiel, Jeremy E.
Diaz, Christina
When Size Matters: The Influence of Sibship Size on Attainment
Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, Mature Women, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult, Older Men, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Family Size; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Children with more siblings fare worse on a variety of developmental and socioeconomic outcomes. Because socioeconomically disadvantaged children tend to have more siblings than their more advantaged counterparts, sibship size is considered a significant driver of intergenerational inequality. However, recent scholarship outside of the U.S. context has challenged these causal claims, arguing that effects of additional siblings on attainment are trivial. Such studies use multiple births as a natural experiment—where increases in sibship size are used to estimate the human capital accumulation among older children. We follow these recent developments (e.g. De Haan 2010), and use multiple births to isolate the causal effect of additional siblings on older siblings' educational attainment. We pool five nationally representative surveys in the U.S. to meet the necessary data requirements. Results indicate that the presence of an additional fourth or fifth child significantly decreases older siblings attainment between one-fourth and three-fourths of a year.
Bibliography Citation
Fiel, Jeremy E. and Christina Diaz. "When Size Matters: The Influence of Sibship Size on Attainment." Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016.
195. Flashman, Jennifer A.
Luthra, Renee
Who Benefits Most from a University Degree? A Cross-National Comparison of Selection and Wage Returns in the U.S., U.K. and Germany
Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): College Degree; College Education; Cross-national Analysis; German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP); NCDS - National Child Development Study (British); Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Given limited resources and an extended recession, it is critical to understand what is gained from investments in post-secondary education. In this paper, we study the heterogeneous returns to post-secondary education across three unique country contexts. Drawing on panel data and matching techniques, we compare parallel analyses of the US, the UK, and Germany to discover how wage returns to a college degree differ depending on individuals’ propensities to complete university. Studying men in their later careers, we find important variation across countries. In both the UK and Germany, we find negative selection into university; those least likely to complete benefit most from completion. By contrast, in the US, at later ages, those most likely to complete benefit most from completion. In supplementary analysis, we show that at least some of this variation can be explained by differences in the size and prevalence of academic post-secondary sectors in each country.
Bibliography Citation
Flashman, Jennifer A. and Renee Luthra. "Who Benefits Most from a University Degree? A Cross-National Comparison of Selection and Wage Returns in the U.S., U.K. and Germany." Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013.
196. Fletcher, Erin K.
Averett, Susan L.
Does Fat Beget Fat? The Relationship between Maternal Pre-Pregnancy BMI and Preschool Obesity
Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Body Mass Index (BMI); Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Modeling, Fixed Effects; Modeling, Instrumental Variables; Mothers; Obesity; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The increasing prevalence of obesity during pregnancy raises concerns over the intergenerational transmission of obesity and its potential to exacerbate the current obesity epidemic. The fetal origins hypothesis posits that the intrauterine environment may have lasting effects on children's outcomes and mother's pre-pregnancy obesity has been associated with pediatric obesity. However, previous research is largely based on comparing individuals across families and hence cannot control for unobservable factors associated with both maternal and child obesity. We use within-family comparisons and instrumental variables to identify the effect of maternal pre-pregnancy obesity on obesity in children. Consistent with extant research, OLS models that rely on across-family comparisons indicate a significant correlation between maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and child obesity. However, maternal fixed effects render those associations insignificant. Instrumenting for mother’s BMI with her sisters' BMI confirms the null result indicating that the in utero transmission of obesity is likely not driving the increase in childhood obesity.
Bibliography Citation
Fletcher, Erin K. and Susan L. Averett. "Does Fat Beget Fat? The Relationship between Maternal Pre-Pregnancy BMI and Preschool Obesity." Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015.
197. Fletcher, Erin K.
Averett, Susan L.
Obesity during Pregnancy and Children's Outcomes
Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Birth Outcomes; Birthweight; Body Mass Index (BMI); Childhood; Mothers, Health; Obesity; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Maternal obesity has been linked to adverse outcomes for mothers throughout pregnancy and childbirth and is a strong predictor of both infant and maternal mortality. Despite a wide array documenting these effets, the lasting effects of obesity on birth outcomes and childhood cognition has yet to be studied in depth. In this paper, we exploit the longitudinal nature of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine the effect of maternal obesity on birth and early childhood outcomes. Our preliminary results show a strongly negative association between obesity and standardized test scores given to young children as well as increased risk for high birth weight.
Bibliography Citation
Fletcher, Erin K. and Susan L. Averett. "Obesity during Pregnancy and Children's Outcomes." Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014.
198. Florian, Sandra M.
Intersectionality at Work: The Effect of Fertility on the Employment Trajectories of White, Latina, and Black Women
Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Ethnic Differences; Fertility; Labor Force Participation; Life Course; Maternal Employment; Motherhood; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Research has shown that having children reduces women's employment; yet, how this effect differs for racial minorities has received less attention. Using random effects models and data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 4,526), this study investigates the association between motherhood and employment among Whites, Hispanics, and Blacks over women's entire reproductive span. Results indicate that having children reduces labor force participation primarily by deterring full-time employment. This effect is stronger and lasts longer among Whites, smaller and shorter among Hispanics, and brief among Blacks. Motherhood reduces part-time employment for young mothers, but increases it for older mothers. Early childbearing partly explains Blacks' and Hispanics' low employment rates at young ages. Surprisingly, the evidence indicates that Blacks' and Hispanics' employment prospects would benefit the most from delaying childbearing. This study highlights the relevance of intersectionality and the life course perspective for investigating inequality in the labor market.
Bibliography Citation
Florian, Sandra M. "Intersectionality at Work: The Effect of Fertility on the Employment Trajectories of White, Latina, and Black Women." Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017.
199. Florian, Sandra M.
Racial Variations in the Effect of Fertility on Women's Employment: Declining or Enduring Effects?
Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Fertility; Labor Force Participation; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Racial Differences; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using fixed effects models and data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, NLSY 1979–2012, this study assesses the effect of fertility on women's labor force participation and cumulative years of work experience by race. The analyses reveal declining effects of children on labor force participation over time, but enduring effects on cumulative years of full-time work experience. Children discourage full-time employment during the 20s and 30s, but encourage employment by the early 50s. These effects are stronger among Whites than Latinas, however, motherhood does not deter employment among Blacks. Children reduce years of full-time work experience regardless of race; these effects become evident by the 30s, being more pronounced for Whites, Latinas, and women with two or more children. White mothers' advantage in work experience results from gains in part-time work. Findings reveal that aggregating these effects over time and across racial groups obscures these significant variations.
Bibliography Citation
Florian, Sandra M. "Racial Variations in the Effect of Fertility on Women's Employment: Declining or Enduring Effects?" Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016.
200. Fomby, Paula
Cherlin, Andrew J.
Family Instability and Selection Effects on Children
Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2005
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Age at First Intercourse; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Children, Behavioral Development; Cognitive Development; Divorce; Family Circumstances, Changes in; Family History; Family Structure; Household Composition; Household Structure; Marital Instability; Mothers, Education; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A growing body of literature suggests that children who experience multiple transitions in family structure may fare worse developmentally than children raised in stable two-parent families and perhaps even than children raised in stable, single-parent families. This body of research presents what we call the instability hypothesis, the prediction that children are affected by disruption and changes in family structure as much as (or even more than) by the type of family structures they experience. A plausible alternative is that multiple transitions and negative child outcomes may be associated with each other through common causal factors reflected in the parents' antecedent behaviors and attributes. We call this the selection hypothesis. We test the selection hypothesis against the instability hypothesis in a statistical analysis of nationally representative longitudinal data (NLSY79 and its mother-child supplement, the CNLSY) that includes detailed information on children's behavioral and cognitive development, family history, and mother's background prior to the child's birth.
Bibliography Citation
Fomby, Paula and Andrew J. Cherlin. "Family Instability and Selection Effects on Children." Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2005.
201. Fox, Liana E.
Hutto, Nathan
The Effect of Obesity on Intergenerational Income Mobility
Presented: Dallas, TX, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2010
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Family History; Family Income; Gender; Income; Mobility; Obesity

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Utilizing the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), this paper examines the likelihood of upward and downward mobility by obesity status (normal, overweight, and obese) and gender. Using temporal ordering to establish a direction of causality, we examine parental income when the child was living at home, BMI in early adulthood, and adult family income at age 38-43. We find that obesity both dampens upward mobility and increases the likelihood of downward mobility for women. We do not find the same trends for obese men, who alternatively have a greater likelihood of upward mobility. This research finds that obesity in early adulthood places women on a poor income trajectory throughout adulthood relative to parental income. The health consequences and social stigma of obesity perpetuate and deepen economic disparities among women. The lasting impact of obesity highlights the need for intervention in adolescence and early adulthood.
Bibliography Citation
Fox, Liana E. and Nathan Hutto. "The Effect of Obesity on Intergenerational Income Mobility." Presented: Dallas, TX, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2010.
202. Frech, Adrianne
Painter, Matthew A.
Vespa, Jonathan Edward
Marital Biography and Women's Wealth
Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Divorce; Marital History/Transitions; Remarriage; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Marriage is wealth-enhancing and divorce is wealth depleting. But unequal selection into divorce or remarriage complicates any causal associations between marital biography and wealth. We use over twenty years of data from the NLSY79 to estimate wealth by marital biography among ever-married mothers, adjusting for unequal selection into divorce or remarriage. Women who remained stably married to the biological father of their firstborn child reported greater wealth in their forties than women who divorced and did not remarry. Women who married at younger ages, women of color, and women from lower-income families were less likely to remain stably married. But net of selection, remarriage did not carry a wealth penalty: women who remarried and remained married at age forty did not report less wealth than stably married women, demonstrating that a single divorce is not necessarily wealth depleting at midlife.
Bibliography Citation
Frech, Adrianne, Matthew A. Painter and Jonathan Edward Vespa. "Marital Biography and Women's Wealth." Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016.
203. Frisco, Michelle
Weden, Margaret M.
Lippert, Adam M.
Burnett, Kristin
The Shifting Burden of Body Weight for Women's Childbearing Experiences
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Childbearing; Fertility; Obesity; Weight; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Clinical research indicates that obesity impedes conception. Less is understood about population-level links between weight and women's childbearing trajectories, the social component of this association, or whether it is malleable over time. This study examines these issues. Analysis of data from the NLSY79 female sample shows how weight and childbearing trajectories are linked among two cohorts of women who experienced similar historical fertility contexts but different normative weight contexts. We find that BMI is negatively related to Cohort 1's childbearing trajectories but not Cohort 2's. These cohort differences suggest that biological factors alone do not drive the overall impact of obesity on fertility. Rather, the fertility consequences of obesity among U.S. women of childbearing age has been, and may continue to be, malleable over time and due in part to social processes.
Bibliography Citation
Frisco, Michelle, Margaret M. Weden, Adam M. Lippert and Kristin Burnett. "The Shifting Burden of Body Weight for Women's Childbearing Experiences." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011.
204. Fu, Chao
Pantano, Juan
Parental Reputation and School Performance
Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Academic Development; Achievement; Birth Order; Child School Survey 1994-1995; Discipline; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Parent-Child Interaction; Parental Influences; Parental Investments; Parenting Skills/Styles; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); School Progress; Schooling; Television Viewing

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

It is possible to model parent-child interactions with the tools of game theory. However, empirical work that takes these game-theoretic models to the data is in its infancy. We formulate and estimate a reputation game between a parent, who threatens punishment upon bad school performance, and her children who choose costly study effort to reduce their punishment chances. Parents have incentives to build reputations of severity and while children don't know parental type, they try to infer it by observing the history of play within the family. For given structural parameters, the game between a parent and her children is solved by backwards recursion. The solution to the game is embedded in an estimation routine that leverages longitudinal microdata from U.S. households, featuring histories of grades and punishments for each sibling. We use the estimated model to investigate the role parenting plays in determining the school performance of children.

The Data. We use longitudinal data from the NLSY-C. We observe histories of play across households. In particular, we observe measures of school performance and eventual punishments for each sibling within these households over time. We also have measure of ability for each child. This allows us to control for what is to be expected from each them in terms of school performance.

Bibliography Citation
Fu, Chao and Juan Pantano. "Parental Reputation and School Performance." Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013.
205. Fu, Haishan
Goldman, Noreen
Are Healthier People More Likely to Marry? An Event History Analysis Based on NLSY
Presented: Miami, FL, Population Association of America Meetings, May 1994
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Event History; Health Factors; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper investigates the possible selection of men and women into first marriage based on their health status and health-related behaviors. It incorporates the economic, sociological, and sociopsychological perspectives on the marriage selection process, while adding another dimension to the existing literature by recognizing the potential importance of both the direct and mediating effects of health characteristics. Relying on individual- level prospective information from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this analysis focuses on the timing of first marriage among non-Hispanic white males and females in the sample. The proposed hypotheses relating health status and health-related behaviors to the likelihood of first marriage at each age are tested by using statistical models associated with event history analysis.
Bibliography Citation
Fu, Haishan and Noreen Goldman. "Are Healthier People More Likely to Marry? An Event History Analysis Based on NLSY." Presented: Miami, FL, Population Association of America Meetings, May 1994.
206. Gabay-Egozi, Limor
Nitsche, Natalie
Grieger, Lloyd D.
"Setting the Tone": Sex of the First Child and Educational Outcomes of Subsequent Siblings
Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Birth Order; College Major/Field of Study/Courses; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Parental Influences; Parenting Skills/Styles; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Siblings; Sociability/Socialization/Social Interaction; STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite the large influx of women into higher education, gender segregation in STEM college majors persists. Sibship composition has been a major focus in explaining vertical gender differences in educational attainment, yet studies looking at sibling dynamics in understanding horizontal gender segregation have been rare. We close this gap, suggesting a new line of thought. We hypothesize that the sex of the first child 'sets the tone' for a gendered environment in the family, which subsequently impacts gendered self-concepts, interests and eventually choice of college major of subsequent siblings. Using data from the NLSY79 Youth and Children, we investigate whether second born girls with older brothers are more likely to choose a college major in a predominantly male field, compared to girls with older sisters. In particular, we examine whether having an older brother increases the likelihood for girls with above average math skills to choose STEM majors.
Bibliography Citation
Gabay-Egozi, Limor, Natalie Nitsche and Lloyd D. Grieger. ""Setting the Tone": Sex of the First Child and Educational Outcomes of Subsequent Siblings." Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015.
207. Gao, Xiang
Learning After School - The Impacts of Parent's Education and Social and Economic Status on Children's Learning Attitudes and Activities
Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America (PAA) Annual Meetings, March-April 2006
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Children, Well-Being; Family Influences; Human Capital; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Poverty; Siblings; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Anti child poverty programs generally emphasize the financial supports to the low-income families. However, the persistency and the high return rate of child poverty indicate that some causations and resolutions besides the monetary factor needs to be considered. Exploring the dynamics of intergenerational transfers is helpful to find out causations and resolutions of child poverty. Using child and household level data with children 10 to 21 from National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, I examine the relationship between parents' education level, social economic status and non-material transfers to children. I hypothesize that parents with higher human capital are more likely to make human and social capital investment on children in the forms of more encouraging children's after school learning activities and more concerning children's learning behaviors. The relationship is stronger as children grew up. Interactions with children's sibling compositions are examined and implications for child well-being are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Gao, Xiang. "Learning After School - The Impacts of Parent's Education and Social and Economic Status on Children's Learning Attitudes and Activities." Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America (PAA) Annual Meetings, March-April 2006.
208. Garasky, Steven
Haurin, R. Jean
Haurin, Donald R.
Group Living Decisions as Youth Transition to Adulthood: The Effect of Local Shelter Costs
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 1997
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Family Formation; Family Income; Family Studies; Household Models; Local Labor Market; Migration; Migration Patterns; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study follows teens through their young adulthood as they make the transition to independent living. Our hypotheses are that the probability of leaving the parental household is lower in higher real cost of shelter localities, and that, conditional on choosing to leave the parental household, the probability of their living in large groups of unrelated adults is higher in communities with relatively higher shelter costs. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth are merged with house price and rental data obtained from Freddie Mac-Fannie Mae and from Coldwell Banker. The unit of analysis is a person/year. The method is a discrete hazard model within a multinomial logit framework that allows for more than one possible state transition. We believe that our study is important for a broad PAA audience including students of family formation, housing and real estate, family economics, migration, and local macroeconomics.
Bibliography Citation
Garasky, Steven, R. Jean Haurin and Donald R. Haurin. "Group Living Decisions as Youth Transition to Adulthood: The Effect of Local Shelter Costs." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 1997.
209. Garbarski, Dana
Cumulative Disadvantage and Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health at Midlife
Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Ethnic Differences; Health Factors; Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Previous research has focused on accounting for various health-relevant factors to explain racial and ethnic disparities in health outcomes. However, it is often unclear whether the disparities in health outcomes are due to differences across racial and ethnic groups in the composition of health-relevant factors or differences by race and ethnicity in the association between health-relevant factors and health outcomes. Using data from the over-40 health module of the NLSY 1979 cohort, this study uses regression decomposition techniques to delineate the contribution of each of these components in explaining racial and ethnic disparities in summary measures of mental and physical health for women and men. The analysis finds varying support for three different cumulative disadvantage mechanisms producing racial and ethnic disparities in health outcomes at midlife: status-resource interaction, cumulative exposure, and path-dependent early life exposure.
Bibliography Citation
Garbarski, Dana. "Cumulative Disadvantage and Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health at Midlife." Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013.
210. Garbarski, Dana
Dyadic and Dynamic Relationships: An Extension of the SES-Health Framework
Presented: Dallas, TX, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2010
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Child Health; Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Mothers; Mothers, Health; Mothers, Income; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In order to fully explicate the relationship between individual socioeconomic status (SES) and health, the dyadic association between parent-child SES and health should be examined to account for how child health may affect parental SES and health. Prior research finds that poor child health may present an additional risk for maternal health, mental health, and SES. Using nationally representative longitudinal data of mother-child dyads from the NLSY 1979 cohort, this analysis expands upon prior research by using regression analyses to explore the extent to which child health modifies the effect of maternal SES on maternal health. This analysis also expands upon prior research by dynamically defining child health by using growth mixture modeling to explore how child health trajectories interact with maternal SES to affect maternal health, demonstrating whether child health has a cumulative exposure relationship to subsequent maternal outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Garbarski, Dana. "Dyadic and Dynamic Relationships: An Extension of the SES-Health Framework." Presented: Dallas, TX, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2010.
211. Garbarski, Dana
Dynamic and Dyadic Relationships: An Extension of the Socioeconomic Status-Health Relationship
Presented: San Francisco CA, Population Association of America Meetings, May 2012
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Children, Illness; Health, Chronic Conditions; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Labor Force Participation; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Mothers, Health; Poverty; Socioeconomic Factors; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The prevalence of childhood chronic conditions has substantially increased over the last several decades, shifting the focus from survival to improving the quality of life of children and their families. This paper investigates the interrelationship of child health and maternal health and socioeconomic factors over time, focusing on the dynamic nature of maternal and child health and socioeconomic outcomes during childhood. Using a series of bivariate latent growth curve models, this paper examines the association between trajectories of child activity limitations and maternal health, labor force participation and household poverty status. There is evidence that child activity limitations and maternal health limitations have a positive contemporaneous association but do not have long-lasting effects on one another. However, maternal labor force participation at one point in time does appear to have a long-lasting effect on the trajectory of child activity limitations.
Bibliography Citation
Garbarski, Dana. "Dynamic and Dyadic Relationships: An Extension of the Socioeconomic Status-Health Relationship." Presented: San Francisco CA, Population Association of America Meetings, May 2012.
212. Garbarski, Dana
Witt, Whitney
Direct and Indirect Pathways to the Long-Term Health, Mental Health, and Work-Related Outcomes for Mothers of Children With Chronic Illness
Presented: Detroit, MI, Population Association of America Meetings, April-May 2009.
Also: http://paa2009.princeton.edu/download.aspx?submissionId=91176
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Body Mass Index (BMI); CESD (Depression Scale); Child Health; Depression (see also CESD); Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Mothers, Health

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Investigating the determinants and consequences of various health and well-being statuses is a complex, multidisciplinary venture. Research has focused on a complex web of these determinants and consequences, such as the relation of individuals' socioeconomic status (SES) and health over the life course (Adler et al, 1994; Link and Phelan, 1995; House and Williams, 2000; Lynch, 2003; Palloni, 2006; Herd et al, 2007; Warren and Hernandez, 2007). Families are also an important component for investigating the determinants and consequences of one's health and well-being, with researchers investigating the relation of parents' health, well-being, and SES to child health, well-being, and SES (Elo and Preston, 1992; Conley and Bennett, 2000; Finch, 2003; Hayward and Gorman, 2004). One facet of this complex of relationships that has received less attention at the population level is how child health and well-being may affect parent's health, well-being, and even SES. We seek to determine the impact of caring for a chronically-ill child on the family, relative to caring for a healthy child. Because caring for a child with a chronic health illness can place physical, financial, time, and psychological burdens on the rest of the family, we expect that caring for a child with a chronic health condition may present an additional risk for parental health, mental health, and work-related outcomes beyond caring for a healthy child. We also expect that the worse health outcomes are due in part to the increased effect of family burdens on parental health outcomes, as children's health conditions have been shown to have a negative effect on parental role functioning that is further predictive of parental problems of psychological well-being (Waddington and Busch-Rossnagel, 1992). In particular, we propose to set up a multiple-group structural equation model (SEM), where the two groups being compared are mothers with children that have chronic health conditions and mothers with children that do not have these conditions. The multiple group SEM will allow us to investigate the extent to which having a child with chronic health conditions exacerbates or mitigates some of the relations among mothers' background and family characteristics with mother's health, mental health, and socioeconomic outcomes (see Figure 1 for conceptual model. Note that each variable listed in each category is its own latent construct, and will covary with the other latent constructs listed in that category as well as have direct effects on the latent constructs in other categories). About 13% of our proposed sample (see below) reports that they are caring for a child with a chronic health issue, and a recent study estimates that 15.6% of parents reported that they are caring for a child with an activity limitation, and (Witt et al, under review, 2008). We argue that a child's health is one component of parents' health and socioeconomic outcomes, and thus may be another small but "nonignorable" component of the feedback processes determining intergenerational mobility and the relations among SES and health for individuals and family systems across the lifecourse (Palloni, 2006).
Bibliography Citation
Garbarski, Dana and Whitney Witt. "Direct and Indirect Pathways to the Long-Term Health, Mental Health, and Work-Related Outcomes for Mothers of Children With Chronic Illness." Presented: Detroit, MI, Population Association of America Meetings, April-May 2009.
213. Garcia-Manglano, Javier
The Life-Course Employment Profiles of Early Baby-Boom Women: A Group-Based Trajectory Analysis
Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Employment; Labor Force Participation; Life Course; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The abundance of research on women’s response to specific work and family transitions contrasts with our limited knowledge of the cumulative effects of women’s work and family experiences over the long run. This paper uses group-based trajectory analysis to model the lifetime work trajectories of early baby boomers in the United States, from ages 20 to 54. I find that this cohort’s long-term employment profiles can be summarized in four groups: those who worked consistently (37.8 percent), those who remained largely out of the labor force (22.8 percent), those who gradually increased their work attachment (26.7 percent), and a group of women who worked intensely during young adulthood, but later dropped out of the workforce in dramatic numbers (12.7 percent). I then explore the factors associated with membership in each of these employment trajectories, and relate women’s employment patterns with their wage and occupational long-term profiles.
Bibliography Citation
Garcia-Manglano, Javier. "The Life-Course Employment Profiles of Early Baby-Boom Women: A Group-Based Trajectory Analysis." Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014.
214. Garneau, Chelsea
Harcourt, Kate T.
Pasley, Kay
The Relationship between Social Capital and Educational Outcomes for Biological Children in Two-Parent Families: An Examination of "True" Family Structure
Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Educational Outcomes; Family Structure; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parent-School involvement; Social Capital

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examined how family structure moderates the relationship between social capital and educational outcomes for biological children in two-parent families. Importantly, family structure was defined by biological relationships to parents and siblings, thus many biological children were correctly classified as mutual children living in stepfamilies. Social capital and family structure were measured when participants were 12-14 years old, and a variety of educational outcomes were examined from high school completion through postsecondary degree completion. Social capital was measured as parental monitoring, parent-child relationship quality, and parent-school involvement. Findings were that mutual children in blended stepfamilies were less likely to complete a postsecondary degree than those in intact two-parent families. Living in a blended stepfamily also moderated the influence of parent-school involvement on the likelihood of completing a bachelor's degree, such that it was stronger for those in intact families. Issues of correct family structure classification are addressed.
Bibliography Citation
Garneau, Chelsea, Kate T. Harcourt and Kay Pasley. "The Relationship between Social Capital and Educational Outcomes for Biological Children in Two-Parent Families: An Examination of "True" Family Structure." Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013.
215. Garneau, Chelsea
Petren, Raymond
Roberson, Patricia
Pathways to Nonmarital Birth in Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood
Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at First Intercourse; Fertility; Modeling, Latent Class Analysis/Latent Transition Analysis; Parenting Skills/Styles; Sexual Behavior

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using latent class analyses we examined pathways to nonmarital birth during adolescence and emerging adulthood. NLSY97 data for those who reported a nonmarital birth between 1997 and 2001 were included, and pathways were determined using dichotomous indicators of family structure, parenting style, risky sexual behavior, early first sex, drug use, delinquency, and high school completion. Results indicated three distinct pathways to nonmarital birth in the sample representing high-, medium-, and low-risk trajectories. Results will be discussed in terms of future research on nonmarital fertility in adolescent and emerging adult populations in the United States.
Bibliography Citation
Garneau, Chelsea, Raymond Petren and Patricia Roberson. "Pathways to Nonmarital Birth in Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood." Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014.
216. Gaulke, Amanda P.
Credit Constraints and Enrollment Choices in Higher Education
Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): College Enrollment; Credit/Credit Constraint; Financial Assistance; Geocoded Data; Savings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Stopping out, or taking a break during college, is quite common. Using the NLSY97 restricted access data, this paper first documents some stylized facts. These include the frequency of stopout, how stopouts compare with other students, consequences of stopouts and potential explanations for stopout. If students are credit constrained they might need to stop enrolling in college temporarily in order to save money to pay for school. This paper estimates the extent to which stopout behavior would be reduced if federal program loan limits were increased by $500 per semester. To better reflect loan rules student actually face, loan limits are a function of individual limits (financial need) and program limits. Using a dynamic structural model of college enrollment and savings decisions, I expect to find that credit constraints are only part of the reason students stopout.
Bibliography Citation
Gaulke, Amanda P. "Credit Constraints and Enrollment Choices in Higher Education." Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015.
217. Gemmill, Alison
Estimating Subfecundity: The NLSY79 Cohort
Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Contraception; Expectations/Intentions; Fertility; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Estimating subfecundity in longitudinal social surveys allows for improved understanding of the underlying processes that lead to childlessness and low fertility in contemporary societies. However, most of these surveys lack measures needed to directly estimate impaired fertility. This paper provides indirect estimates of subfecundity in a longitudinal cohort of women by using observed pregnancy and partnership histories, as well as reported contraceptive use and expectations for children over the life course. Data are from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort, whose members have recently completed childbearing. I use a multi-state model to estimate transition probabilities between states of exposure to the risk subfecundity, identify spells of subfecundity, and duration of time spent in a spell. Future analyses will investigate the sensitivity of the measure to different specifications of risk, as well as the demographic, behavioral, and socioeconomic correlates of experiences of subfecundity in this cohort.
Bibliography Citation
Gemmill, Alison. "Estimating Subfecundity: The NLSY79 Cohort." Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016.
218. Gemmill, Alison
"I Can't Get Pregnant Anyway": Perceived Subfecundity and Nonuse of Contraception
Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Contraception; Fertility; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In the United States, more than half (54%) of unintended pregnancies occur to women who do not use contraception or have long gaps in use. Prior research suggests that one reason women do not use contraception is because they believe themselves to be subfecund. These beliefs, however, may provide a false sense of protection from unintended pregnancy if they are not medically accurate. To the author's knowledge, no nationally representative studies have demonstrated a link between perceived subfecundity and contraceptive use. Using data from the NLSY-1997 cohort, a large, nationally representative survey of young adults containing a specialized module on perceived and experienced subfecundity, I demonstrate that women with low perceived fecundity have higher odds of non-use of contraception. Further, these results persist after controlling for a medical diagnosis of infertility and self-reported conception delay after 6 or 12 months, suggesting that risk perceptions often operate independently of experienced subfecundity.
Bibliography Citation
Gemmill, Alison. ""I Can't Get Pregnant Anyway": Perceived Subfecundity and Nonuse of Contraception." Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017.
219. Gennetian, Lisa Anoush
Resource Allocation in Families: A Comparative Analysis Using Stepfamilies
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 1997
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Family Circumstances, Changes in; Family Structure; Family Studies; Household Income; Stepfamilies

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper first examines if resource allocation accounts for differences between children in initact families versus stepfamilies. If preferences are motivated by biological ties then stepchildren be considered a private good within marriage; I test this hypothesis. Second, this paper examines if measures of a biological parent's bargaining power have greater weight in the level of c investment in stepfamilies versus intact families. I use the National Longitudinal Survey Female/Child file, which follows children and their biological mothers from birth of the child. The empirical work focuses on the relationship between indicators of resource availability (such components of household income and parental education) and child outcomes (achievement scores and home environment). Results indicate significant differences in the impact of nonbiological parent versus a biological parents' income and education on the child's assessment.
Bibliography Citation
Gennetian, Lisa Anoush. "Resource Allocation in Families: A Comparative Analysis Using Stepfamilies." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 1997.
220. Gerner, Jennifer L.
Lillard, Dean R.
Does School Performance Increase When Children Enter at Younger Ages?
Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2005
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Academic Development; Age at School Entry; Heterogeneity; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); School Entry/Readiness; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Our paper investigates whether enrollment at earlier ages increases school performance. We use data from the Children of the NLSY79 to examine performance as a function of home inputs, school inputs and instability at home, school, and the neighborhood. We characterize school performance using test scores from standardized ability tests administered to these children at ages 3, 6, and 9. We focus on the age at which a child first enrolled in school, recognizing that parents have some choice over this age. To estimate age of enrollment we take advantage of differences across states and over time in compulsory schooling laws that determine the age by which a child must be enrolled. Under the assumption that parents do not choose a state of residence based on these laws, we identify the policy effect of earlier enrollment on performance. We will estimate family and state fixed effects models.

We model school performance as a function of home inputs, school inputs and three levels of instability suffered by children - at home, school, and in their neighborhood. We include these measures of instability in our model under the assumption that a child's school performance will be higher when the circumstances of their lives are relatively stable. We include circumstances of co-residence, where they are living, their parents relationship, and mobility. Of course, the circumstances are largely chosen by parents. Although it is very interesting to consider the impact of stability on performance, to do so, we would need to model the stability itself. Since we are primarily interested in the relationship between age at school entry and subsequent school performance we want to account for as much of the heterogeneity within and across households in factors that also affect school performance. We use our measures of instability in this spirit. Our focus is on the relationship between the age children start formal schooling and their subsequent school performance. One reason to focus on this relationship is that states have a long history of regulating the age at which children enter school. We take advantage of this regulation to predict age of school enrollment that is reasonably orthogonal to the unobserved individual and family background characteristics. To do so, we must assume that each family's choice of state is not determined by compulsory schooling laws. We also take advantage of having observations on multiple children in the same family to estimate how age of school entry affects siblings who were required to enter school at different ages either by virtue of a change in the compulsory school age or because their family moved to a state with a different compulsory school age. We will use the children of the NLSY respondents. We will use performance data on standardized tests administered to each child at age 3, 6, and 9. We model the change in test scores between age 3 and age 6 and between age 6 and age 9. We can hold constant family effects and identify policy effects by looking at children in the same family subject to different policy regimes.

Bibliography Citation
Gerner, Jennifer L. and Dean R. Lillard. "Does School Performance Increase When Children Enter at Younger Ages?" Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2005.
221. Geronimus, Arline T.
Korenman, Sanders D.
Hillemeier, Marianne M.
Does Young Maternal Age Adversely Affect Child Development? Evidence from Cousin Comparisons
Presented: Denver, CO, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1992
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Birthweight; Child Development; Child Health; Family Background; Family Influences; First Birth; General Assessment; Heterogeneity; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Marital Status; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Mothers; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Siblings; Teenagers; Verbal Memory (McCarthy Scale)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data from the NLSY are used to estimate relationships between maternal age at first birth and measures of early socioemotional and cognitive development of children. The authors compare standard cross-sectional population estimates to estimates based on comparisons of first-cousins (i.e., family fixed effects estimates) in order to gauge the importance of bias from family background heterogeneity. Population estimates suggest moderate adverse consequences of teen motherhood for child development. However, children of teen mothers appear to score no worse on measures of development than their first-cousins born to women who had first births after their teen years. The estimates suggest that differences in family backgrounds of mothers (factors that preceded their childbearing years) can account for the low (measured) early socioemotional and cognitive development of children of teen mothers.
Bibliography Citation
Geronimus, Arline T., Sanders D. Korenman and Marianne M. Hillemeier. "Does Young Maternal Age Adversely Affect Child Development? Evidence from Cousin Comparisons." Presented: Denver, CO, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1992.
222. Ginther, Donna K.
Pollak, Robert A.
Does Family Structure Affect Children's Educational Outcomes?
Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Family Structure; Household Composition; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper we estimate a statistical model of intra-household allocation of human capital that controls for family structure and uses data from the NLSY79, NLSY79-Child, and PSID. Our analysis begins with estimates of the effect of family structure on children's educational outcomes assuming family structure is exogenously assigned. Next, we exploit the sibling structure in the data to control for unobserved heterogeneity across families using family fixed effects. Finally, we compare educational outcomes for stepchildren and their half-siblings in the same blended family who are the biological children of both parents. As additional variables are added to the specification, family structure effects attenuate. Using fixed effects estimates, we find that family structure effects are statistically insignificant. Comparing half-siblings in our data, we find no difference in educational outcomes as a function of family structure.
Bibliography Citation
Ginther, Donna K. and Robert A. Pollak. "Does Family Structure Affect Children's Educational Outcomes?" Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002.
223. Gittleman, Maury
Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen
Pierret, Charles R.
Why Is the Rate of College Dropout so High and Why Is It Rising for Men?
Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): College Dropouts; College Graduates; Gender Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using the NLSY79 and NLSY97, we examine changes in college completion rates and their causes. We find that college completion rates fell from one cohort to the next, with the rate for men dropping sharply, while that for women increased. Thus, any explanation for these trends must be able to account for gender differences. We will model the probability of completing college as a function of three different categories of variables: 1) student attributes; 2) characteristics of the postsecondary institutions; and 3) measures of any “mismatch” between the ability of the student and the quality of the institution. We will decompose differences over time in college completion rates into portions attributable to changes in the observed characteristics between cohorts and to changes in the coefficients. The portion attributable to changes in the observed characteristics will be further examined to assess the relative importance of student characteristics, institutional resources and mismatch.
Bibliography Citation
Gittleman, Maury, Alison Aileen Aughinbaugh and Charles R. Pierret. "Why Is the Rate of College Dropout so High and Why Is It Rising for Men?" Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014.
224. Glass, Jennifer L.
Levitte, Yael
Sassler, Sharon
Michelmore, Katherine
Retention of Women in the STEM Labor Force: Gender Similarities and Differences with a Focus on Destination Status
Presented: San Francisco CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): College Major/Field of Study/Courses; Educational Outcomes; Gender Differences; Labor Force Participation; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Occupational Choice; Occupations, Female; Occupations, Non-Traditional; STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

While much recent scholarly attention has been focused on getting women into the STEM labor force, less attention has been paid to keeping them in STEM occupations across the life course. This research follows college graduates in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 panel who transitioned into the STEM labor force following college graduation. Using multinomial modeling of the hazard of leaving a STEM employer, we estimate the covariates of leaving to take a new STEM job, to move into a non-STEM job, and to exit the labor force for women and men. Survival curves show few gender differences overall in the rate at which women and men leave their first STEM job.. Multivariate hazard models show that preschool aged children disproportionately encourage job moves out of STEM for women, including moves out of the labor force, while having a partner employed in a STEM field facilitates retention.
Bibliography Citation
Glass, Jennifer L., Yael Levitte, Sharon Sassler and Katherine Michelmore. "Retention of Women in the STEM Labor Force: Gender Similarities and Differences with a Focus on Destination Status." Presented: San Francisco CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2012.
225. Glass, Jennifer L.
Noonan, Mary Christine
Workplace Flexibility Policies and Wage Growth: Do Organizational Characteristics Matter?
Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 29-31, 2007.
Also: http://paa2007.princeton.edu/abstractViewer.aspx?submissionId=71714
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): College Education; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Wage Growth; Work Hours; Working Conditions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper explores the wage trajectories of workers using flexible work practices to see how emplwoyers evaluate such workers under a variety of organizational settings. Earlier research has shown markedly lower wage growth for professional and managerial mothers who use flexible work arrangements when their children are small (Glass, 2004). Fathers and non-parents who use the same workplace policies have not been carefully evaluated. This study estimates fixed effects models of respondents in the 1989-2002 panels of the National Longitudinal Study of Youth to assess the comparative impact of having a flexible schedule, working from home, and working reduced hours on the wage growth of mothers, fathers, and non-parents. We further explore differences in the size of wage penalties based on occupational sector, firm size, and occupational characteristics such as customer or client contact and supervisory authority.
Bibliography Citation
Glass, Jennifer L. and Mary Christine Noonan. "Workplace Flexibility Policies and Wage Growth: Do Organizational Characteristics Matter?" Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 29-31, 2007.
226. Goldberg, Julia S.
Family Structure and the Reproduction of Inequality: A Decomposition Approach
Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Family Structure; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Socioeconomic Background

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Over the past fifty years, family patterns have become more diverse by social class, raising concerns about the role of family structure in the reproduction of inequality. The aim of the present study is to provide a direct test of the extent to which differences in family structure by social class explain class differences in children’s educational attainment at the population level. Using data from the NLSY97 and decomposition models, this study addresses whether differences in children’s educational attainment by parents’ social class are attributable to class differences in family structure, as well as how much of this “family structure effect” is due to class differences in family structure composition versus class differences in the association between family structure and children’s attainment. In doing so, this study sheds light on how the organization of family life serves to perpetuate and exacerbate economic inequality across generations.
Bibliography Citation
Goldberg, Julia S. "Family Structure and the Reproduction of Inequality: A Decomposition Approach." Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014.
227. Goldberg, Julia S.
Family Structure History and Young Adults' Receipt of Financial Assistance for College
Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): College Education; Family Influences; Family Structure; Financial Assistance; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

As youth take longer to transition to adulthood, families are being called on to support their children well past adolescence. High rates of single parenthood and family disruption may be interfering with families’ ability to provide this support. In the present study, I examine the association between young adults’ family structure history and their receipt of a particularly important resource from their family--financial assistance for college. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort (N = 3,081), I describe how young adults’ family structure history relates to their receipt of college assistance from their family, as well as which family members--including biological parents, stepparents, grandparents, and other relatives--provide this support. This study makes an important contribution to our understanding of how the structure and stability of the family of origin continue to shape children’s life chances even as they enter adulthood.
Bibliography Citation
Goldberg, Julia S. "Family Structure History and Young Adults' Receipt of Financial Assistance for College." Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014.
228. Goldberg, Rachel E.
Adsera, Alicia
Gender, Nativity and Family Variations in the Timing of Sexual Initiation
Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Age at First Intercourse; Family Circumstances, Changes in; Family Influences; Gender Differences; Immigrants; Migration; Sexual Activity

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

As a pivotal event in the transition to adulthood, early initiation of sexual activity has been linked with myriad adverse outcomes, including unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection. This study builds on and extends previous research on nativity variations in health and risk behavior by addressing two questions: (1) whether and how age at immigration is associated with timing of sexual activity for first generation youth; and (2) whether and how family instability influences the association between nativity and sexual debut. Lower levels of parental partnership instability may be protective for immigrant youth; however, family disruption and reconstitution associated with migration may increase the risk of early sexual debut. Results suggest that first generation youth initiate sexual activity at later ages than higher generation youth and that foreign-born youth immigrating between ages 10 and 16 experience later sexual debut than their younger age counterparts. Gender differences exist in these relationships.
Bibliography Citation
Goldberg, Rachel E. and Alicia Adsera. "Gender, Nativity and Family Variations in the Timing of Sexual Initiation." Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013.
229. Goldman, Alyssa
Examining the Effects of Adult Children's Incarceration on Mothers' Health
Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Incarceration/Jail; Mothers, Health; Well-Being

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Recent scholarly attention highlights the negative effects of mass incarceration on the health of inmates, their partners, and children. Considerably less research examines the health implications for the parents of those adults who experience incarceration. This is a potentially important omission when estimating the "spillover" effects of the prison boom, as parents of the incarcerated may bear the burden of their child's incarceration in a number of ways that can adversely impact their health and wellbeing. In this study, I use the NLSY79 Child and Young Adults survey to estimate how having a child who experiences incarceration may impact mothers' well-being. Findings suggest that the mothers of those who directly experience incarceration may disproportionately experience poorer general health. I consider potential mechanisms of this association in light of prior research on incarceration and family wellbeing, as well as the implications for health disparities and aging.
Bibliography Citation
Goldman, Alyssa. "Examining the Effects of Adult Children's Incarceration on Mothers' Health." Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017.
230. Goldscheider, Frances Kobrin
Parenthood and Leaving Home in Young Adulthood
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at First Birth; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Delinquency/Gang Activity; Family Formation; Family Structure; Gender Differences; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parenthood; Teenagers; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

With the rise in non-marital fertility in the late 20th century, the sequencing of transitions in early adulthood has become increasingly complex. Many young adults become parents before union formation, often before leaving home. We use the Young Adult Sample, children of women in NLSY79. The effect of having a child was approximately proportional between ages 15 and 28. Parenthood encouraged leaving home between 14 and 28 overall, and to each 'child' living arrangement (with or without a partner) while it reduced the speed young adults leave home to a child-free living arrangement. However, becoming a parent does not have a negative effect on men's leaving home to live with a (new) partner with no children present, unlike the case for women. Further, becoming a parent has a much less negative effect on men's leaving home to live in non-family residential independence than it does for women.
Bibliography Citation
Goldscheider, Frances Kobrin. "Parenthood and Leaving Home in Young Adulthood." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011.
231. Goldscheider, Frances Kobrin
Hofferth, Sandra L.
The Reproduction of Fatherhood: A Cautionary Tale
Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America (PAA) 2008 Annual Meeting, April 17-19, 2008.
Also: http://paa2008.princeton.edu/abstractViewer.aspx?submissionId=80755
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Delinquency/Gang Activity; Family Decision-making/Conflict; Family Structure; Fatherhood; Maternal Employment; Parenting Skills/Styles; Parents, Behavior; Religion

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The transition to fatherhood is likely influenced by family structures and transitions experienced in childhood. In order to understand and alleviate the effects of childhood family structure, it is also important to examine the effects of economic deprivation, parenting processes, and adolescent behavior on this transition. This paper focuses on how family structure and processes shape the transition to problematic fatherhood—early and particularly nonresidential—among a relatively disadvantaged group of young men. The data come from the linked Child-Mother and Young Adult Samples of the NLSY79, which provide information on the children of the women of the NLSY79 from birth until they enter young adulthood. The results suggest that males growing up with a single parent or in an unstable family transition to fatherhood early, particularly nonresidential fatherhood, but these effects are mediated by economic deprivation, parenting processes, and adolescent behaviors.
Bibliography Citation
Goldscheider, Frances Kobrin and Sandra L. Hofferth. "The Reproduction of Fatherhood: A Cautionary Tale." Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America (PAA) 2008 Annual Meeting, April 17-19, 2008.
232. Goosby, Bridget J.
Poverty and Adolescent Mental Health: The Role of Maternal Psychological Resources
Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America (PAA) Annual Meetings, March-April 2006
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Census of Population; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Children, Poverty; Depression (see also CESD); Pearlin Mastery Scale; Poverty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Limited research has been conducted assessing maternal depression and mastery as predictors of adolescent mental health. Much focus has been targeted towards the familial context among young children. This study seeks to assess the impact of maternal psychological well-being on the depression and anxiety levels and social withdrawal in a sample of young adolescents between the ages of 10 and 14 (N=1265). Analyses using structural equation modeling find that the effects of experiencing poverty on adolescent outcomes are mediated by maternal depression and sense of mastery. When maternal mastery and depression are regressed on poverty and background characteristics, being in poverty is the strongest predictor of maternal psychological well-being.

This study explores the effect of poverty duration on adolescents' internalized and externalized behavioral problems using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. This study builds on a body of research studying the familial aspects that influence mental health indicators of low-income youth by examining the pathways through which poverty impacts adolescent depression, anxiety, and social withdrawal. By exploring the mediational influences of maternal psychological well-being on the relationship between poverty duration and adolescent socioemotional outcomes of low-income youth, this study seeks to further elaborate the relationship between the family and adolescent experiences. This study is organized around the following set of questions: (1) How does the duration of time spent in poverty influence early adolescent mental health indicators? (2a) Do maternal depressive symptoms and sense of mastery mediate the impact of poverty on young adolescent mental health (2b) and to the extent that maternal mental health mediates poverty, what role does the mother's mental health play in buffering or exacerbating these outcomes? Finally, (3) to what degree does poverty predict mother's depressive symptoms and sense of mastery?

Bibliography Citation
Goosby, Bridget J. "Poverty and Adolescent Mental Health: The Role of Maternal Psychological Resources." Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America (PAA) Annual Meetings, March-April 2006.
233. Goosby, Bridget J.
Poverty Experiences and the Transition to Adolescence: Measuring the Impact of Poverty Status and Duration of Internalized and Externalized Outcomes of Young Adolescents
Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); CESD (Depression Scale); Children, Poverty; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Poverty; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the NLSY in 1994, this paper addresses the degree to which differing poverty experiences have an effect on internalized and externalized behaviors of young adolescents. Previous research suggests that poverty status and welfare status have a significant impact on child outcomes, but much of the literature limits its samples to young children. Ordinary least squares regression will be used to examine these effects on a sample African American, Latino, and white adolescent between the ages of 10 and 14. This study adds to literature on poverty research by addressing the impact of poverty as a chronic strain on young adolescents who are experiencing numerous developmental transitions. The Behavioral Problems Index measures the internalized and externalized outcomes. In addition, the study addresses the potential mediating influence of the parent child relationship using the HOME supplement measuring warmth and the mother's mental health using the CES-D.
Bibliography Citation
Goosby, Bridget J. "Poverty Experiences and the Transition to Adolescence: Measuring the Impact of Poverty Status and Duration of Internalized and Externalized Outcomes of Young Adolescents." Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002.
234. Gottlieb, Aaron
Beyond Parental Incarceration: The Effects of Household Incarceration on the Intergenerational Transmission of Disadvantage through Family Structure
Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Family Structure; Heterogeneity; Household Influences; Incarceration/Jail

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Two of the most pronounced social trends in the United States over the last 40 years are the increase in childbearing outside of marriage and the increase in incarceration. Yet, no research has explored whether having a household member incarcerated influences a child’s risk of growing up to have a premarital birth. Using data on the children of mothers in the NLSY79, I find that having a household member incarcerated between ages 10 to 14 increases a child’s the risk of growing up to have a premarital first birth by approximately 40%. The findings also show heterogeneity in the consequences of household incarceration, with paternal incarceration and extended household incarceration being particularly important risk factors for having a premarital first birth. These findings suggest that research exclusively emphasizing the consequences of parental incarceration has likely underestimated the consequences of the prison boom.
Bibliography Citation
Gottlieb, Aaron. "Beyond Parental Incarceration: The Effects of Household Incarceration on the Intergenerational Transmission of Disadvantage through Family Structure." Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014.
235. Gottlieb, Aaron
Sugie, Naomi
Marriage, Cohabitation and Criminal Offending among Young Adults
Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Drug Use; Family Structure; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Over the last 40 years, one of the most pronounced changes in the family is the increase in cohabitation and reduction in marriage. Despite the changing trends in the family, contemporary criminological theories have rarely considered the role of cohabitation in offending, continuing to emphasize the protective role of marriage. In this paper, we use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to examine the relationship between marriage, cohabitation, and offending among a sample of young adult men and women. We find that cohabitation protects against deviant behavior, although to a lesser degree than marriage. Partner characteristics appear to mediate the association for both marriage and cohabitation; partnership characteristics, on the other hand, appear to mediate the association for cohabitation to a much greater degree than for marriage.
Bibliography Citation
Gottlieb, Aaron and Naomi Sugie. "Marriage, Cohabitation and Criminal Offending among Young Adults." Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013.
236. Gough, Margaret
Dorius, Cassandra J.
Rethinking Shotgun Marriage
Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Age at First Marriage; Births, Repeat / Spacing; Childbearing, Adolescent; Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Teenage childbearing has been linked to negative outcomes for women, but little is known about how teenage mothers' relationship experiences might exacerbate long-term health vulnerabilities, net of early disadvantage. We examine how women fare when they "double down" and have subsequent births with the same man (e.g., through post-conception marriage). We ask whether these women have better health outcomes at midlife than women who break up with their partner and form new childbearing relationships later, and whether they have equivalent outcomes to non-teenage mothers. Using NLSY79 data we estimate inverse probability of treatment models of single-partner fertility on midlife physical health and depression risk. Accounting for exposure to early disadvantage, teenage mothers who committed to their partners early have worse physical health at midlife than other mothers, and the effect seems to worsen with age. These mothers also have much higher odds of depression than other single-partner fertility mothers.
Bibliography Citation
Gough, Margaret and Cassandra J. Dorius. "Rethinking Shotgun Marriage." Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018.
237. Gough, Margaret
Killewald, Alexandra
Does Spacing Matter? The Effect of Child Spacing on the Cumulative Labor Force Outcomes of Mothers
Presented: Dallas, TX, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2010
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Births, Repeat / Spacing; Family History; Family Planning; Family Size; Fertility; Labor Force Participation; Maternal Employment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The role of first-birth timing for mothers' economic outcomes has interested researchers for some time, yet research that considers the implications of the spacing of children, in addition to the timing, is sparse. Longer birth intervals may disadvantage women by prolonging the child-rearing period and extending time out of full-time employment, or, alternatively, may advantage women by diminishing the intensity of the child-rearing period, facilitating ongoing labor force attachment. We use longitudinal data from NLSY79 and employ a matching strategy to estimate the long-term effect of long birth intervals on mothers' labor force outcomes. By doing so, we contribute to the literature on the intersection between women's fertility and their labor force outcomes, filling a gap in the literature that has disproportionately ignored the implications of decisions about higher-parity births.
Bibliography Citation
Gough, Margaret and Alexandra Killewald. "Does Spacing Matter? The Effect of Child Spacing on the Cumulative Labor Force Outcomes of Mothers." Presented: Dallas, TX, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2010.
238. Graefe, Deborah Roempke
Parental Cohabitation, Marriage, and Single Motherhood: Life Course Transitions of American Children
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 1997
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Childhood Education, Early; Childhood Residence; Children; Cohabitation; Families, Two-Parent; Life Course; Marriage; Motherhood; Parents, Single

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines, for the first time, the life course experiences of children living with nonmarried cohabiting couples, and subsequent transitions to married-couple and female-headed families. Using 1992 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) merged child-mother data, life histories are constructed for children born during the 1980s, a time during which cohabitation before first marriage increased dramatically. Findings show almost 6 percent of American children are born into nonmarital cohabiting families, and more than l-in-4 children will live in a cohabiting family by age 14. The probability of birth into a cohabiting family varies considerably by mothers' characteristics, with children of never-married single mothers 4 times as likely to be born into a cohabiting family as children of never-married single mothers. Despite its increasing importance, no previous study documents children's experiences with parental cohabitation or examines the etiology of transitions into and out of such unions.
Bibliography Citation
Graefe, Deborah Roempke. "Parental Cohabitation, Marriage, and Single Motherhood: Life Course Transitions of American Children." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 1997.
239. Graefe, Deborah Roempke
School Based Program Assistance to Adolescent Mothers: Transferring Benefits From Mothers to Their Children
New Orleans, LA, Annual Meetings of the Population Association of America, May 1996.
Also: http://www.pop.psu.edu/general/pubs/working_papers/psu-pri/wp9610.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Home Environment; Parenting Skills/Styles; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Transfers, Parental; Verbal Memory (McCarthy Scale)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

School-based programs fostering school retention and effective parenting skills among teenaged mothers are examined for effects transferring to their children. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth merged child-mother sample, behavioral and cognitive outcomes are compared for children whose adolescent mothers participated in such services and those whose teenaged mothers did not. Panel analyses, controlling for selection factors, show only a mother's receipt of prenatal care and high school graduation are related to her child's verbal ability; no assistance measure is related to behavior. A mother's education affects her child's cognitive development through its influence on the subsequent home environment; prenatal care operates independently of home environment quality. Cross-sectional analyses suggest school effects on graduation. Implications of the findings are explored.
Bibliography Citation
Graefe, Deborah Roempke. "School Based Program Assistance to Adolescent Mothers: Transferring Benefits From Mothers to Their Children." New Orleans, LA, Annual Meetings of the Population Association of America, May 1996.
240. Gray, Jeffrey S.
Beller, Andrea H.
Graham, John W.
Childhood Family Structure, Child Support, and Labor Market Outcomes of Young Men
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 1997
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Child Support; Childhood Residence; Children, Home Environment; Family Structure; Fathers, Absence; Labor Market Outcomes; Modeling, Probit; Parents, Single; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

An alarming trend among families in the U.S. is the increase in the percentage of children living with only one parent, usually their mother. In this paper, we investigate empirically the direct effect of the absence of at least one parent from the household during childhood on the labor market outcomes--earnings and employment--of young black and white men, paying particular attention to the effect of child support payments. Employing data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) for 1990 and 1994, we apply OLS estimation to the natural logarithm of earnings and probit to the probability of being in the labor force. Preliminary findings indicate that living in a non-intact family as a child has a direct negative effect on the wages of young men, especially for whites.
Bibliography Citation
Gray, Jeffrey S., Andrea H. Beller and John W. Graham. "Childhood Family Structure, Child Support, and Labor Market Outcomes of Young Men." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 1997.
241. Greenwell, Lisa
Early Determinants of Heterogeneity and Work Commitment Among Women Near the Time of Childbirth
Presented: Cincinnati, OH, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1993
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Childbearing; First Birth; Heterogeneity; Labor Force Participation; Life Cycle Research; Minorities; Minority Groups; Parents, Single; Unemployment; Welfare; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

People with unstable labor force participation are often assumed to be weakly committed to work. Such assumptions have been made of women, and of minority groups who have high rates of unemployment. There is particular concern with potential "cultures of dependence," through which intergenerational transmission of attitudes is thought to affect subsequent work behavior, particularly among single welfare mothers with children. Research necessary to address the "culture of dependence" hypothesis remains inconclusive about the relations between work commitment attitudes and subsequent work behavior. This is partly because determinants of work commitment and work behavior have not been examined independently of life-cycle changes. Therefore, this paper examines early determinants of work in a particular life-cycle stage-one year following first childbirth, when working is likely to be especially difficult for women. With an extract of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) containing data on women who had a first birth between 1980 and 1986, logit regression is used to determine how labor force participation a year after the first birth is related to: 1) work commitment (measured between the ages of 14 and 22); 2) family and local context characteristics that have been hypothesized to affect work commitment (e.g., whether the mother worked, whether the young woman lived in a single-parent household, whether the family received welfare, unemployment rates in the county where the young woman grew up); 3) other characteristics, such as region of residence and personal characteristics, including self-esteem. The paper also estimates how measures of work commitment relate to background and area-level characteristics.
Bibliography Citation
Greenwell, Lisa. "Early Determinants of Heterogeneity and Work Commitment Among Women Near the Time of Childbirth." Presented: Cincinnati, OH, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1993.
242. Grigoryeva, Angelina
Gottlieb, Aaron
Adult Child Imprisonment and Parent's Well-Being
Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Incarceration/Jail; Parental Influences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Inspired by the American prison boom, extensive research has focused on the risk of incarceration, carceral inequalities, and its consequences. Initially focused on people who experienced incarceration directly, more recently researchers explored how incarceration alters the lives of family members, including spouses/partners and children. However, researchers have paid little attention to how incarceration reshapes the social experience of parenthood and aging for parents of adult children who experience incarceration. Using the NLSY79 child and young adult survey, this study extends existing research in two primary ways. First, using life-table methods, we provide the first empirical estimates of the risk of experiencing adult child imprisonment and explore how it varies by parent's race and education. Second, we examine how adult child's incarceration is associated with parent's mental, physical, and economic well-being.
Bibliography Citation
Grigoryeva, Angelina and Aaron Gottlieb. "Adult Child Imprisonment and Parent's Well-Being." Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016.
243. Gryn, Thomas A.
Effects of Relationship Transitions and Paternal Residency on Fathering Salience: Evidence from the NLSY79
Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2005
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Event History; Fatherhood; Fathers, Absence; Fathers, Biological; Fathers, Presence; Male Sample

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

One aspect of fatherhood that has not been well studied is denial of paternity by men after previously acknowledging a biological child. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), I utilize event history analysis to examine how the hazard of denying a previously confirmed biological child varies by male relationship trajectories and by paternal residency with children. My hypotheses are that men are more likely to disclaim children when they have experienced a recent relationship transition, when they are not resident with their children, and when visitation with nonresident children is not frequent.
Bibliography Citation
Gryn, Thomas A. "Effects of Relationship Transitions and Paternal Residency on Fathering Salience: Evidence from the NLSY79." Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2005.
244. Gryn, Thomas A.
Mott, Frank L.
Paternal Relationship History and Male Fertility: Evidence from the NLSY
Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2002
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Event History; Hispanics; Male Sample; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper uses unique longitudinal data for a national sample of over 4,000 men and their children in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth who were repeatedly interviewed between 1979 and 1998 to examine cumulative and parity-specific fertility trajectories, and their linkages with the patterning of relationships over time. A particular focus will be on exploring the extent that black, white, and possibly non-black Hispanic, respondents differ in these linkages. In addition to describing trajectories for these men as they age from middle/late adolescence to their late thirties, we use event history methodology to explore the determinants of progression to a first birth, and from a first to second birth sorting out the extent to which marriage, cohabitation histories, as well as the number of different reported partners in these relationships impact on parity progression independent of a number of socio-economic and demographic antecedents, and how this varies by race/ethnicity.
Bibliography Citation
Gryn, Thomas A. and Frank L. Mott. "Paternal Relationship History and Male Fertility: Evidence from the NLSY." Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2002.
245. Gullickson, Aaron
Biracial Black/White Children and Class: The Semi-Permeable Boundaries of Race in America
Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2003
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Children, Academic Development; Mothers, Race; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Racial Differences; Racial Studies

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines educational differences between biracial black/white children and their monoracial peers, using the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97). Previous research has revealed an "in-between" effect for biracials. I extend the previous research by defining biracial children by the race of their parents in order to avoid issues of reverse causality. I also test whether the outcomes of biracial children are due to superior family resources. I examine grade retention in both survey as well as ASVAB scores in the NLSY97. All outcomes follow the "in-between" pattern observed by previous studies. Furthermore, I find that biracial families are more like white families than black families in terms of education, family type, and region. These family differences fully explain differences between biracials and blacks in terms of grade retention and explain a significant portion of the difference in test scores.
Bibliography Citation
Gullickson, Aaron. "Biracial Black/White Children and Class: The Semi-Permeable Boundaries of Race in America." Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2003.
246. Guo, Yan
Marquart-Pratt, Sandra T.
Berry, Eddy Helen
Comparing Migration Consequences Across Cohorts
Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America, April 2008.
Also: http://paa2008.princeton.edu/abstractViewer.aspx?submissionId=81707
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Economics of Minorities; Economics, Demographic; Economics, Regional; Labor Economics; Life Course; Migration Patterns

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Previous research demonstrates that migration patterns differ across groups. Migration can also be shaped by broader processes of social change such as political and economic shifts, which take place at various levels of interaction, including local, national, and, in some instances, global scales. This research compares migration patterns across two cohorts using NLSY data (NLSY79 and NLSY97) in order to compare patterns of migration across these two cohorts and examine how they differ on various dimensions, including individual characteristics, migration types, and with regard to key life transitions such as entry into the labor market. Of key interest is the extent to which community level attributes and/or broader social forces influence patterns of migration in conjunction with various individual-level processes noted to be influential in previous research. Preliminary results show some group-based differences, though further exploration is required. Later analyses will integrate community characteristics as another potential source of variation.
Bibliography Citation
Guo, Yan, Sandra T. Marquart-Pratt and Eddy Helen Berry. "Comparing Migration Consequences Across Cohorts." Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America, April 2008.
247. Guzzo, Karen Benjamin
The Living Arrangements of Young Parents and Their Children
Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): First Birth; Household Composition; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Parenthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Multigenerational household research often overlooks the middle generation -- those who live with their own parents and their own children. Similarly, work on boomerang kids rarely considers young parents, who might particularly need help from their parents. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), I examine the characteristics of three types of young parents aged 24 (N = 1,984): living with parents consistently between birth and age 24; living with parents at birth but subsequently moved out; and living independently at birth. Results show that more than half of young parents live with their own parents at their first birth or subsequently. Among those who were either living independently at birth or moved out subsequently, event history models reveal that union instability is strongly associated with the odds of moving back home, as is not living with their firstborn child. Overall, young parents have complicated and fluid living arrangements.
Bibliography Citation
Guzzo, Karen Benjamin. "The Living Arrangements of Young Parents and Their Children." Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015.
248. Guzzo, Karen Benjamin
Union Formation and Stability Among Non-Cohabiting, Unmarried Parents: Incorporating Unions with Their Child's Parent
Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Cohabitation; First Birth; Parental Marital Status

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Although many nonmarital births are to cohabitors, roughly 40% of such births are to those not living with a partner. Many of these individuals will go on to form unions, some of which are likely to be with their child's biological parent. In this paper, I will use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) to analyze the likelihood that never-married, never-cohabited young adults with a first birth outside a coresidential union will remain single, form a coresidential union with the child's other biological parent, or form a union with a new partner, paying attention to differences across race-ethnicity, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics as well as considering partner characteristics and relationship quality. I will also investigate the stability of these unions, comparing whether unions formed with the child's biological parent are more or less stable than those formed with new partners.
Bibliography Citation
Guzzo, Karen Benjamin. "Union Formation and Stability Among Non-Cohabiting, Unmarried Parents: Incorporating Unions with Their Child's Parent." Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016.
249. Guzzo, Karen Benjamin
Dorius, Cassandra J.
Does Maternal Multipartnered Fertility Affect the Mother-Child Relationship?
Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Fertility, Multiple Partners; Mothers; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Siblings; Well-Being

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Multipartnered fertility (MPF) is widely considered detrimental to family and child well-being, yet the mechanisms by which MPF may affect well-being are unclear. We suggest that due to the higher instability and greater complexity of families with MPF, children with half-siblings may have a weaker mother-child relationship than children with only full siblings. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY) and drawing from both mother’s and children’s reports, we compare the perceptions of firstborn children with younger siblings from MPF and single-partner fertility (SPF) homes regarding how much their mothers monitor and spend time with them, how close they feel to their mother and how much they share with their mother, and how often they perceive their mother missing important events. The NLSY provides rich background information and data on family instability and transitions to more accurately allow us to isolate the effects of MPF from other factors.
Bibliography Citation
Guzzo, Karen Benjamin and Cassandra J. Dorius. "Does Maternal Multipartnered Fertility Affect the Mother-Child Relationship?" Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014.
250. Hamoudi, Amar
Nobles, Jenna
Do Men Really Prefer to Live with Sons? Stress, Pregnancy and Family Composition
Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Children; Divorce; Gender; Marital Conflict; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Sons

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Several studies have documented controversial but widely-reported findings linking children's gender to union stability and family living arrangements in the US. Couples with girls are more likely to divorce than couples with boys; girls are less likely than boys to coreside with their fathers. The findings are often described as contemporary evidence of fathers' son-preference. Our study considers the role of a competing hypothesis for these patterns, one that emphasizes epidemiological research on stress, miscarriage, and the production of female births. Combining analysis of vital statistics and two longitudinal studies, we demonstrate that children's gender is not exogenous to family processes. We examine the timing of pregnancies and births, relative to conflict within marriage and maternal anxiety, and relative to transitions in union status and fathers’ coresidence. The findings allow us to bound the possible causal effect of the birth of a daughter on her father's departure from the household.
Bibliography Citation
Hamoudi, Amar and Jenna Nobles. "Do Men Really Prefer to Live with Sons? Stress, Pregnancy and Family Composition." Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013.
251. Han, JooHee
Where Do Prisoners Come From?: Simultaneous Shift of Military Downsizing and Mass Incarceration and Its Consequence
Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Incarceration/Jail; Labor Market Demographics; Military Enlistment; Military Service; Racial Equality/Inequality

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

I seek to understand how prison and the military, two crucial but often-neglected labor market institutions, have jointly reinforced racial inequality in the labor market over time. The simultaneous increase in mass incarceration and decrease in the military since 1980 has resulted in a crossover of the two populations of affiliated black men in the early 1990s. Comparing the NLSY 79 and 97 cohorts, I find that blacks are channeled from military service to incarceration with blacks increasingly get incarcerated while decreasingly enlisting in the military now than before, net of individual characteristics and family resources. Considering that the military provides African American young men disproportionately with secured employment, income, opportunities for higher education and job training while the effect of incarceration is detrimental, I argue that higher incarceration and less joining the military for blacks now than before have reinforced the racial inequality.

Also presented at Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016.

Bibliography Citation
Han, JooHee. "Where Do Prisoners Come From?: Simultaneous Shift of Military Downsizing and Mass Incarceration and Its Consequence." Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016.
252. Han, Siqi
Tumin, Dmitry
Qian, Zhenchao
Gendered Transitions to Adulthood by College Field of Study
Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): College Graduates; College Major/Field of Study/Courses; Gender Differences; STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics); Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

College graduates' experiences in the labor market are stratified by field of study, and field of study in turn determines the timing of transitions to marriage and parenthood. We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 Cohort to investigate gendered influences of college field of study on transitions to a series of adult roles, including full-time work, marriage, and parenthood. Among men majoring in science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (STEM), we find evidence of role complementarity, with early achievement of full-time work accompanied by earlier family formation. By contrast, women majoring in STEM reap fewer rewards with respect to finding full-time work, and delay marriage and childbearing. Women in business demonstrate role complementarity similar to that of men majoring in STEM. The contrast between women in STEM and business suggests that women's decisions regarding marriage and parenthood do not respond uniformly to the economic prospects of their work.

Also presented at Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016.

Bibliography Citation
Han, Siqi, Dmitry Tumin and Zhenchao Qian. "Gendered Transitions to Adulthood by College Field of Study." Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016.
253. Han, Wen-Jui
Nonstandard Work Schedules and Child Cognitive Outcomes
Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2004
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Children, Academic Development; Cognitive Ability; Cognitive Development; Maternal Employment; Shift Workers; Welfare; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The first major aim of this paper is to examine whether the effects of maternal employment on children's cognitive outcomes differ by mothers' work schedules. The second major aim of this paper is to examine whether or not the effects of maternal work schedules may differ in different contexts (e.g., low-income families or welfare families). This paper, thus, builds on and extends prior research on the effects of early maternal employment by utilizing data on a large national sample of children in the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement (NLSY79-CS). The NLSY79-CS is well suited for this analysis because, in addition to collecting detailed information on family demographic background, it also contains information on various dimensions of maternal work schedules (e.g., working at evenings, nights, or rotating shifts) at every assessment point along with a rich set of information on early child care and home environment.
Bibliography Citation
Han, Wen-Jui. "Nonstandard Work Schedules and Child Cognitive Outcomes." Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2004.
254. Han, Wen-Jui
Miller, Daniel P.
Parental Work Schedules and Adolescent Health Behaviors
Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America (PAA) 2008 Annual Meeting, April 17-19, 2008.
Also: http://paa2008.princeton.edu/download.aspx?submissionId=81139
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Sexual Activity; Alcohol Use; Birthweight; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Delinquency/Gang Activity; Depression (see also CESD); Family Structure; Maternal Employment; Mothers, Education; Parent-Child Interaction; Risk-Taking; Sexual Activity; Siblings; Smoking (see Cigarette Use); Substance Use; Welfare; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using a large contemporary data set, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement (NLSY-CS), this paper examines the relationship between parental work schedules and adolescent risky behaviors at age 13 or 14, paying particular attention to the mechanisms that may explain this relationship. Structural equation modeling suggests that parental work schedules were associated with adolescent risky behaviors. In particular, increased work at night by mothers was significantly associated with spending less time with children and lower quality of the home environment, and both of these mediators were significantly linked to adolescent risky behaviors. Subgroup analyses revealed that some groups of children (i.e., males, those ever living in single-mother families, and those in families with low incomes) may particularly be affected by mothers working at nights, due to spending less time together, having a lower degree of maternal closeness, and experiencing lower quality home environments. Implications and avenues for future research are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Han, Wen-Jui and Daniel P. Miller. "Parental Work Schedules and Adolescent Health Behaviors." Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America (PAA) 2008 Annual Meeting, April 17-19, 2008.
255. Han, Wen-Jui
Waldfogel, Jane
Parents' Nonstandard Work Schedules and Adolescents' Socio-Emotional Outcomes
Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2005
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Depression (see also CESD); Family Background; Home Environment; Maternal Employment; Sexual Behavior; Shift Workers; Substance Use; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The main focus of this paper is to assess whether the effects of parental employment on adolescents/ socio-emotional outcomes (i.e., depression, sexual behavior, substance use, and defiant behavior) differ by parental work schedules. This paper uses data from a large national sample of children in the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement (NLSY79-CS). The NLSY79-CS is well suited for this analysis because, in addition to collecting detailed information on family demographic background and home environment, it also contains information on various dimensions of parental work schedules (e.g., working at evenings, nights, or rotating shifts).
Bibliography Citation
Han, Wen-Jui and Jane Waldfogel. "Parents' Nonstandard Work Schedules and Adolescents' Socio-Emotional Outcomes." Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2005.
256. Han, Wen-Jui
Waldfogel, Jane
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Long-Run Effects of Early Maternal Employment on Children's Achievement and Behavior
Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Meetings, March 1999
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Care; Children, Home Environment; Cognitive Ability; Fathers, Presence; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Maternal Employment; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper investigates the long-term impact of maternal employment and childcare utilization on children's cognitive and behavioral outcomes. Baydar and Brooks-Gunn (1991) used data from the 1986 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to investigate the effects of continuity, intensity, and timing of maternal employment in the first year and of child-care arrangements in the first three years on children's cognitive and behavioral outcomes as assessed at ages 3 and 4. This paper revisits the same children, four years later, when they are 5/6 and 7/8 years of age, to see whether the effects that Baydar and Brooks-Gunn found at age 3 to 4 persist into the school-age years or whether those effects attenuate over time. As such, this paper will provide valuable new insights into the potential long-term effects of early maternal employment and early child care. Specifically, this paper will provide evidence on: 1) how the continuity, intensity, and timing of maternal employment in the first year of life affect children's development as assessed at age 5/6 and 7/8; 2) how maternal employment and child care arrangements in the first 3 years of life affect children's cognitive and socioemotional functioning at age 5/6 and 7/8 and what factors might mediate these effects; and 3) whether there are interactive influences of the types of early childcare arrangements and early maternal employment on later child outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Han, Wen-Jui, Jane Waldfogel and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn. "Long-Run Effects of Early Maternal Employment on Children's Achievement and Behavior." Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Meetings, March 1999.
257. Han, Wen-Jui
Waldfogel, Jane
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Maternal Employment, Child Care, and Child Behavioral Outcomes: What Do We Know?
Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Care; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Maternal Employment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper investigates the impact of early maternal employment and child care on children's behavioral outcomes, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and NICHD Study of Early Child Care (SECC). The NLSY is limited in that its behavioral outcomes are based on mothers' reports. Further, the NLSY has no information on the quality of care and only limited information on the quality of children's home environments. Therefore, we use a second dataset, the NICHD-SECC, which has, in addition to early maternal employment and mother-reported behavior problems, the quality of the home environment, the quality of the child care environment, and several additional measures of children's behavior and socioemotional adjustment. Thus, we will be able to use the NICHD-SECC dataset to determine whether the findings from the NLSY hold up when controls for home and child care quality are introduced and when other outcome variables are studied.
Bibliography Citation
Han, Wen-Jui, Jane Waldfogel and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn. "Maternal Employment, Child Care, and Child Behavioral Outcomes: What Do We Know?" Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002.
258. Handcock, Mark S.
Morris, Martina
Bernhardt, Annette
Discrepancies in Estimates of the Growth in Earnings Inequality in the CPS and NLSY
Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Meetings, March 1999
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Earnings; Part-Time Work; Underreporting; Wage Differentials

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Recently Gottschalk and Moffitt (1997) analyzed three major longitudinal data sets from 1979-88 to see if the same trends in inequality appeared. They find that the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Men (NLSY) understates the rise in earnings inequality (compared to the CPS), thus raising serious questions about the validity of the NLSY for research on recent trends in inequality. In this paper we update the comparison of the NLSY and CPS to include the 1989-1994 surveys and use additional analyses to locate the sources of, and potential explanations for, the discrepancy between these two data sets. We find that the NLSY-CPS differential appears to be driven by part-time or part-year (PT/PY) workers' earnings. Underreporting by CPS PT/PY workers seems like the simplest explanation for this pattern, as the NLSY survey module on jobs and earnings is much more thorough than the CPS instrument.
Bibliography Citation
Handcock, Mark S., Martina Morris and Annette Bernhardt. "Discrepancies in Estimates of the Growth in Earnings Inequality in the CPS and NLSY." Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Meetings, March 1999.
259. Hango, Darcy William
The Effect of Neighborhood Poverty and Migration on Behavior Change in Children
Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2003
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Geocoded Data; Migration; Neighborhood Effects; Poverty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Research suggests that children are affected by their surroundings. Poor neighborhoods lead to fewer resources, less access to socioeconomically advantaged neighbors, and more behavioral challenges. Families in poor neighborhoods can undertake many strategies to improve the life chances of their children. One such strategy, which may reduce the prevalence of problematic behavior, is to move into a more affluent neighborhood. Residential mobility programs such as Gautreaux and Moving to Opportunity were designed to address this concern. The current research uses the NLSY linked mother-child files and the 1990 U.S. Census to assess the effect of residential mobility and neighborhood poverty on changes in childhood behavior problems between 1988 and 1994. Findings reveal that moving increases child behavior problems, regardless of the poverty level of the origin and destination neighborhood. The largest increase is witnessed for those children who move 'down' from nonpoor to poor neighborhoods.
Bibliography Citation
Hango, Darcy William. "The Effect of Neighborhood Poverty and Migration on Behavior Change in Children." Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2003.
260. Hango, Darcy William
Houseknecht, Sharon K.
Marital Disruption and Accidents/Injuries among Children
Working Paper, Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University, June 2000
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Accidents; Child Health; Divorce; Economic Changes/Recession; Fathers, Absence; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Composition; Injuries; Marital Disruption; Parenting Skills/Styles

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Also presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of American Meetings, March 23-25, 2000.

A vast literature has examined the effects of marital disruption on child well-being, but medically attended childhood accidents/injuries has not been considered an outcome. This paper investigates this association as well as possible intervening pathways using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Findings reveal that marital disruption decreases girls' accidents/injuries. Boys are not directly affected. For boys, the positive relationship between marital disruption and accidents/injuries is mediated by maternal parenting practices, namely, use of discipline and display of approval.

Bibliography Citation
Hango, Darcy William and Sharon K. Houseknecht. "Marital Disruption and Accidents/Injuries among Children." Working Paper, Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University, June 2000.
261. Hao, Lingxin
A Dynamic Perspective of Intergenerational Mobility
Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mobility, Economic; Modeling, Latent Class Analysis/Latent Transition Analysis; Parental Investments

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Past research has shown commonality and inertia of intergenerational mobility. A logical expectation is that both macro factors and micro dynamics differ to produce a common mobility matrix. This paper attempts to unpack the black box of intergenerational mobility between parent and child generations through examining the dynamics of parental investment and cognitive and socio-emotional trajectories over childhood for three cohorts of children. We add advances from biological and social sciences to the existing human capital theory. We draw empirical data from the main file and the matched mother-child file of National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 (NLSY79). We use latent class regression to estimate unobserved mother’s innate ability and growth mixture models to analyze trajectories of parental investment and child development. Findings of this study will deepen our understanding of intergenerational mobility matrix, which may be similar despite that the macro conditions and micro dynamics during childhood may differ.
Bibliography Citation
Hao, Lingxin. "A Dynamic Perspective of Intergenerational Mobility." Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017.
262. Hao, Lingxin
Developmental Problems of Children Aged 6-11 in Mother-Only Families: The Effect of Welfare and Kin Support
Presented: Denver, CO, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1992
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Children; Children, Academic Development; Children, Behavioral Development; Children, Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Poverty; Support Networks; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examined the effect of welfare and kin support on children in conjunction with the effect of poverty and single motherhood using the children of the NLSY. Standard assessments of home environment, behavior problems, cognitive and socioemotional development were used to measure developmental problems in middle childhood. AFDC was considered as a form of welfare assistance and kin coresidence as a form of kin support. Findings include: (1) poverty effect was the most adverse among all; (2) single motherhood produced a similar effect as the poverty effect, but when poverty levels were held constant, the single motherhood effect persisted only in home environment; (3) support status overlapped with poverty status and single mother status to a great degree; (4) different types of support made great differences in outcomes for children; kin coresidence usually yielded similar developmental outcomes as receiving no support whereas AFDC recipiency yielded much lower levels of outcomes for children; (5) the promoting effect of kin support and adverse effect of AFDC were particularly strong within mother-only families: kin coresidence not only enhanced the home environment and cognitive development to the mean level but also reduced behavior problems down below the average level; and (6) socioemotional development in middle childhood appeared not to be affected by poverty, single motherhood, and support status.
Bibliography Citation
Hao, Lingxin. "Developmental Problems of Children Aged 6-11 in Mother-Only Families: The Effect of Welfare and Kin Support." Presented: Denver, CO, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1992.
263. Hao, Lingxin
Young Women's Entry Into and Exit from the Labor Market: The Effect of Governmental and Familial Support
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, 1991
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Family Influences; Family Resources; Labor Force Participation; Labor Supply; Mothers, Education; Racial Differences; Role Models; Support Networks

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines labor market entry and exit dynamics among young women and seeks to determine whether kin support and the welfare system influence young women's work differentially. Based on the socialization theory and an economic model of female labor force participation, three hypotheses are generated and tested: a Role Model Hypothesis, an Income Effect Hypothesis, and a Price-of-Time Hypothesis. Using 5,201 black and white women from seven waves of the NLSY (1979-85) in a discrete-time hazard analysis, this paper confirms that: (1) mother's education and AFDC status influence daughter's job entry more than work continuity and for whites more than blacks; (2) among the three alternative income sources--parental income, husband's income, and AFDC benefits--AFDC benefits discourage labor force participation (income effect) for black women only; and (3) kin support in forms of coresidence and financial support promotes job entry for both blacks and whites, and work continuity for whites only (price effect). These findings point to the promoting effect of familial support in contrast to the preventing effect of governmental support on women's labor force participation.
Bibliography Citation
Hao, Lingxin. "Young Women's Entry Into and Exit from the Labor Market: The Effect of Governmental and Familial Support." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, 1991.
264. Hao, Lingxin
Hotz, V. Joseph
Jin, Ginger Zhe
Games That Families Play: Parental Reputation, Transfers and Teen Childbearing
Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March 1999
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Childbearing, Adolescent; Family Studies; Siblings; Transfers, Family; Transfers, Parental

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper considers a model of a two-stage non-cooperative game. In this game, daughters decide whether to have an early birth and parents decide whether to provide or withhold resources (transfers) to them, but there is conflict between parents and daughters over teenage childbearing. Using data from the NLSY, we show that parents have an incentive to act strategically by differentially treating the childbearing behavior of older versus young daughters in an attempt to prevent teenage childbearing of younger daughters. The number of remaining younger daughters who are under 19 when parents make decision of transfer reduces the probability of transfers to the daughter in question, conditional on the teenage childbearing status of that daughter. We also show that such a relationship is weaker for black families than white families.
Bibliography Citation
Hao, Lingxin, V. Joseph Hotz and Ginger Zhe Jin. "Games That Families Play: Parental Reputation, Transfers and Teen Childbearing." Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March 1999.
265. Hao, Lingxin
Hotz, V. Joseph
Jin, Ginger Zhe
Pantano, Juan
Parental Learning and Teenagers' Risky Behavior
Presented: Detroit, MI, Population Association of America Meetings, April-May 2009
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Alcohol Use; Drug Use; Parenting Skills/Styles; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Risk-Taking; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

It is well documented that teenagers engage in risky behaviors at high rates. Usually these behaviors occur without parental consent and teens invest resources to preclude parents from knowing whether and to what extent they engage in such behaviors. This may give rise to parental incentives to learn about their children by paying close attention to observable "signals" of the underlying risky behavior. Moreover, parents can set up parenting rules which are contingent upon the realization of these signals in an effort to control the behavior of their children. We explore a game theoretic model of parent-child interactions and propose an empirical strategy to identify the equilibrium reaction functions that determine teenagers' risky behavior and parenting rules. In preliminary work, we estimate approximations to these reaction functions using data on teens' risky behavior and stringency of parental rules from the National Longitudinal Survey - Young Adults (NLS-YA).
Bibliography Citation
Hao, Lingxin, V. Joseph Hotz, Ginger Zhe Jin and Juan Pantano. "Parental Learning and Teenagers' Risky Behavior." Presented: Detroit, MI, Population Association of America Meetings, April-May 2009.
266. Hao, Lingxin
Matsueda, Ross L.
Zhao, Yang
Children's Behavior Problems and Family Social Capital: A Dynamic Analysis of Siblings
Presented: Chicago, IL, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1998
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Children, Behavioral Development; Children, Preschool; Family Background; Family Structure; Family Studies; Heterogeneity; Modeling; Siblings; Temperament

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines the effect of family social capital on child behavior problems, such as aggression, hyperactivity, temperament, and depression, for pre-adolescent school children (ages 9-14). Using the concept of family social family, we conceptualize the child developmental process as a dynamic and reciprocal one whereby child behaviors influences how the parents interact with the child, which, in turn, influences child behaviors. Our analysis uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), including 16 waves of youth data and 4 waves of child data, to estimate a multi-equation dynamic model. We establish a sample that consists of multiple siblings per family and multiple observations per sibling. Such a sample permits an effective separation of unobserved heterogeneity from state dependence by controlling for two levels of unobserved heterogeneity, one being unique to the family, the other being unique to the individual child. The effective control of these two levels of unobserved heterogeneity rigorously improves the precision of estimates and hypotheses testing.
Bibliography Citation
Hao, Lingxin, Ross L. Matsueda and Yang Zhao. "Children's Behavior Problems and Family Social Capital: A Dynamic Analysis of Siblings." Presented: Chicago, IL, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1998.
267. Hao, Lingxin
Xiu, Guihua
Pathways to High School Graduation: Dynamic Modeling-Based Microsimulation of School Enrollment and Youth Employment
Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2002
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; High School Completion/Graduates; Modeling; Variables, Independent - Covariate

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper proposes a new approach to examining the pathways through school enrollment and youth employment to high school graduation, with a substantive focus on the effects of state welfare policies. Our approach represents an advancement in the demography of schooling. Based on dynamic models of multiple discrete states, multi-state life tables, and microsimulation, our approach makes several extensions. First, it produces microdata-based prediction rather than aggregate-based prediction. Second, it provides the size of the effect of key explanatory variables on the population patterns, net of other covariates, with inferential statistics such as confidence intervals. Third, it predicts the differential timing effects of key explanatory variables. Drawing on three waves of the most recent longitudinal data on adolescents, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97), the study models and simulates the pathways to high school graduation from age 14 to age 19. It also simulates these pathways using CPS 1994-2000 data.
Bibliography Citation
Hao, Lingxin and Guihua Xiu. "Pathways to High School Graduation: Dynamic Modeling-Based Microsimulation of School Enrollment and Youth Employment." Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2002.
268. Hardie, Jessica H.
Parent-Child Relationships at the Transition to Adulthood: A Comparison of Immigrant and Native-Born Youth
Presented: Dallas, TX, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2010
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Coresidence; Family Structure; Household Composition; Household Structure; Immigrants; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Parent-Child Interaction; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Transfers, Family

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Establishing an independent household is an important part of becoming an adult in the United States. Immigrant families may differ from families of the native-born because of norms about intergenerational obligations, the quality of family relationships, and differences in the economic opportunities of immigrant and native-born youth. This paper investigates the determinants of young adults' co-residence with parents, and among those living apart, proximity to parents, frequency of contact, and economic transfers for first-generation, second-generation, and third-and-above generation youths. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to take account of parents' economic resources, family composition, and parent-child relationship quality in adolescence on the transition to independent residence and intergenerational relationships in early adulthood. We find that first and second generation immigrant youth are more likely to live with parents than youth from nonimmigrant families, even after economic and family structure differences are taken into account.
Bibliography Citation
Hardie, Jessica H. "Parent-Child Relationships at the Transition to Adulthood: A Comparison of Immigrant and Native-Born Youth." Presented: Dallas, TX, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2010.
269. Hardie, Jessica H.
Social Comparisons and Satisfaction With Work
Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Expectations/Intentions; Job Satisfaction; Occupational Aspirations; Occupational Attainment; Parental Influences; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Social psychological theories suggest that individuals' wellbeing depends, in part, on how they compare themselves to others or previously established standards. The current study uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (N=9,813) and employs random- and fixed-effects models to examine whether job satisfaction is a function of four social comparisons: 1) the gap between occupational aspirations in adolescence and attainment, 2) the gap between parents' occupational attainment and respondent's occupational attainment, 3) the gap between siblings' occupational attainment and respondent's occupational attainment, and 4) the gap between predicted occupational attainment and actual occupational attainment. Findings reveal job satisfaction is negatively associated with falling short of aspirations and falling short of predicted occupational attainment. Exceeding parents' attainment is associated with higher odds of job satisfaction. These findings make a unique contribution to theory and our understanding of wellbeing in relation to work.
Bibliography Citation
Hardie, Jessica H. "Social Comparisons and Satisfaction With Work." Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017.
270. Harper, Cynthia Channing
A Longitudinal Analysis of Drug Use and Youth Crime in the U.S.
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 1997
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Delinquency/Gang Activity; Disadvantaged, Economically; Drug Use; Illegal Activities; Incarceration/Jail; Substance Use; Youth Problems

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study investigates a U.S. cohort of male youth to measure the extent to which drug use accounts for criminal activity. While crime has shown persistent decreases overall in the past decade, it has become more concentrated among the young. Since the early eighties, crime is not only more common among youth, but it has also become more violent. Trafficking of illicit drugs has created a violent market, principally for distributors and sellers, and has involved increasingly younger individuals. Using individual-level data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the research follows a male youth cohort from the late seventies to early nineties to explore changing associations among drug use and incarceration over time. The panel survey oversamples economically disadvantaged population, including out-of-school-youth, who are at elevated risk of both drug use and criminal activity.
Bibliography Citation
Harper, Cynthia Channing. "A Longitudinal Analysis of Drug Use and Youth Crime in the U.S." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 1997.
271. Harper, Cynthia Channing
Family Instability and Crime: Does One Really Lead to the Other?
Presented: San Francisco, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, 1995
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Family Circumstances, Changes in; Family Influences; Family Studies; Fathers, Absence; Illegal Activities; Incarceration/Jail; Parents, Single; Socioeconomic Factors

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines a population of young men to see how family life is associated with crime in the U.S. It uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to track a sample of 6,859 young men from 1979 to the present, testing whether family disruption, father absence, step-parenting or other family arrangements increase the likelihood of incarceration. Results show that net of other individual, socio-economic, or community level factors which influence crime, family instability is highly associated with the probability of incarceration. Growing up in a single parent family significantly increases the likelihood of going to jail. However, growing up with a step-parent increases it to a much greater extent. These findings are relevant for crime policy, which focuses virtually all resources on corrective measures, rather than on preventive programs for children at high risk of incarceration later in life.
Bibliography Citation
Harper, Cynthia Channing. "Family Instability and Crime: Does One Really Lead to the Other?" Presented: San Francisco, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, 1995.
272. Harper, Cynthia Channing
When Father Walks, Does Son Follow? An Intergenerational Analysis of Fathering Patterns
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 1997
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Event History; Family Environment; Family History; Family Studies; Fatherhood; Fathers, Absence; Fathers, Leaving; Parents, Single

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study on the transmission of "fatherhood" patterns from father to son measures whether a child who experiences father absence while growing up is more likely to become an absent father himself one day. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this research evaluates the experience of a contemporary youth cohort from the late seventies to the early nineties, within the historical trend of increasing father absence. The survey oversamples disadvantaged populations who are at higher risk of single parenthood. The research methodology used is a longitudinal event history analysis of the effects of childhood family history on the probability of becoming a nonresidential father later in life. Preliminary results show that controlling for individual and community characteristics, this male cohort tends to re-create their childhood family situations while forming their own families.
Bibliography Citation
Harper, Cynthia Channing. "When Father Walks, Does Son Follow? An Intergenerational Analysis of Fathering Patterns." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 1997.
273. Harris, Kathleen Mullan
Guo, Guang
Marmer, Jeremy K.
Consequences of Maternal Employment and Welfare Receipt for Children in Poor Families
Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America, May 1996
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Children, Well-Being; Employment; Income; Maternal Employment; Modeling; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Poverty; Siblings; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines the inter-relationships among mother's work, poverty, and child well-being using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). We first trace the complex and dynamic patterns of work and welfare receipt among mothers over time since the child's birth and then examine the implications of mothers' different economic strategies for the well-being of children. One of the important contributions of our work involves the careful longitudinal modeling of the effects of work and welfare receipt and disentangling their effects from the effects of income We also examine potential selection bias of mothers' work and welfare choices by comparing OLS models with fixed effects models using child siblings as the unit of observation. Findings have important implications for welfare reform proposals calling for more stringent work obligations of welfare mothers without any understanding of the consequences for children.
Bibliography Citation
Harris, Kathleen Mullan, Guang Guo and Jeremy K. Marmer. "Consequences of Maternal Employment and Welfare Receipt for Children in Poor Families." Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America, May 1996.
274. Hartnett, Caroline Sten
White-Hispanic Differences in Meeting Fertility Intentions over the Life Course
Presented: San Francisco CA, Population Association of America Meetings, May 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Ethnic Differences; Fertility; Hispanics; Life Course

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort, I explore whether higher fertility among Hispanics compared with Whites reflects the preferences of individuals within those groups, and how the process of exceeding or falling short of intentions over the life course helps explain fertility differentials between the groups. Although Hispanics come closer to achieving early-life parity intentions in the aggregate (Hispanic women fall short by a quarter of a birth, compared to more than two-fifths for Whites), at the individual level, they are not more likely to meet their intentions (34% of Hispanic women achieve their desired parity, compared with 38% of Whites). Hispanics have higher parity than Whites both because they intend to have more children and they are more likely to exceed their intended parity. Hispanic-White differences in exceeding intentions seem to be related to acculturation, religious differences, and an earlier age-schedule of childbearing.
Bibliography Citation
Hartnett, Caroline Sten. "White-Hispanic Differences in Meeting Fertility Intentions over the Life Course." Presented: San Francisco CA, Population Association of America Meetings, May 2012.
275. Harvey, Hope
Cumulative Effect of Family Structure on Educational Attainment
Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): College Enrollment; Educational Attainment; Family History; Family Structure; High School Completion/Graduates

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Scholars have long recognized the importance of family structure, but studies often "control away" effects that operate through time-varying characteristics like income. Using the NLSY79, I employ inverse probability treatment weighting and marginal structure models to examine the effects of family structure on educational attainment. These methods allow for dynamic selection, in which family structure affects time-varying characteristics that are in turn associated with future family structure. I find that compared to an additional year with married biological parents, a year with a single mother is associated with a 6.1% reduction in the odds of graduating high school and 3.1% reduction in the odds of attending college, and a year with a cohabiting social father is associated with a 13.5% reduction in the odds of graduating high school and 12.4% reduction in the odds of attending college. Totaled across childhood, family structure can substantially shape children's life chances.
Bibliography Citation
Harvey, Hope. "Cumulative Effect of Family Structure on Educational Attainment." Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015.
276. Haurin, R. Jean
Determinants of Fertility in Remarriage: Outcomes of White American Experience
Presented: Miami, FL, Population Association of America Meetings, May 1994
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Family Structure; Fertility; First Birth; Household Composition; Remarriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines how remarriage influences the timing of first births in marriage for a contemporary cohort of white females. A model of the determinants of a first birth in marriage is developed and empirically tested for first and second marriage. Hypotheses regarding the impact of prior marital experience and characteristics of prior-born children for both wife and husband are tested. Correction is made for the process of selection into various marital states. Results indicate that first- and second marriers are influenced by similar sets of factors. However, second-married individuals are significantly more likely to have a birth soon after marriage. These results highlight the pro-fertility context of remarriage suggesting a desire to "cement" new marriages through additional fertility. Larger numbers of prior-born children residing outside the household tend to decrease the likelihood of subsequent fertility. The overall reduction in fertility is greatest if the prior- born children are the woman's step-children rather than biological children.
Bibliography Citation
Haurin, R. Jean. "Determinants of Fertility in Remarriage: Outcomes of White American Experience." Presented: Miami, FL, Population Association of America Meetings, May 1994.
277. Hays, Jake
Multiple-Partner Fertility and Depression in Young Adulthood
Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Depression (see also CESD); Family Structure; Fertility, Multiple Partners

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Multiple-partner fertility (MPF), or having children by more than one partner, is increasingly prevalent, yet we know little about the relationship between MPF and parental depression. I use five waves of data from the NLSY97 and between-within (hybrid) models to estimate associations between MPF and depressive symptoms among young adult parents. Between- and within-individual differences in depressive symptoms for MPF mothers and fathers, compared to mothers and fathers with children by one partner, are fully attenuated by current family structure and number of union transitions. Additionally, I compare parents who transition into MPF to parents who experience a second or higher parity birth and have one total fertility partner. These results indicate that number of union transitions accounts for higher levels of depressive symptoms among parents transitioning into MPF. Findings suggest that MPF is not consequential for mental health; rather, other family-level factors jointly predict MPF and increased depressive symptoms.
Bibliography Citation
Hays, Jake. "Multiple-Partner Fertility and Depression in Young Adulthood." Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018.
278. Hayward, Mark D.
Chen, Hsinmu
Friedman, Samantha
Race Differences in Retirement Life Cycle Experiences and Labor Force Participation Rates
Presented: Cincinnati, OH, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1993
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Dual Economic Theory; Labor Force Participation; Life Cycle Research; Markov chain / Markov model; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Mortality; Racial Differences; Retirement; Statistical Analysis; Transition Rates, Activity to Work

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A Markov-based, multistate life-table model is used to examine how race differences in older men's labor force participation rates (LFPRs) are influenced by differences in labor force status transition rates, mortality, and population composition. Key missing information in the scientific literature is how the retirement life cycle experiences of blacks and whites determine race differences in LFPRs. In light of these results, the utility of labor force participation rates to assess race differences in retirement behavior is evaluated. Transition rates are derived from multivariate hazards models based on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men. Race-specific multistate working life tables are estimated, showing the relationship between LFPRs and retirement life cycle experiences for a life table population. Simulations are used to examine changes in LFPRs and retirement life cycle experiences for a given race group produced by substituting transition rates from the other race group.
Bibliography Citation
Hayward, Mark D., Hsinmu Chen and Samantha Friedman. "Race Differences in Retirement Life Cycle Experiences and Labor Force Participation Rates." Presented: Cincinnati, OH, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1993.
279. Hayward, Mark D.
McLaughlin, Diane K.
Handcock, Mark S.
A Distributional Approach to Examining Differences in Life Expectancy
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 1997
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Heterogeneity; Life Cycle Research; Modeling; Mortality; Variables, Independent - Covariate

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Population heterogeneity in mortality is typically illustrated using group-specific life tables or covariate effects in statistical models. These approaches ignore group differences in the distributions of mortality risks. Here, we use methods of interdistributional comparisons to examine group differences in the distributions of life chances. Using data from the NLS-Older Men Survey, we derive an empirically determined distribution of life expectancy for middle-aged men. The distribution has a long frail tail with the curve becoming convex after life expectancy reaches the mode. This distribution is treated as a baseline distribution of population heterogeneity in mortality We compare other distributions derived from simulations to assess how the effects of improving individuals' life circumstances would alter the distribution of life chances in the population.
Bibliography Citation
Hayward, Mark D., Diane K. McLaughlin and Mark S. Handcock. "A Distributional Approach to Examining Differences in Life Expectancy." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 1997.
280. Hayward, Mark D.
McLaughlin, Diane K.
Pienta, Amy M.
Does Money Always Buy Health? The SES Gradient Across Geographic Context
Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America, May 1996
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Education; Geographical Variation; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Income; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Mortality; Rural/Urban Differences; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This analysis assesses geographic differences in older men's mortality. Two issues are considered. First, to what extent do SES differences across urban and rural contexts account for the geographic gap in morality'? Second is the SES gradient equally pervasive across geographic contexts'? In examining these issues, measures of SES are created to evaluate both proximal and distal effects as well as the multifaceted effects arising from education, income, and wealth. Lifestyle mechanisms are also considered. Employing the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men, hazard models are estimated of both overall and cause-specific mortality. Our findings document a persistent contextual gap in mortality with rural men having lower mortality. The gap is exacerbated, not diminished, when SES characteristics are controlled. The SES gradient across rural/urban contexts is highly sensitive to whether proximal or distal measures of SES are modeled.
Bibliography Citation
Hayward, Mark D., Diane K. McLaughlin and Amy M. Pienta. "Does Money Always Buy Health? The SES Gradient Across Geographic Context." Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America, May 1996.
281. Heflin, Colleen M.
Kukla-Acevedo, Sharon
Participation in the Unemployment Insurance Program and Childhood Achievement
Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Modeling, Fixed Effects; Modeling, Instrumental Variables; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Unemployment Insurance

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite evidence linking parental unemployment spells and negative child outcomes, there is very little research that explores how participation in the Unemployment Insurance Program (UI) could buffer these effects. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 79 (NLSY79) and Children of the NLSY79 data, we estimate a series of fixed effects and instrumental variables models to estimate the relationship between UI participation and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test (math and reading comprehension). Once we control for the non-random selection process into UI participation, our results suggest a positive, albeit, tenuous relationship between UI participation and PIAT math scores. None of the models suggests a negative influence of UI participation on child outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Heflin, Colleen M. and Sharon Kukla-Acevedo. "Participation in the Unemployment Insurance Program and Childhood Achievement." Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014.
282. Heidemann, Bridget
O'Rand, Angela M.
The Effects of Women's Economic Independence on Divorce: A Nash Bargaining Model in a Life Course Context
Presented: Miami, FL, Population Association of America Meetings, May 1994
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Bargaining Model; Divorce; Economic Independence; Economic Well-Being; Economics of Gender; Household Composition; Life Course; Modeling, Logit

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We explore the relationship between women's economic independence and the likelihood of divorce in midlife. Since the consequences of divorce depend on the presence and ages of children in the household, but the onset of the "empty nest" stage varies across marriages, we analyze the decision to divorce from a life course perspective. In particular, we investigate two hypotheses: I) ceteris paribus, an increase in the wife's economic independence increases the probability of marital dissolution and 2) the magnitude of this effect depends on the presence and ages of children in the household. To test these hypotheses, we estimate logit models of divorce using a sample of households from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women. In addition to demographic variables typically used to predict divorce, our explanatory variables include measures of the wife's economic independence interacted with dummy variables representing the age of the youngest child in the family.
Bibliography Citation
Heidemann, Bridget and Angela M. O'Rand. "The Effects of Women's Economic Independence on Divorce: A Nash Bargaining Model in a Life Course Context." Presented: Miami, FL, Population Association of America Meetings, May 1994.
283. Heiland, Frank
Does the Birth Order Affect the Cognitive Development of a Child?
Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2005
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Birth Order; Birthweight; Child Development; Cognitive Development; Ethnic Differences; Family Size; Hispanics; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Racial Differences; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper was also presented in Tours, France, International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, XXV International Population Conference, July 18-23, 2005.

We investigate the effects of birth order on child cognitive development, using large child and sibling samples obtained from the mother-child data of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. Controlling for various determinants of cognitive development we find that having a high birth rank is detrimental and that the gap between adjacent siblings is larger for children early in the birth sequence. The pattern is strongest for non-Hispanic white and Hispanic children. Among African-American children no difference between the first- and the second-born child is found. The negative birth order effects are robust to specification that control for family fixed effects, use a sibling first difference approach, or account for subsequent siblings.

Bibliography Citation
Heiland, Frank. "Does the Birth Order Affect the Cognitive Development of a Child?" Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2005.
284. Heiland, Frank
Effects of Women's Employment and Fertility Decisions on the Cognitive Development of Young Children: The Role of Mother's Education
Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2003
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Fertility; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper I investigate the effects of time and material resources on children's cognitive development conditional on the educational attainment of the mother. Specifically, for two broad classes of mothers educational attainment separately, I analyze whether the birth order, the completed family size, mother's time spent in the labor market, and poor health of a child at birth are detrimental for young children's cognitive development. Recent studies by Blau and Grossberg (1992), Han et. al (2001), and Waldfogel et al. (2002) concluded that there exists a negative relationship between maternal employment during the first year after the child's birth and the child's cognitive ability as measured by the revised Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-R). However, no negative effect was found for employment during the second and subsequent years after the childs birth. To the contrary, Blau and Grossberg (1992) and Waldfogel et al. (2002) provided evidence that suggested that employment is beneficial after the first year. None of the previous studies examined whether these employment effects are consistent across educational groups.

I use a sample of all children born to a woman based on data from the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79). The previous findings relied on smaller samples and on samples from earlier rounds of the NLSY79. As a result their findings may reflect effects that are characteristic of the situation in which children of young and less-educated mothers are raised. Moreover, by using these data, family fixed-effects and sibling first-differencing panel estimates can be obtained which will correct for any potential bias that may arise from unobserved heterogeneity at the family level in the estimated input effects.

Bibliography Citation
Heiland, Frank. "Effects of Women's Employment and Fertility Decisions on the Cognitive Development of Young Children: The Role of Mother's Education." Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2003.
285. Heiland, Frank
Hock, Heinrich
Thrasher, William
Early Parenthood and Educational Trajectories: A Comparison of Men and Women
Presented: Dallas, TX, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2010
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): College Dropouts; Educational Attainment; Educational Outcomes; Fatherhood; Fertility; Gender; Gender Differences; High School Dropouts; Parenthood; Teenagers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

While the negative consequences of teenage motherhood are well-documented, only a handful of studies have investigated the costs of early fatherhood. Using data from the NLSY79, we provide new estimates of the relationship between early parenthood and educational outcomes, considering high school and college completion, in addition to a continuous measure of completed schooling. Our study is the first to present estimates for both men and women obtained from a comparable statistical model, enabling us to investigate potential gender differences in the average education penalty associated with early parenthood. Our results suggest that, controlling for individuals' scholastic endowments and detailed family background characteristics, men face lower consequences of early fertility across the adolescent educational spectrum. Gender differences are also most pronounced during the early teenage years. Ongoing work that explicitly accounts for additional unobserved individual characteristics will examine the heterogeneous educational effects of early-lifecycle fertility in greater detail.
Bibliography Citation
Heiland, Frank, Heinrich Hock and William Thrasher. "Early Parenthood and Educational Trajectories: A Comparison of Men and Women." Presented: Dallas, TX, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2010.
286. Heiland, Frank
Price, Joseph P.
Maternal Employment and Parent-Child Interaction
Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): American Time Use Survey (ATUS); Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Maternal Employment; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Parent-Child Interaction; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A number of studies have examined the effect of maternal employment on child outcomes. Many of these studies provide evidence consistent with a negative influence of maternal employment on child outcomes. We explore one of the mechanisms through which these effects may operate: changes in mother-child interactions. Using data from the NLSY (1979 Cohort), the PSID Child Development Supplement (CDS 1997), and the American Time Use Survey (ATUS 2003-2005), we test for differences in mother-child interactions based on the work hours of the mother. Specifically, using multivariate analyses that utilize the different strengths of the three data sources while emphasizing comparability, we estimate the effect of work hours on the total amount of (quality) time the mother spends with her children (PSID-CDS, ATUS) and the frequency she reads to them (NLSY, PSID-CDS, ATUS). Preliminary results suggest that full-time work is associated with substantial declines in quality mother-child interactions.
Bibliography Citation
Heiland, Frank and Joseph P. Price. "Maternal Employment and Parent-Child Interaction." Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013.
287. Hemez, Paul
Military Service and Entry into Marriage: Comparing Service Members to Civilians
Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Age at First Marriage; Marriage; Military Service; Socioeconomic Background

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The military offers a springboard to economic stability during a time when it is increasingly difficult for young minority and disadvantaged men to achieve such stability. While enlisting in the armed forces was positively associated with entry into marriage during the first fifteen years of the all-volunteer force, the relationship between military service and marriage among subsequent generations of young adults has been unexplored. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, this study aims to examine the influence of enlistment on entry into marriage for contemporary young men. A specific focus is to consider whether the race and social class marriage gap persists among enlistees. Preliminary results suggest that young men who served (between 1997 and 2011) were significantly more likely to marry, and did so at younger ages, than civilians. This study offers insights into pathways to marriage for social groups who are disadvantaged in the marriage market.
Bibliography Citation
Hemez, Paul. "Military Service and Entry into Marriage: Comparing Service Members to Civilians." Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017.
288. Hernandez, Daphne C.
Gender and Race Differences in Early Adolescent Delinquency
Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America (PAA) Annual Meeting, March-April 2006.
Also: http://paa2006.princeton.edu/download.aspx?submissionId=60498
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior, Antisocial; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Gender Differences; Hispanics; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Neighborhood Effects; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study focuses on gender and race differences in the correlates of delinquency among 4,070 adolescents, ages 12 to 14. Individual, family, and neighborhood factors were found salient in predicting delinquency among male, female, White, and Black and Hispanic adolescents. In regards to gender differences and involvement in minor delinquency, maternal unemployment is a marginal risk factor for males, while mother-child relationships is a protective factor for females. Living in a single parent household and being exposed to violence are greater risk factors for White adolescents than for Black and Hispanic adolescents. However, family routines protect White adolescents from engaging in minor delinquency more than Black and Hispanic adolescents. In regards to major delinquency, being female is a marginal risk factor for Black and Hispanic adolescents compared to White adolescents, while experiencing violence is a greater risk factor for White adolescents compared to Black and Hispanic adolescents.
Bibliography Citation
Hernandez, Daphne C. "Gender and Race Differences in Early Adolescent Delinquency." Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America (PAA) Annual Meeting, March-April 2006.
289. Hernandez, Daphne C.
Pressler, Emily
Race, Ethnicity and Gender Disparities in the Embedding and Accumulation of Childhood Poverty on Young Adult BMI
Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Children, Poverty; Ethnic Differences; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Life Course; Obesity; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using a life course perspective, we examined whether the embedding of childhood poverty or the accumulation of the exposure to childhood poverty contributes to the race, ethnic, and gender disparities in young adult body mass index. Data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Study of Youth were used to explore the relationship between the exposure to childhood poverty from prenatal year to age 18 and weight status in young adulthood (N = 3,517). Results indicate that the embedding of childhood poverty during early adolescence lowered the odds that white males would be overweight as young adults. In contrast, experiencing poverty during infancy placed black males at risk for being overweight as young adults. The weight status of young adult white, black and Hispanic females was negatively influenced by the accumulation of childhood poverty. Helping impoverished families out of poverty may improve the long-term health status of their children as young adults.
Bibliography Citation
Hernandez, Daphne C. and Emily Pressler. "Race, Ethnicity and Gender Disparities in the Embedding and Accumulation of Childhood Poverty on Young Adult BMI." Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013.
290. Hernandez, Daphne C.
Pressler, Emily
Dorius, Cassandra J.
Is Father Instability Always Bad for Daughters? The Relationship between Father Churning and Adolescent Depression
Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent health; Depression (see also CESD); Family Environment; Fathers; Fathers, Absence; Gender Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Research indicates that father absence and family instability during childhood are associated with long-term mental health problems, especially for daughters. An emerging literature finds that men classified as resident or non-resident partners at a single point in time may actually be “churners”, individuals who cycle in-and-out of the home due to breaking up and repartnering with the same partner. The proposed paper provides the first national estimates of the proportion of youth who experienced churning from birth to age 18, and tests whether paternal churning is associated with adolescent depression. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and the Young Adults files (n = 3, 891), results suggest that churning is more beneficial than harmful among girls, but not boys. Adolescent females exposed to churning have 45% lower odds of experiencing elevated depressive symptoms. Implications will be discussed in light of family policies and mental health prevention.
Bibliography Citation
Hernandez, Daphne C., Emily Pressler and Cassandra J. Dorius. "Is Father Instability Always Bad for Daughters? The Relationship between Father Churning and Adolescent Depression." Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014.
291. Heydari Barardehi, Ilyar
Babiarz, Patryk
Child Support Transfer and Children's Achievements
Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Child Support; Educational Attainment; High School Completion/Graduates; Labor Market Outcomes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines the long-lasting impacts of child support transfer on children's future success and adulthood achievements. By following a cohort of recipients extracted from the 1997 wave of the NLSY data set through time, we attempt to document major differences between recipients and non-recipients in terms of their educational attainment, labor market success, and economic well-being. Our empirical analysis shows that the receipt of child support transfer enhances the beneficiaries' chance of completing high school, but has limited effects on other outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Heydari Barardehi, Ilyar and Patryk Babiarz. "Child Support Transfer and Children's Achievements." Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018.
292. Hickes, Jennifer M.
Smith, Herbert L.
Fertility in the U.S. Military - Evidence from the NLSY
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 2001
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Fertility; Marital Status; Military Personnel

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper is an attempt to clarify the status of fertility among military women. We begin by comparing the fertility of those military women available in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) with civilian women drawn from a parallel sample. We have already commented on the complex selection processes involved in getting into and out of a longitudinal sample of military personnel, and these selection processes interact directly with the various arguments just described. Any direct comparison of military with non-military fertility (or pregnancy) runs the risk of confounding organizational aspects of the military as "cause" (e.g., health care benefits) with antecedent characteristics of the military. Similarly, the design of the NLSY creates challenges: it starts as a cross-section of military personnel, who then depart for reasons indirectly (e.g., age) or directly (e.g., pregnancy) related to fertility. To deal with these problems, we have adopted an analysis strategy based on matching, since the civilian sample in the NLSY yields a large reservoir of apposite controls suitable for very focused comparisons.
Bibliography Citation
Hickes, Jennifer M. and Herbert L. Smith. "Fertility in the U.S. Military - Evidence from the NLSY." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 2001.
293. Hicks, Ashley
Snyder, Anastasia R.
Shoot for the Moon, If You Miss You'll at Least Land in the Stars: How Parental and Youth Expectations Affect Educational Attainment
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Educational Attainment; Parental Influences; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Past research has shown that parental expectations, perceived and actual, influence youth outcomes. A number of studies have focused on parental expectations of educational achievement. These studies have shown that parental expectations do influence youth overall academic achievement. One key finding that is evident from these studies is parents with higher educational expectations for their children tend to have youth with higher levels of educational attainment, as well as youth with higher educational expectations for themselves. This study uses data from the NLSY97 and builds upon the previous literature to examine how parental expectations affect youth overall educational attainment in young adulthood. Using youth and parental expectation variables allow us to further understand the process of status attainment in young adulthood as related to the expectancy value model. Additionally this study attempts to examine the effect of socioeconomic status on the relationships between expectations and status attainment.
Bibliography Citation
Hicks, Ashley and Anastasia R. Snyder. "Shoot for the Moon, If You Miss You'll at Least Land in the Stars: How Parental and Youth Expectations Affect Educational Attainment." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011.
294. Hill, Elizabeth M.
Hill, M. Anne
Resources and Reproductive Effort: The Positive Effect of Doing Relatively Well
Presented: Baltimore, MD, Population Association of America Meetings, 1989
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Earnings; Fertility; Income; Marriage; Maternal Employment; Work Histories

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Assuming some congruence between ecological resources and the economic resources available for ourselves, the authors tested whether prediction of some measures of reproductive effort for a contemporary U.S. sample would be enhanced by using several resource measures, along the lines of life history models. Fertility and work history information was analyzed for one cohort of young men in the large public data base, the NLSY. The probabilities of marriage, having any children, and having a new child in the 1986 were estimated by the following predictors: (1) the previous year's actual earnings; (2) earnings relative to that "expected" from indicators like education, job experience, parents' SES; (3) the interaction between absolute and relative earnings. "Expected earnings" was estimated two ways to reflect (a) long-term and (b) short-term variance. The results supported the importance of "relative" income. Better earnings than expected generally had a positive effect on r eproductive effort. However, in the short-term analysis, the positive effect of relative earnings decreased as absolute earnings increased. The effect of absolute earnings varied. Thus, this study provides evidence for the different effects of absolute versus relative income. In particular, these results suggest further economic research on the interaction between absolute and relative resources.
Bibliography Citation
Hill, Elizabeth M. and M. Anne Hill. "Resources and Reproductive Effort: The Positive Effect of Doing Relatively Well." Presented: Baltimore, MD, Population Association of America Meetings, 1989.
295. Hjalmarsson, Randi
Criminal Justice Involvement and High School Completion
Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 29-31, 2007.
Also: http://paa2007.princeton.edu/abstractViewer.aspx?submissionId=7104
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Arrests; Education; GED/General Educational Diploma/General Equivalency Degree/General Educational Development; Heterogeneity; High School Completion/Graduates; Incarceration/Jail

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper analyzes the relationships between juvenile justice system interactions and high school graduation. When controlling for a large set of observables as well as state- and household-level unobservables, arrested and incarcerated individuals are about 10 and 25 percentage points, respectively, less likely to graduate high school than non-arrested individuals. The effect of arrest, however, disappears when there is minimal selection on unobservables; in contrast, the incarceration effect is less sensitive to such selection and can be more readily interpreted as causal. An exploration of the mechanisms underlying the incarceration effect points most consistently toward an education-impeding stigma.
Bibliography Citation
Hjalmarsson, Randi. "Criminal Justice Involvement and High School Completion." Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 29-31, 2007.
296. Hjorth-Trolle, Anders
Molitoris, Joseph
Do Siblings Take the Weight Off Our Shoulders? The Causal Effect of Family Size on the Risk of Overweight and Obesity During Childhood
Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Childhood; Family Size; Obesity; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Nearly 20% of children are currently considered to be obese in the United States, a figure that continues to rise (Ogden et al., 2016). In recent years, researchers have increasingly focused attention on family composition as one possible risk factor associated with childhood obesity and overweight, as there are consistent indications that singletons are at significantly higher risk than children with siblings. Unfortunately, few studies reporting such findings have attempted to account for the likely endogenous relationship between family size and children's obesity and overweight risks, making it difficult to ascertain if these are causally related. This study addresses this deficiency by using data from the NLSY79 to estimate difference-in-differences models to identify the causal effect of an increase in family size on children's risk of obesity. Preliminary results suggest that, once unobserved heterogeneity is accounted for, the relationship between family size and obesity and overweight risks disappears.
Bibliography Citation
Hjorth-Trolle, Anders and Joseph Molitoris. "Do Siblings Take the Weight Off Our Shoulders? The Causal Effect of Family Size on the Risk of Overweight and Obesity During Childhood." Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017.
297. Hofferth, Sandra L.
Forry, Nicole D.
Interhousehold Contributions of Nonresidential Fathers to Children
Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 29-31, 2007.
Also: http://paa2007.princeton.edu/abstractViewer.aspx?submissionId=70385
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Child Support; Family Formation; Fathers and Children; Fathers, Involvement; Fathers, Presence; Financial Assistance; Parent-Child Interaction; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Parents living in separate residences comprise a major source of interfamilial exchange. A positive relationship and exchanges with a nonresidential father are believed to be important to child development. However, little is known about the extent to which nonresidential fathers are involved in children's daily lives beyond their provision of child support. In this study, a structural equation model was used to evaluate the association between maternal and paternal characteristics and relationship and three aspects of father involvement: paternal accessibility (father-child contact), father-child interaction (relationship quality), and father's responsibility (financial support). The results show that previous circumstances and current context, including years spent together, geographical distance between the child and father, and parents' age and marital status at birth are associated with father involvement. Additionally, amount of contact is linked to father-child relationship quality and to financial support but not to parent relationship quality.
Bibliography Citation
Hofferth, Sandra L. and Nicole D. Forry. "Interhousehold Contributions of Nonresidential Fathers to Children." Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 29-31, 2007.
298. Hofferth, Sandra L.
Goldscheider, Frances Kobrin
Family Structure and the Transition to Early Parenthood
Presented: Detroit, MI, Population Association of America Meetings, May 2009.
Also: http://paa2009.princeton.edu/download.aspx?submissionId=90760
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at First Birth; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Cohabitation; Educational Attainment; Family Structure; Fatherhood; Fathers, Absence; Fathers, Presence; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Parent-Child Interaction; Parenting Skills/Styles

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper describes how family structure and processes shape the transition to early fatherhood and motherhood among a relatively disadvantaged group of youth. The data come from the linked Child-Mother and Young Adult Samples of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 (NLSY79), which provide information on the children of the women of the NLSY79 from birth until they enter young adulthood. The results suggest that both females and males growing up with a single parent or in an unstable family transition to parenthood early, particularly nonresidential fatherhood for males. These direct effects are stronger for girls than for boys. For both males and females the effects are strongly mediated by parenting processes and adolescent behaviors, and shaped by economic circumstances. Having experienced nontraditional family structures in childhood, acts to reduce the likelihood that males father their first child within marriage, demonstrating how changes in family structure alter family structure patterns over time and generations.
Bibliography Citation
Hofferth, Sandra L. and Frances Kobrin Goldscheider. "Family Structure and the Transition to Early Parenthood." Presented: Detroit, MI, Population Association of America Meetings, May 2009.
299. Hofferth, Sandra L.
Reid, Lori Lynn
Mott, Frank L.
A Cohort/Period Comparison of the Effects of the Timing of Childbearing on Schooling, using the NLSY and the PSID
Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 1999
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Fertility; Marital Status; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper compares estimates from the NLSY and the PSID of the effects of early childbearing on the schooling of different cohorts of young women and in different historical periods. The purpose is, first, to see whether estimates of early childbearing are similar across the two data sets and, second, to see whether the effects of early childbearing on schooling have changed over cohorts or birth periods. The data come from the National Longitudinal Survey of the Labor Market Experience of Youth and the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. The results show, first, that the results are similar for the two data sets. Second, the effects of early childbearing on schooling have declined somewhat in recent historical periods. However, the effects still disadvantage young women, most specifically, because such young women do not attend college.
Bibliography Citation
Hofferth, Sandra L., Lori Lynn Reid and Frank L. Mott. "A Cohort/Period Comparison of the Effects of the Timing of Childbearing on Schooling, using the NLSY and the PSID." Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 1999.
300. Hofferth, Sandra L.
Wissoker, Douglas A.
Quality, Price, and Income in Child Care Choice
Presented: Toronto, Canada, Population Association of America Meetings, May 1990
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Child Care; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Logit

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Hofferth, Sandra L. and Douglas A. Wissoker. "Quality, Price, and Income in Child Care Choice." Presented: Toronto, Canada, Population Association of America Meetings, May 1990.
301. Hogan, Dennis P.
Sandefur, Gary D.
Shandra, Carrie L.
Educational Attainment Process among Adolescents with Disabilities and Children of Parents with Disabilities
Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 29-31, 2007.
Also: http://paa2007.princeton.edu/abstractViewer.aspx?submissionId=70969
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Disability; Educational Attainment; Human Capital

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Educational attainment marks a vital step in the overall transition to adulthood, especially for members of at-risk populations. Some adolescents utilize education to substantially enhance their human capital while others make poor decisions or face circumstances that result in too little schooling. This paper expands on previous research by examining two groups of adolescents previously ignored in research on educational attainment — those with disabilities and those who are children of parents with disabilities. Our results examine the effect of disability on parental and youth college expectations in 1997 as well as youth high school completion and college enrollment in 2003. We find that parental and youth educational expectations strongly predict high school completion and college enrollment and that educational attainment is not equal for children with and without disabilities. Most interestingly, we find a large disparity between parental and youth educational expectations for children with disabilities net of educational performance.
Bibliography Citation
Hogan, Dennis P., Gary D. Sandefur and Carrie L. Shandra. "Educational Attainment Process among Adolescents with Disabilities and Children of Parents with Disabilities." Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 29-31, 2007.
302. Hogan, Dennis P.
Wells, Thomas Eric
School to Work Transition for Adolescents with Disabilities
Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2003
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Bayesian; Disability; Transition, School to Work

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97), we examine the early transition to adulthood among adolescents with disabilities. The NLSY97 provides an excellent opportunity to investigate the impact of schooling, family background, and community background factors on the transition to adulthood. The set of data also allows the researchers to compare the experience of adolescents with disabilities to the experiences of adolescents without disabilities. In our analysis, we utilize Bayesian model averaging (BMA), a recently developed methodological technique that identifies the best-fitting regression models and then averages results across these models. The results from the BMA procedure are arguably better than results derived from a single statistical model since they are averaged across a number of models. This is a very useful approach given uncertainty and variation in results that surround any one particular statistical model. We utilize the procedure for each transition considered.
Bibliography Citation
Hogan, Dennis P. and Thomas Eric Wells. "School to Work Transition for Adolescents with Disabilities." Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2003.
303. Hokayem, Charles
Noncognitive Skills and the Racial Wage Gap
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Discrimination, Job; Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Noncognitive Skills; Racial Differences; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem); Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Wage Gap; Work Ethic

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper explores the role of noncognitive skills, or "soft skills", in explaining racial gaps in wages. Noncognitive skills describe a person's self-perception, work ethic, and overall outlook on life. These skills have been linked to a variety of outcomes such as educational attainment, earnings, and work habits in the general population. Less well understood is the impact of these skills on subgroups of the general population. This paper adds two noncognitive skills, locus of control and self-esteem, to a simple wage specification to determine the effect of noncognitive skills on the racial wage gap (white, black, and Hispanic) and the return to noncognitive skills across the wage distribution. The wage specifications are estimated using a pooled estimator, a between estimator, and a quantile estimator. Results using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) show they account for differing portions of the racial wage gap depending on race and gender.
Bibliography Citation
Hokayem, Charles. "Noncognitive Skills and the Racial Wage Gap." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011.
304. Holland, Jennifer
Is There an Economic Bar for Marriage? Socioeconomic Status Differentials and Implications for Marriage Promotion Policies
Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 29-31, 2007.
Also: http://paa2007.princeton.edu/abstractViewer.aspx?submissionId=71814
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Education; Family Formation; Marital Status; Marriage; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Economic stability and prospects have always been important for family formation, especially for marriage. Recent research among low-income U.S. couples suggests that couples delay marriage until they reach the perceived economic 'bar' for marriage. This study uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 to more extensively investigate the existence and level of the hypothesized marriage bar. I consider differences by socioeconomic status in levels of earnings associated with increases in marriage among cohabiting couples. I find that combined couple earnings are most important for those with a high school degree or less. Marriage odds increase significantly for these couples between $26,000 and $34,000 of combined earnings. The earnings bar for marriage is above the poverty threshold for a family of three ($13,861 in 2000) and above the phase-out for many government transfer programs. It is unlikely that income supplements would push disadvantaged couples above the marriage bar.
Bibliography Citation
Holland, Jennifer. "Is There an Economic Bar for Marriage? Socioeconomic Status Differentials and Implications for Marriage Promotion Policies." Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 29-31, 2007.
305. Holland, Jennifer
Vitali, Agnese
Economic Dependency and Cohabiting Couples' Union Transitions
Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Earnings; Marital History/Transitions; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The decline of the male breadwinner model and the increasing importance women as income providers has changed partners' economic dependency. Focusing on heterosexual cohabiting couples in the United States, we investigate the association between partners' relative earnings and union stability and progression. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (couples = 3,659; couple-years = 10,876) and discrete-time hazard models, we analyze whether partners' relative earnings is associated with continued cohabitation, marriage and separation, net of demographic, socio-economic and couple characteristics. Results indicate that men's relative economic position continues to be a key determinant of union stability: female breadwinning couples face a higher risk of union dissolution. At the same time, there is evidence that cohabitation may be a "holding pattern" for both female and male breadwinning couples, suggesting that both men's and women's career development may be important for marriage.
Bibliography Citation
Holland, Jennifer and Agnese Vitali. "Economic Dependency and Cohabiting Couples' Union Transitions." Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017.
306. Holloway, Steven R.
Mulherin, Stephen
The Effect of Adolescent Neighborhood Poverty on Adult Employment
Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Meetings, March 1999
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Employment; Gender Differences; Geocoded Data; Labor Force Participation; Labor Market Outcomes; Neighborhood Effects; Poverty; Racial Differences; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Neighborhood environments have many long-term impacts on America's youth, including the extent and degree of labor market participation. Urban neighborhoods have changed considerably over the last several decades; notably, poverty has become much more spatially concentrated. Concentrated poverty increased dramatically for blacks during the 1970s, and during the 1980s for whites. While recent research examines the effects of neighborhood contexts on various individuals behaviors, labor market outcomes have received inadequate attention. Moreover, existing research has not considered the long-term impacts of growing up in disadvantaged neighborhoods. We take advantage of a recent initiative that geocoded the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to census tract locations. We examined the effects of adolescent neighborhood poverty on adult employment and idleness, and found that individuals living in poor neighborhoods during adolescence carry a long-term labor market disadvantage. We also found, however, that much of this impact is mediated by accumulated work experience, thus providing a potential avenue for effective policy intervention. The impact of adolescent neighborhood poverty is greater for males than females, while the degree to which attenuated work experience accounts for this effect is greater for females than males.
Bibliography Citation
Holloway, Steven R. and Stephen Mulherin. "The Effect of Adolescent Neighborhood Poverty on Adult Employment." Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Meetings, March 1999.
307. Holzer, Harry J.
Ihlanfeldt, Keith R.
Sjoquist, David L.
Work, Search, and Travel Among White and Black Youth
Presented: Cincinnati, OH, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1993
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Commuting/Type, Time, Method; Job Search; Transportation; Unemployment Duration

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper we investigate the relationships between job search, commutes to work, and metropolitan decentralization of employment among young whites and blacks. This is accomplished by using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, along with data on job and population decentralization in metropolitan areas from the 1980 Census of Population. Our results show that blacks and central-city residents face higher time costs of travel than do others, at least partly because of their lower access to automobiles. We also find that central-city residents in metropolitan areas where jobs are more decentralized do not offset the loss of jobs in their areas with more geographically extensive job search or longer commutes to work, even after controlling for travel cost per mile. High travel costs and reduced travel distances appear to raise unemployment durations and lower wages for blacks. On the other hand, the estimated magnitudes of most of these relationships are not large, implying that high travel cost is but one of many causes of persistent spatial mismatch.
Bibliography Citation
Holzer, Harry J., Keith R. Ihlanfeldt and David L. Sjoquist. "Work, Search, and Travel Among White and Black Youth." Presented: Cincinnati, OH, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1993.
308. Homan, Patricia
The Gender System Makes Me Sick: Structural Sexism and Health in the United States
Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Gender Attitudes/Roles; Gender Differences; Geocoded Data; Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Marriage; State-Level Data/Policy

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The present study seeks to build a new line of health disparities research that parallels the emerging structural racism literature by developing theory and measurement for the concept of structural sexism and examining its relationship to health. Consistent with contemporary theories of gender as a multilevel social system, I conceptualize and measure structural sexism as systematic gender inequality at the macro-level (U.S. state), meso-level (marital dyad), and micro-level (individual). I use U.S. state-level administrative data linked to geo-coded data from the NLSY79. Results show that (1) higher internalized sexism at the micro-level is associated with worse mental health among women; (2) structural sexism within marriage is associated with better physical and mental health for men but worse physical health for women; and (3) exposure to more sexism at the macro-level is associated with worse physical and mental health among both men and women, controlling for meso and micro level sexism.
Bibliography Citation
Homan, Patricia. "The Gender System Makes Me Sick: Structural Sexism and Health in the United States." Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018.
309. Hotz, V. Joseph
Pantano, Juan
Parenting, Birth Order and School Achievement (Revised as Strategic Parenting, Birth Order and School Achievement , February 2011).
Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America (PAA) 2008 Annual Meeting, April 17-19, 2008
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Academic Development; Achievement; Birth Order; Discipline; School Progress; Schooling; Television Viewing

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Interest on the effects of birth order on human capital accumulation has recently re-emerged. The debate about its existence seems to be settled, but identification of the main mechanisms remains somewhat elusive. While the latest research aims at rediscovering dilution theory, we advance complementary economic hypothesis regarding the causal mechanism underlying birth order effects in education. In particular, we entertain theories of differential discipline in which those who are born later face more lenient disciplinary environments. In such context, the later born will be likely to exert lower school effort, thus reaching lower achievement levels. We provide robust empirical evidence on substantial attenuation of TV viewing restrictions for those with higher birth order (born later). We speculate this may arise a) as a result of parental reputation dynamics and/or b) because of the changing relative cost of alternative punishment technologies available to parents.
Bibliography Citation
Hotz, V. Joseph and Juan Pantano. "Parenting, Birth Order and School Achievement (Revised as Strategic Parenting, Birth Order and School Achievement , February 2011)." Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America (PAA) 2008 Annual Meeting, April 17-19, 2008.
310. Houle, Jason N.
A Generation Indebted? Young Adult Debt across Three Cohorts
Presented: San Francisco CA, Population Association of America Meetings, May 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Assets; Debt/Borrowing

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Popular reports—stoked by the Great Recession and rising college costs—contend that young adults today are more indebted than the generations that precede them, but little systematic research exists on patterns of indebtedness in young adulthood. This study examines how young adult indebtedness has changed across three cohorts of young adults in the 1970’s, 1980’s, and 2000’s. To do this, I pool data from four National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth—the NLS-M 1966 cohort, NLS-W 1968 cohort, NLSY 1979 cohort, and NLSY 1997 cohort. Study findings reveal that the proportion of young adults with debt and median indebtedness is relatively stable across the three cohorts of study, in contrast to popular notions of rising young adult debt. Debt burden (e.g. debt-to-asset ratio), however, has increased across cohorts in part because of declines in asset ownership and increases in unsecured debt among young adults. Implications of findings are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Houle, Jason N. "A Generation Indebted? Young Adult Debt across Three Cohorts." Presented: San Francisco CA, Population Association of America Meetings, May 2012.
311. Houle, Jason N.
Keene, Danya
Getting Sick and Falling Behind: Health and the Risk of Mortgage Default and Home Foreclosure
Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Debt/Borrowing; Foreclosure; Health, Chronic Conditions; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Recent studies suggest that poor health and inadequate health care may be important predictors of mortgage default and home foreclosure. However, to date no longitudinal, national research has examined these relationships. We expand on existing work by using nationally representative longitudinal data from the NLSY-79 to examine the relationship between poor health, becoming ill and the risk of mortgage default and foreclosure among middle-aged adults. We find that the onset of chronic conditions and health limitations are significant predictors of later mortgage default, expectation of mortgage default, and home foreclosure between 2007 and 2010. We find that these associations are partially mediated by changes in family income, savings, health insurance status and employment status. From a policy perspective, the strong link between poor health and foreclosure suggests a need to reexamine the safety-nets that are available to individuals who become ill or disabled.
Bibliography Citation
Houle, Jason N. and Danya Keene. "Getting Sick and Falling Behind: Health and the Risk of Mortgage Default and Home Foreclosure." Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013.
312. Houle, Jason N.
Warner, Cody
Into the Red and Back to the Nest? Debt and Returning to the Parental Home among Young Adults
Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): College Cost; Credit/Credit Constraint; Debt/Borrowing; Event History; Residence, Return to Parental Home/Delayed Homeleaving; Socioeconomic Background

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper we make two primary contributions to the literature on "boomeranging," or returning to the parental home. First, we provide one of the first examinations of the prevalence and correlates of boomeranging among a recent cohort of young adults. Second, we test the hypothesis that student loan and credit card debt increase the risk of boomeranging. To do this, we use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 Cohort (NLSY-97) and discrete time event history models to examine the link between debt and risk of returning to the parental home. We find that approximately 40% of young adults who become independent in our sample return home between 1997-2011 (7.6% annually). We also find key sociodemographic correlates of returning home. However, we find no support for the popular hypothesis that debt in young adulthood is associated with the risk of returning home, or boomeranging.
Bibliography Citation
Houle, Jason N. and Cody Warner. "Into the Red and Back to the Nest? Debt and Returning to the Parental Home among Young Adults." Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015.
313. Hsu, Yu-Chieh
Taylor, Lowell J.
Error in the Measurement of Mortality: An Application to the Analysis of Racial Mortality Disparity
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Methods/Methodology; Mortality; Racial Differences; Racial Studies; Underreporting

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A large empirical literature studies the forces that shape racial disparity in mortality. Given that factors early in one's life can be important for subsequent mortality outcomes, such research often relies on panel data. An important example is the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men (NLS-OM), which collected data for men aged 45--59 in 1966 and several subsequent years, and then also reported deaths as indicated by death certificate data collected in 1990. An important methodological issue arises in studies that use such data: deaths are likely to be under-reported, most likely in systematic ways. In the NLS-OM, for example, the matching procedure appears to have missed a substantial number of deaths. We work out a simple model that illustrates the effect of this measurement error, and then show that inappropriate handling of the measurement error in survival analysis causes serious problems for inference.
Bibliography Citation
Hsu, Yu-Chieh and Lowell J. Taylor. "Error in the Measurement of Mortality: An Application to the Analysis of Racial Mortality Disparity." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011.
314. Huang, Chien-Chung
The Impact of Child Support on Enforcement of Nonmarital and Marital Births: Is It Different by Racial and Age Groups?
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 2001
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Child Support; Fertility; Marital Status; Neighborhood Effects; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using the 1979 through 1998 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women (NLSY), this paper provides evidence that women who lived in states with effective child support enforcement, measured by both strict child support legislatives and high child support expenditure, were more likely to have marital births and less likely to have nonmarital births. The findings suggest the deterrence effects of child support enforcement on men dominate the opposite effects on women. The impacts of child support enforcement differ by racial and age groups. For post-teenage Black women, effective child support enforcement had strong effects on decreasing nonmarital births, but not on increasing marital births. The impact goes the opposite way for post-teenage non-Black women. The insignificant effects of child support enforcement on teenage women, however, warrant further analysis in order to determine the cause.
Bibliography Citation
Huang, Chien-Chung. "The Impact of Child Support on Enforcement of Nonmarital and Marital Births: Is It Different by Racial and Age Groups?" Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 2001.
315. Huang, Min-Hsiung
Occupational Standing and Occupational Differentials in Cognitive Ability
Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cognitive Ability; I.Q.; Occupational Prestige; Occupational Status; Occupations; Wisconsin Longitudinal Study/H.S. Panel Study (WLS)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Some psychologists suggest that occupational differentials in social standing primarily reflect occupational differentials in intellectual demand. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Cohort and the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, I examine (1) the rankings of occupations by mean IQ, (2) the correlation between ratings of occupational standing and occupations' average levels of measured cognitive ability, (3) the percentage of variance in IQ within occupations, and (4) whether or not the intra-occupational standard deviation of IQ decreases as the level of occupational standing increases. While occupations differ in incumbents' mean IQs, the variance of incumbents' IQs in an occupation is not much less than the variance of IQ in the general population. Moreover, the intra-occupational variance in IQ does not become smaller as the level of occupational standing increases. Therefore, the argument raised by some psychologists regarding the importance of cognitive ability in shaping occupational stratification is overstated.
Bibliography Citation
Huang, Min-Hsiung. "Occupational Standing and Occupational Differentials in Cognitive Ability." Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002.
316. Huang, Penelope Maria
Father as Breadwinner: Gendered Wage Penalties for Job Interruptions
Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Fatherhood; Gender Differences; Job Patterns; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Motherhood; Parenthood; Wage Effects

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The wage penalty associated with motherhood and women's greater job discontinuity is well-established. Wage outcomes associated with men's family status and job discontinuity is less well-understood. Using a partial-adjustment model on fixed effects estimates, data from the NLSY(1979-1998) are used to estimate both immediate wage outcomes and longer-term wage trajectories as a function of family status and job interruptions for men and women. The possibility that men incur a "parenthood penalty" through penalties associated with family-related job absence is considered by disaggregating absences into reasons for them. Results indicate that women receive immediate wage penalties for family-related absences that do not persist over time, although a negative effect of children does. Men get a "pass" for family absences, but incur wage penalties for non-family job interruptions that do persist over time. Results implicate the reinforcement of traditional gender roles as a primary obstacle to gender equity in the labor market.
Bibliography Citation
Huang, Penelope Maria. "Father as Breadwinner: Gendered Wage Penalties for Job Interruptions." Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2004.
317. Huang, Penelope Maria
Negotiating Gender, Work, and Family: Gendered Consequences of Family Leave Taking
Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002.
Also: http://www.soc.washington.edu/users/brines/phuangfip.doc
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Employment; Family Characteristics; Gender; Gender Differences; Human Capital Theory; Labor Force Participation; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Wage Effects; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines the gendered effects of leave-taking on wages over time. Classical human capital theory suggests and research indicates that wages decrease as time spent out of the labor market increases. While it is normative for women to take time off from work to care for family needs, men's leave-taking may be more scrutinized by employers, and they may suffer larger wage penalties as a result. On the other hand, if women continue to disproportionately take family leave, wage inequalities will persist as a consequence of normative gendered expectations in the family and in the workplace. This study employs longitudinal data from the NLSY (1982-1998), organized into a pooled cross-section time series. Using a partial-adjustment differential equation model, changes in wage trajectories over time may be estimated as a function of human capital, marital and family status, and tenure on the job. Gender differences are examined, and policy implications discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Huang, Penelope Maria. "Negotiating Gender, Work, and Family: Gendered Consequences of Family Leave Taking." Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002.
318. Hughes, Marion R.
Social Determinants of Adolescent Fatherhood
Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America, May 1996
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Adolescent Fertility; Educational Status; Family Structure; Fatherhood; Fertility; Life Course; Modeling, Logit; Parenthood; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Research on adolescent motherhood has elicited a better understanding of the antecedents of pregnancy and motherhood for adolescent girls, as well as the impact of early parenthood on their life course. However the determinants of adolescent parenthood for men are not as well understood. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY) for 1979-1993, I model the selection of adolescent males into fatherhood using multinomial logistic regression. Several individual and background characteristics are related to the occurrence of adolescent fatherhood. Relevant variables can be grouped into the following categories: socio-economic status, educational ability and aspirations family structure, normative factors, and aggressive and adult behaviors. Striking racial differences in the incidence and impact of adolescent parenthood are evident for males as well as females. Interaction terms between race and other explanatory variables are included to determine which specific factors have differential impacts by race.
Bibliography Citation
Hughes, Marion R. "Social Determinants of Adolescent Fatherhood." Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America, May 1996.
319. Humphries, Melissa
Postsecondary Academic Experiences in the Link between Education and Health
Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): College Education; Education; Grade Point Average (GPA)/Grades; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The positive association between education and health is enduring and well-documented. However, many datasets only collect information on education using years of education completed or highest degree earned, which makes identifying the specific connections between educational experience and health outcomes difficult. This project employs data from the postsecondary transcript study from a longitudinal dataset of young adults (NLSY97) to begin to piece apart what aspects of postsecondary schooling are actually associated with later health outcomes. I use data on the number of postsecondary courses completed, types of courses taken (remedial or academic) and grades earned to analyze how quantity and quality of the postsecondary course-taking experience may predict health outcomes. Preliminary results show that the number of course credits earned in 4-year schools, but not 2-year schools, is positively related to early adult health, controlling on degree earned and a host of prior family, education and health controls.
Bibliography Citation
Humphries, Melissa. "Postsecondary Academic Experiences in the Link between Education and Health." Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014.
320. Hynes, Kathryn
Patterns and Predictors of Women's Employment during Early Parenthood: An Application of the Group-Based Trajectory Method
Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Population Association of America Meetings, May 2003
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Logit; Mothers, Education

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Research on womens employment during early parenthood frequently focuses on the correlates and consequences of decisions at a particular time, such as around a birth. This paper applies a new group-based trajectory method (Nagin 1999) in order to examine womens employment trajectories across the period of early parenthood. We focus on six distinct trajectories around first and second births that span the employment continuum. Only about half of the mothers in our sample followed trajectories characterized by either continuous employment through the period surrounding a birth or by a sharp decline in employment closely corresponding to the birth event (whether followed by a rapid return or not). Preliminary descriptive analyses indicate that age at first birth, income and education are strongly associated with different employment trajectories. Our next step is to estimate multinomial logistic regression models, examining predictors of trajectory type.
Bibliography Citation
Hynes, Kathryn. "Patterns and Predictors of Women's Employment during Early Parenthood: An Application of the Group-Based Trajectory Method." Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Population Association of America Meetings, May 2003.
321. Imai, Kumiko
Reassessing the Impacts of Head Start on Children's Cognitive and Health Outcomes
Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Child Health; Family Models; Head Start; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Positive evidence on the benefits of Head Start using large, nationally representative data comes from a handful of studies that used family fixed models, which assume that unobserved family characteristics determine participation in Head Start. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) and NLSY79 Children data, I present evidence from difference-in-differences estimators that use paired matching for control selection. Specifically, I match each Head Start child with a set of control children who are similar in terms of demographic and socioeconomic variables, and compare pre- and post-Head Start outcomes with comparable outcomes for control children.

My matched-pairs difference-in-differences estimators suggest that, contrary to previous findings, Head Start has little effects on child cognitive outcomes, but positive short-run effects on health measures. My study demonstrates the importance of selecting appropriate controls and controlling for unobserved child-specific characteristics in evaluating early childhood interventions.

Bibliography Citation
Imai, Kumiko. "Reassessing the Impacts of Head Start on Children's Cognitive and Health Outcomes." Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002.
322. Inkpen, Christopher
Immigrant Generation, Race, and College: Testing Assimilation Theory with the NLSY97
Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Educational Attainment; Ethnic Differences; Immigrants; Parental Investments; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The "American Dream" is intrinsically tied to immigration and the purposeful search for opportunity in the United States. For immigrants, the "American Dream" frequently involves creating a better life for their children. This study tests three theories of immigrant assimilation as they relate to enrolling in post-secondary educational institutions. Using event history analysis of the 1997 National Longitudinal Study of Youth, this investigation seeks to answer two questions; (1) How does first enrollment in post-secondary education vary by ethno-racial category and immigrant generation? (2) What can an event history analysis of post-secondary enrollment tell us about how different immigrant groups are assimilating in the United States? Analyses find that 2nd generation immigrants have a higher risk of attending post-secondary institutes net of ethno-racial differences. However, this relationship is a gendered one, as 2nd generation females have lower risk of attending post-secondary schooling.
Bibliography Citation
Inkpen, Christopher. "Immigrant Generation, Race, and College: Testing Assimilation Theory with the NLSY97." Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016.
323. Ishizuka, Patrick
Musick, Kelly
Occupational Characteristics and Women's Employment During the Transition to Parenthood
Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Job Characteristics; Maternal Employment; Motherhood; Occupational Information Network (O*NET); Occupations; Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Men's and women's divergent employment responses to parenthood have important implications for gender inequality in the labor market. Although scholars theorize that managing the competing demands of work and family should be more difficult in some occupations than in others, we know little about how occupational work demands and resources either facilitate or constrain new mothers' employment. We assess how pre-birth occupational characteristics are associated with women's post-birth employment outcomes using individual-level data from nationally representative panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation, merged with data on occupational characteristics from the NLSY97 and O*NET. We find that women working in pre-birth occupations with high autonomy and high advanced schedule notice have significantly higher odds of working full-time following a first birth than women in occupations with low autonomy and low advanced notice. This project highlights the role of occupational structure in shaping individual women's employment decisions.
Bibliography Citation
Ishizuka, Patrick and Kelly Musick. "Occupational Characteristics and Women's Employment During the Transition to Parenthood." Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018.
324. Jackson, Heide
The Effect of Obesity on Disability Risk, Recurrence and Recovery, among Working Age Adults Living in the United States
Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Disability; Health and Retirement Study (HRS); Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Obesity

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In the United States, the rising prevalence of disability among young and middle age adults is attributable, at least in part, to a rising prevalence of obesity (Finkelstein et al., 2009; Barkin et al., 2010). Obesity dramatically reduces population labor force productivity and lowers overall health. This study estimates a multi-state hazard model to assess the relationship between obesity and disability, onset, recovery, and recurrence using data made available from the Natonal Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979 (NLSY 1979) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Preliminary findings suggest that obesity not only increases the likelihood that an individual will become disabled but also reduces the likelihood that an individual will recover from a disabling condition.
Bibliography Citation
Jackson, Heide. "The Effect of Obesity on Disability Risk, Recurrence and Recovery, among Working Age Adults Living in the United States." Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014.
325. Jackson, Heide
The Ways Weight Matters: The Intergenerational Transmission of Weight, Health and Human Capital Disadvantage
Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Child Health; Cognitive Ability; Educational Attainment; High School Completion/Graduates; Human Capital; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Obesity; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Childhood obesity is a growing problem in the United States with implications for many aspects of child development; obesity negatively affects a child’s health, cognitive abilities, and non-cognitive traits. While an emerging literature has shown how obesity may affect a child’s skill acquisition and health, this paper will contribute to this field by showing that maternal obesity has direct consequences for child obesity, health, cognitive capacity, and non-cognitive traits as well as indirect, but nonetheless important, implications for a child’s educational attainment. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Children (1979), preliminary analysis suggests an important effect of maternal obesity on child characteristics. More surprisingly, analysis suggests that childhood obesity does not have a similar influence after controlling for maternal weight status. Results suggest an important intergenerational transfer of obesity which negatively affects child development.
Bibliography Citation
Jackson, Heide. "The Ways Weight Matters: The Intergenerational Transmission of Weight, Health and Human Capital Disadvantage." Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013.
326. Jackson, Heide
Palloni, Alberto
Projecting the Impact of Obesity on a Cohort of School-Aged Hispanic Children
Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult, NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Health; Cognitive Ability; College Enrollment; Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-B, ECLS-K); Educational Attainment; Ethnic Groups; High School Completion/Graduates; Hispanic Youth; Obesity; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Over the past 30 years, the prevalence of childhood obesity has tripled in the United States. Hispanics face a significantly greater risk of becoming obese; 24% of Hispanic children aged 6-11 are obese compared to 17% of the general population. Excess obesity among Hispanics could lead to two significant changes. First, given that obesity is associated with a number of chronic conditions and an increased risk of premature death, the higher prevalence of obesity among Hispanic youth may serve to undo the historic US Hispanic health and mortality advantage. Second, a disproportionate increase in obesity prevalence among Hispanics could compromise their ability to accumulate human capital. Using a number of rich, nationally representative data sources, this paper seeks to: measure trends in Hispanic obesity, ascertain the effects of obesity on human capital development, and determine how changing the projected obesity prevalence will affect human capital.
Bibliography Citation
Jackson, Heide and Alberto Palloni. "Projecting the Impact of Obesity on a Cohort of School-Aged Hispanic Children." Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013.
327. Jackson, Margot I.
Why Do Unhealthy Children Do Worse in School? Understanding Links among Children's Health, Education and Race
Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March-April 2006.
Also: http://paa2006.princeton.edu/download.aspx?submissionId=60390
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Child Health; Children, Illness; Children, Poverty; Educational Attainment; Family Resources; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Poverty; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Racial Differences; School Completion

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper has two goals. First, I evaluate the role of several mechanisms that may mediate the connection between children's health and their educational attainment. Researchers have begun to pay more attention to the possibility that the relationship between health and socioeconomic status is bidirectional. While poor health has often been studied as a consequence of childhood and/or family socioeconomic conditions, it is also clear that illness and poor health during childhood have lasting socioeconomic effects. What is less clear is why poor health during childhood may influence educational outcomes in late childhood/young adulthood. Do children with a health disadvantage graduate from high school at lower rates, for example, because they are less school-ready than other children, or because they develop less productive social relationships and reduced expectations for their future? Secondly, I consider the extent to which health disparities among children account for racial disparities in children's educational achievement. While childhood health disparities may contribute to socioeconomic disparities among the general population, they may also play a role in creating and maintaining the racial achievement gap that is so persistent in American society. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) 97 and Child and Young Adult files, I examine these questions. Understanding the role of childhood health in creating and maintaining educational disparities among older children and young adults, as well as the role of race in this process, will facilitate the development of effectively intervention strategies.

Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 97 and Child/Young Adults (CYA) files provide the basis for this examination of the relationship between health, race and educational attainment/achievement in young adulthood. I use the NLSY97 to examine both the pathways from health to educational attainment, as well as to examine the contribution of health to racial differences in educational achievement. The NLSY79-CYA is used to complement the NLSY97 in the last part of the analysis, where I look at racial differences in educational achievement. The NLSY-CYA contains measures of infant and maternal health, allowing me to consider the contribution of earlier-life health to racial differences in achievement.

Bibliography Citation
Jackson, Margot I. "Why Do Unhealthy Children Do Worse in School? Understanding Links among Children's Health, Education and Race." Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March-April 2006.
328. James, Spencer
Variance in Trajectories of Marital Quality Prior to Divorce
Presented: San Francisco CA, Population Association of America Meetings, May 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Divorce; Family Background; Marital Dissolution; Marital Satisfaction/Quality; Marital Stability; Marriage; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Work History

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite dramatic shifts in cohabitation, nonmarital childbearing, and union dissolution over the last several decades, marriage remains an important societal institution. Consequently, the stability and quality of marriage is of considerable importance to many social scientists. However, gaps remain in our knowledge of how marital quality changes with marital duration. One salient dimension that research has yet to examine is the shape and pattern of marital quality among individuals whose marriages end in divorce. To address this shortcoming, I employ finite mixture models that allow me to assess variance in patterns of marital dynamics by looking for naturally occurring trajectories of marital quality (e.g., a group with high but declining marital quality, a group with consistently low marital quality, etc.). Regression analysis is used to examine patterns of association between membership in the observed trajectories and covariates such as socioeconomic status, past relationship history, family background, work history, and fertility.
Bibliography Citation
James, Spencer. "Variance in Trajectories of Marital Quality Prior to Divorce." Presented: San Francisco CA, Population Association of America Meetings, May 2012.
329. James, Spencer
Beattie, Brett
Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Quality: A Reassessment
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Family Structure; Marital Satisfaction/Quality; Marital Stability

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Prior research has established a relationship between premarital cohabitation and subsequent marital outcomes, with cohabitors generally reporting lower marital quality. Using preliminary data from the NLSY97 and borrowing heavily from the strengths of propensity scores, we employ a novel method for concurrently examining the impact of two perspectives (social selection and experience of cohabitation) commonly used to explain the negative relationship outcomes cohabitors experience. Results reveal that the experience of cohabitation is negatively related to marital quality but only when selection factors are not included in the model. We find (preliminary) support for the social selection perspective, thereby supporting prior work. Procedures for estimating the full model are then articulated. This paper, then, makes several contributions, the primary being the ability to model selection into the experience of cohabitation in the same model. These results serve to underscore the complex pathways between union formation, family structure, and marital outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
James, Spencer and Brett Beattie. "Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Quality: A Reassessment." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011.
330. Jang, Bohyun
Clark, William A. V.
Snyder, Anastasia R.
The Transmission of Homeownership in the United States: How Much Does Family Matter?
Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Family Background; Family Characteristics; Home Ownership; Housing/Housing Characteristics/Types; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Research in Europe has shown strong evidence of intergenerational transmission of homeownership either via financial supports or socialization. This paper extends that research to the US context and asks the question about whether or not the same factors play a role in the transmission of homeownership in the United States. We further expand the previous research by accounting for housing trajectories of both parents and children using the longitudinal information of NLSY79 and NLSY79 child/young adult. Although it is not possible to replicate the exact same set of variables, the analysis does show that having parents who are owners is a positive effect on the likelihood of being an owner as is education and income in the US. Unlike the research in Europe it does not appear that parent's net worth or parent’s income is an important variable in the transmission of homeownership.
Bibliography Citation
Jang, Bohyun, William A. V. Clark and Anastasia R. Snyder. "The Transmission of Homeownership in the United States: How Much Does Family Matter?" Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015.
331. Jang, Bohyun
Snyder, Anastasia R.
A Cohort Comparison of Life Course Transitions among Young Adults in the United States
Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Education; Employment; Income; Life Course; Marriage; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Transition to adulthood has delayed and become less standardized across cohorts and generational gaps in the transitions have grown. Few studies, however, have accounted for dynamic association between timing and sequences of multiple life-course events. Using comparable datasets from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and 1997, we compare the sequence of 4 life events (education, full-time employment, marriage, and childbirth) during transition to adulthood between two birth cohorts. We use distance measure obtained via optimal matching to cluster similar sequences together in both cohorts. In addition, we will examine how the different pathways influence personal incomes at age 30. Preliminary findings suggest that the life course sequences are more diverse for those from the NLSY79 than their counterparts from the NLSY97. However, only 12% of the NLSY97 sample has completed all of the four life transitions by age 30 while about 28% of the NLSY79 have completed.
Bibliography Citation
Jang, Bohyun and Anastasia R. Snyder. "A Cohort Comparison of Life Course Transitions among Young Adults in the United States." Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014.
332. Jang, Bohyun
Snyder, Anastasia R.
Migration, Residential Mobility and Union Formation
Presented: San Francisco CA, Population Association of America Meetings, May 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Geocoded Data; Marriage; Migration; Mobility, Residential

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite the importance of migration and residential mobility as a predictor of other life course events, few studies have accommodated or emphasized the effect of the migration and residential mobility in investigating union formation among young people. By using public and geocode data files from the NLSY97, we estimate discrete time competing risks that examine the relationship between changes in residence and first union formation. The results indicate that change in residence significantly increases the likelihood of union formation; either migration or residential mobility is significantly associated with higher relative risks of cohabitation over remaining single, and residential mobility increases the relative risks of cohabitation versus staying single but decreases the risk of marriage versus cohabitation. An increase in the number of migration slightly raises the relative risks of cohabitation versus remaining single, whereas more residential mobility significantly decreases the relative risks of marriage over either cohabiting or remaining single.
Bibliography Citation
Jang, Bohyun and Anastasia R. Snyder. "Migration, Residential Mobility and Union Formation." Presented: San Francisco CA, Population Association of America Meetings, May 2012.
333. Jang, Bohyun
Snyder, Anastasia R.
Mernitz, Sara E.
The Life Course of High School Dropouts During the Transition to Adulthood
Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; High School Dropouts; Life Course; Modeling, Latent Class Analysis/Latent Transition Analysis; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In the United States, about 10% of adolescents did not earn a high school diploma in the late 2000s. The high school dropout results in growing variability in young adult's lives and the beginning of adulthood. Less attention, however, has been given to the life course of those who drop out high school. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, we examined the life course of high school dropouts and its association with risk factors. We focused on heavy drinking because it has a wide range of impacts on health and future outcome. Our preliminary findings using a latent class analysis suggested that 4 classes model best described the life course of high school dropouts (traditional pathway, no transition, employed cohabitor, employed single parent). A multinomial logit model showed that those who had heavy drinking at age 18 were less likely to belong to "no transition" class.
Bibliography Citation
Jang, Bohyun, Anastasia R. Snyder and Sara E. Mernitz. "The Life Course of High School Dropouts During the Transition to Adulthood." Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016.
334. Jarkko, Lars
Gender Segregation and Union Transitions
Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2003
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Census of Population; Cohabitation; Gender; Gender Differences; Marital Status; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using NLSY79, CPS and Census PUMS data, this paper examines the effect of gender segregation in occupations on unions transitions. Specifically, looking at first union transitions, from being single to either marriage or cohabitation, this paper seeks to determine whether gender segregation in occupations has an effect on these transitions and if it has an effect of which type of union is formed. I hypothesize that the social forces that create gender segregation in occupations also create and reinforce more general gender role attitudes and economic conditions that have already been shown to affect union formation and maintenance. I expect to find that gender segregation has more of an effect on the transition from single to married than to cohabitation and has more of an effect for men than for women.
Bibliography Citation
Jarkko, Lars. "Gender Segregation and Union Transitions." Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2003.
335. Jekielek, Susan Marie
Do Nonstandard Work Hours Harm Relationship Quality?
Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s):

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This research examines the relationship between nonstandard work schedules and relationship quality for a sample of 1,022 dual-earner couples with children in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 Cohort. My research findings suggest a reason to be concerned for these couples. Nonstandard work hours not determined by the worker have harmful effects on relationship conflict and positive interaction, compared to couples who both work days. Yet more convincing, split-shift couples engage in more conflict, despite prior levels of this variable, suggesting that working alternating schedules is associated with changes in conflict over time. The one exception to the patterns just described above is the situation when one spouse works irregular hours that she or he himself controls --in this case relationship quality is the same for these couples as it is for couples that both work day shifts.
Bibliography Citation
Jekielek, Susan Marie. "Do Nonstandard Work Hours Harm Relationship Quality?" Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2004.
336. Jekielek, Susan Marie
Does the Conflict Parents Hide Affect Their Children?
Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 1999
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Well-Being; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper I address the question - Do children suffer when they aren't aware of their parents' poor marital relations? I ask this question in follow-up to my earlier research. In my past work I have learned that conflict is bad for children, and so researchers suggest that if parents contain their conflict, their children should be as well off as children in healthy intact families. But, at the same time, theory suggests indirect effects of parental conflict for child well-being. Evidence indicates that unsupportive and high conflict marriages are associated with lower quality parenting, and that poor parenting in turn impacts child well-being. This suggests to me that children can still be at the receiving end of conflict, even if they don't witness this conflict. Yet, there is almost no evaluation of this possibility. It would be difficult to observe the effects of conflict children 'don't' see. A close approximation might require both parental and child reports of parents' marital relationship. The NLSY data does contain such measures. Examining NLSY children aged 10-14, I propose that the conflict parents hide from their children can still have negative ramifications for their children.
Bibliography Citation
Jekielek, Susan Marie. "Does the Conflict Parents Hide Affect Their Children?" Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 1999.
337. Jekielek, Susan Marie
Like Mother, Like Daughter? The Intergenerational Consequences of Teen Childbearing
Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2005
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Childbearing, Adolescent; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mothers, Behavior

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper uses NLSY79-Young Adult data to examine the intergenerational implications of teen childbearing. Specifically, we examine the factors that are associated with the likelihood that the child of a teen mother will bear a child before age 20, and the likelihood of having a child out of wedlock. In addition, among those having a first birth, we will examine the probability of a subsequent birth. Reflecting an interest in the resiliency of children and families, we also examine factors that may be related to the children of teen mothers delaying childbearing past age 20 and having children within wedlock. We expect that disadvantages while growing up and the mother's own marital and fertility behavior will influence the likelihood that the child of a teen mother will herself/himself delay childbearing and avoid out-of-wedlock births.
Bibliography Citation
Jekielek, Susan Marie. "Like Mother, Like Daughter? The Intergenerational Consequences of Teen Childbearing." Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2005.
338. Jekielek, Susan Marie
Parental Marital Relations and Family Outcomes: How Conflict Kids See and Don't See Impacts Their Well-Being
Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, March 2000
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Children, Well-Being; Family Environment; Parental Influences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Jekielek, Susan Marie. "Parental Marital Relations and Family Outcomes: How Conflict Kids See and Don't See Impacts Their Well-Being." Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, March 2000.
339. Jekielek, Susan Marie
Mott, Frank L.
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Cooksey, Elizabeth C.
Changes in Family, Contributions to Children's Home Environments, and Child Well-Being
Presented: Chicago, IL, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1998
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Adjustment Problems; Children, Behavioral Development; Children, Home Environment; Children, Well-Being; Family Circumstances, Changes in; Family Studies; Fathers, Absence; Fathers, Biological; Fathers, Presence; Gender Differences; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Composition; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The objective in this research is to examine the extent to which father presence/absence associations with child behavior problems reflect changes in children's home environments during the same period. I focus on children's propensity to exhibit "acting out" behaviors (Oppositional Action) over a four year interval from middle childhood (ages 6-7) to early adolescence (ages 10-11) for a national sample of 1,917 children drawn from the Child-Mother data set of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Previous findings from this research project suggest important differences by gender and race for the outcome of Oppositional Action. Briefly, recent absenting of a biological father appears very damaging for white boys but not for black boys. Girls exhibit generally similar patterns to those for white boys; however, black girls seem to be little affected by whether or not a father is present. In the current paper I explore the extent to which such patterns might be explained by changes in the quality of children's home environments.
Bibliography Citation
Jekielek, Susan Marie, Frank L. Mott, Elizabeth G. Menaghan and Elizabeth C. Cooksey. "Changes in Family, Contributions to Children's Home Environments, and Child Well-Being." Presented: Chicago, IL, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1998.
340. Johnson, Janna
Schulhofer-Wohl, Sam
Understanding the Labor Market Returns to Mobility for Young Workers
Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Labor Market Outcomes; Mobility; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Young workers are not doing well in the current U.S. economy. In fact, youth labor market outcomes have declined steadily relative to those of their older peers for over 30 years. Over the same period, variation in labor market conditions across cities has increased, while spatial mobility rates of young people have fallen. To attempt to reconcile this puzzling combination, we will compare the mobility and economic outcomes of the two cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY): the 1979 (individuals born 1957-65) and 1997 (born 1981-85). We expect to find that young workers in the NLSY97 move at a lower rate to high wage and employment areas than those in the NLSY79. We will investigate whether this is due to changes in relative wage gains and/or migration costs, as well as identify the underlying reasons behind the falling mobility of young workers. Note: Also presented at Washington DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2016 and at Chicago ASSA/AEA Annual Meeting, January 2017.
Bibliography Citation
Johnson, Janna and Sam Schulhofer-Wohl. "Understanding the Labor Market Returns to Mobility for Young Workers." Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016.
341. Johnson, Richard W.
Wages, Pensions, and Compensation Profiles
Presented: San Francisco, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, 1995
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Benefits; Benefits, Insurance; Demography; Life Cycle Research; Pensions; Wage Levels; Wage Models; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data limitations have generally limited our knowledge of labor market compensation to what can be learned from information on wages. However, inferences drawn from an analysis of wage levels and age-wage profiles may be misleading, since a significant portion of total compensation is received in the form of non-wage benefits. Moreover, many types of benefits, such as pension wealth and health insurance, do not accrue evenly over the life-cycle; instead, they tend to be backloaded late in the career. Recently released data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women now enable researchers to consider a more complete definition of compensation. In addition to providing a 22-year wage history, the NLSMW includes a pension provider supplement, supplying detailed information on the pension plan provisions of respondents and their husbands. Using these data, I calculate the sum of wages and annual accruals to pension wealth, and analyze how this sum changes over the life-cycle. I compare these profiles for different demographic groups.
Bibliography Citation
Johnson, Richard W. "Wages, Pensions, and Compensation Profiles." Presented: San Francisco, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, 1995.
342. Johnson, Richard W.
Favreault, Melissa M.
Jones, Landon Y.
Trends in the Joint Retirement Decisions of Husbands and Wives
Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 2000
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Earnings, Husbands; Earnings, Wives; Pensions; Retirees; Retirement

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Although usually modeled as an individual decision, retirement is often a family decision that husbands and wives make jointly. Since couples generally prefer to spend their leisure time together, many husbands and wives retire at roughly the same time. However, the timing of retirement is influenced by financial incentives, with workers often choosing retirement dates that maximize pension wealth. Thirty years ago, when most women did not have extensive employment histories and pension wealth was generally much larger for husbands than wives, men and women could choose optimal retirement dates based on the husband's pension plan alone. In recent years, however, as the employment histories of wives have grown, women may suffer substantial pension losses if they simply follow their husbands into retirement. In this paper, we examine changes over time in the joint retirement behavior of husbands and wives, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men and the Health and Retirement Study.
Bibliography Citation
Johnson, Richard W., Melissa M. Favreault and Landon Y. Jones. "Trends in the Joint Retirement Decisions of Husbands and Wives." Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 2000.
343. Joyner, Kara
Carmalt, Julie H.
Dunifon, Rachel
Parenting in Vain? Stepfather Influences on Early Transitions to Parenthood
Presented: Detroit MI, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2009.
Also: http://paa2009.princeton.edu/download.aspx?submissionId=91119
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Fathers, Biological; Fathers, Presence; Gender Differences; Parenting Skills/Styles

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997, we examine the influence of resident fathers' parenting style on early transitions to parenthood. Results differ by gender and for those living with biological vs. stepfathers. We find, overall, fewer family-based predictors of early parenthood for boys, compared to girls, and for those living with a stepfather, compared to those living with a biological father. For girls, having an uninvolved mother or an authoritarian father is associated with an increased risk of early parenthood, but only for those living with a biological father. For boys, there were no effects of maternal parenting style on early parenthood. However, having an uninvolved biological father was associated with an increased risk in early fertility, while the opposite effect was observed for stepfathers, such that having an uninvolved stepfather was associated with a reduced risk of early birth.
Bibliography Citation
Joyner, Kara, Julie H. Carmalt and Rachel Dunifon. "Parenting in Vain? Stepfather Influences on Early Transitions to Parenthood." Presented: Detroit MI, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2009.
344. Joyner, Kara
Cawley, John
Sobal, Jeffery
Relationships Between Obesity, Romantic Involvement, and Sexual Behavior in Adolescents
Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2004.
Also: http://paa2004.princeton.edu/abstractViewer.asp?submissionId=40734
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Contraception; Dating; Fertility; Obesity; Pregnancy, Adolescent; Sexual Behavior

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The role of body weight in affecting a host of fertility-related behaviors, including dating, intercourse, contraceptive use, and pregnancy, has been little studied by demographers. This is surprising given the importance to adolescents of appearance in general and weight in particular. Because of the stigmatization of obesity, we hypothesized that heavier boys and girls are less likely to date and have sex than healthy-weight adolescents. We examined these relationships using two large, nationally representative data sets: the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 Cohort (NLSY97). Overall, our results confirm our prediction that heavier adolescents, especially girls, are less likely to become romantically involved, to date, and to have sex.
Bibliography Citation
Joyner, Kara, John Cawley and Jeffery Sobal. "Relationships Between Obesity, Romantic Involvement, and Sexual Behavior in Adolescents." Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2004.
345. Joyner, Kara
Peters, H. Elizabeth
Sikora, Asia
Hynes, Kathryn
Rubenstein, Jamie C.
The Quality of Male Fertility Data in Major U.S. Surveys
Presented: Dallas, TX, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2010
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Age at Birth; Census of Population; Data Quality/Consistency; Ethnic Differences; Fatherhood; Fathers; Fathers and Children; Fertility; Marital Status; Methods/Methodology; Monte Carlo; National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG); Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Researchers continue to question fathers' willingness to report their biological children in surveys, and the ability of surveys to adequately represent them. To address these concerns, this study evaluates the quality of men's fertility data in the 1979 and 1997 Cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79 and NLSY97), and in the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). Comparing fertility rates in each survey to population rates based on the data from the National Center for Health Statistics and the U.S. Census Bureau, we document how the undercount of births to men in different surveys varies according to several of their characteristics, including their age, race/ethnicity, marital status, and birth cohort. In addition, we use Monte Carlo simulations based on the NSFG data to demonstrate how birth undercounting biases associations between early parenthood and its antecedents.
Bibliography Citation
Joyner, Kara, H. Elizabeth Peters, Asia Sikora, Kathryn Hynes and Jamie C. Rubenstein. "The Quality of Male Fertility Data in Major U.S. Surveys." Presented: Dallas, TX, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2010.
346. Kaduk, Anne
Move Up or Move Back? The Impact of Nonemployment Duration and Reason on Women's Wages and Work Hours at Workforce Reentry
Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Exits; Re-employment; Wages; Women; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines the extent to which women's work hours and hourly wages change upon re-employment after a period of non-employment and whether women's reasons for job exit predict such changes in work hours and wages. Beyond whether young to middle-age women return to the labor force (considered in previous work), examining the job conditions women attain upon return and the differences in their new jobs compared to the jobs they left provides insight into broad labor force inequalities in the US, including gender inequality. This paper uses data on around 10,000 person-spells of non-employment lasting two months or more in the NLSY79 to examine these aspects of women's employment. Analysis shows that many women return to fewer hours than the job they left, but mean wages largely do not change. Differences by education, reason for leaving last job, and family status are evident.
Bibliography Citation
Kaduk, Anne. "Move Up or Move Back? The Impact of Nonemployment Duration and Reason on Women's Wages and Work Hours at Workforce Reentry." Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017.
347. Kaduk, Anne
Multiple Agendas? How Women's Reasons for Employment Exits Affect Their Return to Work
Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Labor Force Participation; Motherhood; Work Reentry

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines how women’s reasons for job exit, motherhood status, and education affect the probability and timing of their return to work. Women’s exits have been studied widely, yet little is known about who returns to work. But returning to work likely has important consequences for the well-being of women and their families. Using data on 8,843 person-spells of non-employment lasting three months or more in the NLSY79, I find that most women who experience a spell of non-employment eventually return to work, but the timing varies. Women with any college are more likely to return to employment quickly than those with twelve years or less of completed education if they left via job displacement or other involuntary job loss, but they spend more time not employed if they left because of a new child. New mothers remain non-employed longer than other groups, regardless of reason for exit.
Bibliography Citation
Kaduk, Anne. "Multiple Agendas? How Women's Reasons for Employment Exits Affect Their Return to Work." Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015.
348. Kaduk, Anne
Step Up or Step Back? The Impact of Non-Employment Duration and Reason on Women's Workforce Reentry
Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Occupational Choice; Occupations, Female; Re-employment; Unemployment; Work Reentry

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines the extent to which women change occupations and/or industry when seeking re-employment after a period of non-employment and whether women's reasons for job exit predict such changes in occupation and/or industry. Beyond whether young to middle-age women return to the labor force (considered in a previous paper), examining the types of jobs women attain upon return and the differences in their new jobs compared to the jobs they left will provide insight into broad labor force inequalities in the US, including gender inequality. This paper will use data on around 9,000 person-spells of non-employment lasting three months or more in the NLSY79 to examine these aspects of women's employment. I expect that such women will move out of more prestigious, perhaps better compensated, occupations and industries and into less advantaged areas where they are able to attain employment after being non-employed for a period of time.
Bibliography Citation
Kaduk, Anne. "Step Up or Step Back? The Impact of Non-Employment Duration and Reason on Women's Workforce Reentry." Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016.
349. Kahn, Joan R.
Garcia-Manglano, Javier
Bianchi, Suzanne M.
The Motherhood Penalty at Midlife: The Long-Term Impact of Birth-Timing on Women’s Careers
Presented: Dallas TX, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2010
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): First Birth; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Life Course; Maternal Employment; Occupations; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A growing body of research has shown that mothers pay a significant wage penalty for having children, especially while their children are young. In this paper, we take a life course perspective to study the long-term impact of both the number and timing of births on women’s wages and occupations at midlife. We use data from the Young Women’s cohort of the National Longitudinal Study to examine the motherhood gap for women as they age through their forties and fifties. Our underlying question is whether the career penalty (especially for women with early first births) grows narrower or wider as women grow older. In addition to incorporating human capital measures reflecting accumulated work experience and training, we also consider the impact of women’s attitudes reflecting their preferences about gender roles, the value of work and the importance of the family.
Bibliography Citation
Kahn, Joan R., Javier Garcia-Manglano and Suzanne M. Bianchi. "The Motherhood Penalty at Midlife: The Long-Term Impact of Birth-Timing on Women’s Careers." Presented: Dallas TX, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2010.
350. Kalil, Ariel
Khalid, Salma
Accounting for the Intergenerational Elasticity of Education: Cognitive Ability, Socioeconomic Status, Non-Cognitive Skills and Home Environment
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cognitive Ability; Education; Home Environment; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Noncognitive Skills; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper uses data from the NLSY97 (n= 3,459) to explore the intergenerational transmission of education from parents to their children and the factors that mediate this transmission. Children are initially observed in 1997 at ages 12-14, when measures of their cognitive abilities, family backgrounds, non-cognitive skills, and home environments are collected. Educational attainment is measured in 2007. We show a correlation of .43 between parents' and offsprings' years of education. Children's cognitive skills account for 29% of this association. However, when we expand our model to include family economic background, parents' and youth's efficacy and expectations, and measures of the home environment, we explain 60% of this correlation. Family economic background plays a comparatively greater role for less-educated families, whereas expectations figure prominently for higher-educated families. These findings are important insofar as resources, expectations, and home environments may be improved through targeted and effective child and education policy.
Bibliography Citation
Kalil, Ariel and Salma Khalid. "Accounting for the Intergenerational Elasticity of Education: Cognitive Ability, Socioeconomic Status, Non-Cognitive Skills and Home Environment." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011.
351. Kalil, Ariel
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.
Single Mothers' Employment Dynamics and Adolescent Well-Being
Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): School Dropouts; School Progress; Self-Esteem

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Researchers have been concerned with the largely unaddressed question of the links between single mother job characteristics and child well-being. In this paper, we use data from a nationally-representative sample of single mothers whose employment experiences we observe over a two-year period during the mid-to-late 1990's. We link employment patterns to change over time in multiple measures of child well-being. Controlling for background characteristics and potential selection factors, we find that, relative to being continuously employed in a good job, teens whose mothers lose a job without re-employment show a decline in self-esteem; those whose mothers are continually employed in a bad job are more at risk for grade repetition; and those whose mothers are persistently out of the labor force or lose more than one job show an increased likelihood of school drop-out. These effects are largely unexplained by changes in family income over the two-year period.
Bibliography Citation
Kalil, Ariel and Kathleen M. Ziol-Guest. "Single Mothers' Employment Dynamics and Adolescent Well-Being." Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2004.
352. Kamp Dush, Claire M.
Change in Young Adult Union Formation and Dissolution over Twenty Years: A Cohort Comparison Using the National Longitudinal Surveys
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Coresidence; Marital Dissolution; Marriage; Socioeconomic Background

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the 1979 and 1997 cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, I compare union experiences in young adulthood for two cohorts, approximately twenty years apart. I find that the NLSY79 sample was less likely to survive to age 29 without having entered a union, compared to the NLSY97 sample. The magnitude of the difference was about 0.06. However, I find that the NLSY97 are much more likely to enter a cohabiting union, while the NLSY79 was more likely to enter a marital union. For the conference, I plan to compare the duration of first unions by cohort, and specifically for cohabitation, I plan to examine the duration and outcomes (marriage or breakup) for cohabitation. Race and social class differences will be discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Kamp Dush, Claire M. "Change in Young Adult Union Formation and Dissolution over Twenty Years: A Cohort Comparison Using the National Longitudinal Surveys." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011.
353. Kamp Dush, Claire M.
Dunifon, Rachel
The Family Structure Experiences of Children in Single Mother Families
Presented: Detroit, MI, Population Association of America Meetings, April-May 2009.
Also: http://paa2009.princeton.edu/download.aspx?submissionId=91085
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Family Structure; Home Environment; Household Composition; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using merged mother-child data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we examine the family structure experiences of children born to single (unmarried and not cohabiting) mothers up to age 10. Specifically, we examine the probability that such children remain with a single mother vs. entering one or more cohabiting or marital unions. For those children whose mothers do enter unions, we examine whether the union was marital vs. cohabiting, as well as distinguish between unions with children's biological fathers vs. those with step-fathers. Finally, we consider the duration of such unions. We perform all analyses separately by race and ethnicity. In doing so, we take a child-based perspective, over a long period of time, to examine stability and change among children born to single mothers in the United States.
Bibliography Citation
Kamp Dush, Claire M. and Rachel Dunifon. "The Family Structure Experiences of Children in Single Mother Families." Presented: Detroit, MI, Population Association of America Meetings, April-May 2009.
354. Kamp Dush, Claire M.
Dunifon, Rachel
Unexamined Stable Family: An Examination of Child Well-Being in Stable-Single Parent Families
Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 29-31, 2007.
Also: http://paa2007.princeton.edu/abstractViewer.aspx?submissionId=71406
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Family Formation; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Parents, Single; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We find in an analysis of a merged mother-child NLSY79-C dataset that after controlling for characteristics of the child, mother, and family, children of married parents reported higher quality home environments and higher math and reading scores than children living with stable-single (never married or cohabited) mothers. Further, children born to cohabiting parents who either remain cohabiting or eventually marry were in homes with better environments than children living with stable-single mothers, but these unions did not appear to benefit children in terms of behavior or academic outcomes. We also find that unions, regardless of type, appear to benefit children who were born to single mothers in terms of their home environment and math scores. Even after these unions dissolve, children living with their newly single mother who has previously experienced a union still have higher math and reading scores than children still living with their stable-single mother.
Bibliography Citation
Kamp Dush, Claire M. and Rachel Dunifon. "Unexamined Stable Family: An Examination of Child Well-Being in Stable-Single Parent Families." Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 29-31, 2007.
355. Kane, Jennifer B.
Do Mother-Daughter Similarities in Human Capital and Nonmarital Birth Status Explain Intergenerational Linkages in Infant Health Outcomes?
Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Birthweight; Child Health; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Marital Status; Pre-natal Care/Exposure

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Prior research demonstrates intergenerational (mother-daughter) similarities in infant health outcomes (e.g., having a low birth weight, or preterm infant), but finds that less than half of this association can be attributed to genetic or biological explanations. Little research tests what features of the environment might comprise the remaining proportion. Using a population-based sample of young women (National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 Cohort) and their children (Children of the NLSY79), this study tests a variety of potential environmental explanations. Structural equation models indicate that mother-daughter similarities in birth weight are partly spurious in that intergenerational transmissions of educational attainment and sociobehavioral modeling accounted for half of the mother-daughter similarity in the risk of LBW when subgroups of non-poor and poor women were compared, and partially accounted for the mother-daughter similarity in birth weight (adjusted for preterm birth status). Importantly, the effect of education also operated indirectly through nonmarital birth status.
Bibliography Citation
Kane, Jennifer B. "Do Mother-Daughter Similarities in Human Capital and Nonmarital Birth Status Explain Intergenerational Linkages in Infant Health Outcomes?" Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013.
356. Karasek, Deborah
Reproductive Decision-Making Under Uncertainty: How Economic Preferences Shape Reproductive Behavior
Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Contraception; Fertility; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Risk-Taking

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Measures of risk aversion and temporal discounting have long been included in population surveys to examine economic behavior. Little research has examined how these preferences affect decision-making surrounding fertility intention, contraceptive behavior and unintended pregnancy, an area where intention-behavior inconsistencies are widely acknowledged. I test if individual risk tolerance and temporal discounting are associated with contraceptive use and fertility intention, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Preliminary results indicate that women who are most risk tolerant are more likely to report using abstinence and low efficacy methods, but also slightly more likely to report the highest efficacy methods. The most risk averse women appear least likely to experience an unwanted pregnancy. Results of this work will inform a conceptual model for how risk perception and time preferences affect reproductive health behaviors and outcomes, and how this pathway may be modified by different social contexts.
Bibliography Citation
Karasek, Deborah. "Reproductive Decision-Making Under Uncertainty: How Economic Preferences Shape Reproductive Behavior." Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017.
357. Kilburn, M. Rebecca
Loughran, David S.
Parental Investment and Later Outcomes Among Low Birthweight Children
Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2003
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Modeling, Fixed Effects; Pairs (also see Siblings); Siblings; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Our paper has three principle objectives. Our first objective is to clarify how the omission of family and individual-level endowments can confound estimates of both the short and long-run consequences of low birthweight. In formal models, we highlight how various empirical strategies control for specific endowments and the effects these controls are likely to have on parameter estimates. We also develop methods for decomposing birthweight effects into family and individual-level components. These exercises will allow us to more precisely interpret the results of our empirical analyses to follow as well as those in the current literature.

We then expand upon the results in Boardman, et al. (2002), who examined only test scores, to include other health and behavioral outcomes available in the NLSY Child Sample. Our models will explore patterns of results using a variety of specifications, including OLS, mother fixed-effects, mother-sibling fixed effects, and IV strategies. The research pays careful attention to the source of variation in birthweight and outcomes across sibling pairs and considers how family income and other common environmental influences affect the relationship between birthweight and later outcomes. In addition, we experiment with a variety of measures of low birthweight including categorical and continuous measures and indices combining birthweight and prematurity.

Bibliography Citation
Kilburn, M. Rebecca and David S. Loughran. "Parental Investment and Later Outcomes Among Low Birthweight Children." Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2003.
358. Killewald, Alexandra
Bryan, Brielle
Falling Behind: The Black-White Wealth Gap in Life Course and Intergenerational Perspective
Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Life Course; Racial Equality/Inequality; Socioeconomic Background; Wages; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The black-white wealth gap in the United States is vast and increases with age. Prior research has typically taken a static approach, predicting current wealth with current individual traits or measures of social origins. This approach is ill-suited to wealth, which reflects the lifetime accumulation of resources and is a cumulative advantage process. Instead, we adopt a life-course perspective, examining the evolution of wealth across individuals' lives. We hypothesize that whites' early advantages, including higher educational attainment, more privileged social origins, and more consistent wage-earning, not only advantage young adult whites compared to their black peers, but place them on a trajectory of compounding advantage throughout their lives. Thus, social origins and early life outcomes may actually become more important determinants of racial disparities in wealth the farther into the past they recede. We evaluate these hypotheses using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and random-growth models.
Bibliography Citation
Killewald, Alexandra and Brielle Bryan. "Falling Behind: The Black-White Wealth Gap in Life Course and Intergenerational Perspective." Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015.
359. Killewald, Alexandra
England, Paula A.
Lee, Angela Wang
Wealth and Divorce
Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Divorce; Home Ownership; Marital Stability; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Social scientists have extensively debated whether income promotes divorce by allowing individuals to exit unhappy marriages or promotes marital stability by easing financial strain. This literature has largely ignored that wealth is a distinct financial resource that may have its own effects on marital stability. We describe preliminary results from what we believe is the first examination of the effect of wealth on divorce in the United States. We use panel data from the NLSY79 and discrete-time hazard models and show that, for both blacks and whites, wealth is associated with greater marital stability, net of more commonly studied economic and background characteristics. Given prior evidence that homeownership reduces divorce risk, we test whether wealth's effects operate entirely through access to this specific asset, but find that wealth's effects are more general. We describe planned analyses to test the robustness of our findings and illuminate mechanisms responsible for the effects.
Bibliography Citation
Killewald, Alexandra, Paula A. England and Angela Wang Lee. "Wealth and Divorce." Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018.
360. Killewald, Alexandra
Gough, Margaret
Estimating the Impact of Marriage on Women's Wages
Presented: Dallas, TX, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2010
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Coresidence; Cost-Benefit Studies; Gender; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Gender Differences; Income; Income Distribution; Marriage; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Sex Equality; Unions; Wage Gap; Wages; Wives, Work; Women's Roles

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The costs and benefits of marriage for women are influenced in part by the effect of marriage on women's earnings potential, yet the wage premium or penalty for married women has been relatively ignored. The theory of within-household specialization predicts that women's wages will fall upon entry into coresidential unions as their time in household labor rises and their labor market effort falls. If this is the case, marriage contributes to sex stratification by exacerbating the gender gap in pay and reducing wives' bargaining power within the household. We use data from the NLSY79 and fixed-effects models to assess the marriage premium or penalty for women. In contrast to the specialization model, we find that women have higher wages in the years after their entry into marriage, suggesting that marriage need not be a zero-sum game between spouses in terms of their labor market rewards.
Bibliography Citation
Killewald, Alexandra and Margaret Gough. "Estimating the Impact of Marriage on Women's Wages." Presented: Dallas, TX, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2010.
361. Killewald, Alexandra
Harvey, Hope
The Effect of Maternal Employment Experiences on Adolescent Outcomes
Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Children, Well-Being; College Enrollment; Educational Attainment; High School Completion/Graduates; Maternal Employment; Obesity; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Prior research on the consequences of maternal employment for children's well-being has predominantly evaluated effects of early maternal employment on young children's outcomes. We conceptualize children as exposed to a 17-year trajectory of maternal employment and hypothesize that cumulative maternal employment will positively affect offspring's health and educational attainment in young adulthood, measured by obesity, smoking, high school graduation, and college enrollment. To test this hypothesis, we link data on women's employment histories from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) with the young adult outcomes of their children, collected in the NLSY79 Children and Young Adults study. Using marginal structural models and inverse probability of treatment weights, we account for the fact that maternal employment both affects and is affected by other family characteristics and provide the most accurate estimates to date of the cumulative, long-term effects of maternal employment on offspring life chances.
Bibliography Citation
Killewald, Alexandra and Hope Harvey. "The Effect of Maternal Employment Experiences on Adolescent Outcomes." Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016.
362. Killewald, Alexandra
Lundberg, Ian
How Do Married Men Get Ahead? A Process-Based Examination of the Male Marriage Premium
Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Employment, History; Husbands; Marriage; Work Experience; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The wage premium for married men is well-documented. Prior research has concentrated on understanding why this might be so, focusing on the role of household specialization. Largely absent from this research is attention to the job processes by which married men realize wage gains. We propose three possible pathways: (1) increased work experience, (2) improved employment histories, including longer job tenure and better job match, and (3) moves to higher-paying job types. We find that each of these processes contributes to the male marriage premium, although work experience is the most important. We further find that increases in work experience benefit married men about equally, regardless of wives’ labor supply, casting doubt on a pure specialization explanation. Lastly, we demonstrate the importance of flexibly specifying mediating variables: Conventional measures of work experience substantially understate the share of the marriage premium attributable to changes in work hours.
Bibliography Citation
Killewald, Alexandra and Ian Lundberg. "How Do Married Men Get Ahead? A Process-Based Examination of the Male Marriage Premium." Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014.
363. Killewald, Alexandra
Pfeffer, Fabian T.
For Richer: The Effects of Marriage on Wealth Accumulation
Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Marriage; Modeling, Marginal Structural; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We investigate the effects of marriage on individuals' midlife wealth. Establishing the importance of marriage as a wealth-generating process is challenging because marriage and wealth are dynamic processes with reciprocal effects: marriage is both the result of prior wealth and a potential determinant of future wealth. To estimate the total causal effect of years spent married on wealth, we therefore apply marginal structural models. Using the NLSY79, we show that time spent married has positive effects on individuals' wealth at midlife but that accounting for dynamic selection into and out of marriage reduces these effects substantially. Ignoring the asset-pooling effect of marriage, the effects of marriage on wealth are small. However, the effects are also heterogeneous: women and whites gain more in absolute terms from each additional year spent married than do men and African Americans.
Bibliography Citation
Killewald, Alexandra and Fabian T. Pfeffer. "For Richer: The Effects of Marriage on Wealth Accumulation." Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018.
364. Killewald, Alexandra
Zhu, Fangsheng
Does Your Home Make You Wealthy?
Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Home Ownership; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Life Course; Racial Equality/Inequality; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Wealth inequality in the United States is vast, and homeownership is hypothesized to be one key mechanism by which wealth accumulates unequally. Evaluating the effect of homeownership on later-life wealth is challenging, however, because prior wealth affects transitions to homeownership, and homeownership in turn has the potential to affect other wealth-relevant traits, such as marital status. Thus, conventional regression models that predict current wealth as a function of prior homeownership are likely to overestimate the causal effect of homeownership. We propose to provide a more rigorous estimate of the effect of homeownership on later-life wealth by using NLSY79 data and inverse probability of treatment weights to model dynamic selection processes into and out of homeownership across the life course. Our results then provide insight about the potential for disparities in homeownership rates by race and social origins to contribute to persistent racial wealth inequality and the intergenerational transmission of advantage.
Bibliography Citation
Killewald, Alexandra and Fangsheng Zhu. "Does Your Home Make You Wealthy?" Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015.
365. Kim, Hyoshin
Baydar, Nazli
Greek, April A.
Testing Conditions Influence the Race Gap in Cognition and Achievement Estimated by Household Survey Data
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 2001
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Interviewer Characteristics; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Racial Differences; Testing Conditions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The present study investigates the hypothesis that the estimated race gap in achievement test scores from household survey data may partly be accounted for by measurable testing conditions' interviewer characteristics, interviewer-child interactions, and the testing environment'in the home. Using the child assessments of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) in 1992, the findings clearly indicate that there are significant effects of the factors related to testing conditions in the home on the test score gap between African American and white children of 6-9 years of age. Especially, the agreement between the race of the interviewer and the race of the child showed the beneficial effects on child test scores.
Bibliography Citation
Kim, Hyoshin, Nazli Baydar and April A. Greek. "Testing Conditions Influence the Race Gap in Cognition and Achievement Estimated by Household Survey Data." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 2001.
366. Kim, Hyun Sik
Developmental Trajectories of Anxiety and Depression from Preschool Childhood to Early Adolescence: Cumulative Effects and Timing Effects of Poverty and Low Income
Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America (PAA) 2008 Annual Meeting, April 17-19, 2008
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Anxiety; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Poverty; Depression (see also CESD); Family Income; Poverty; Stress

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Even though effects of poverty and low income in childhood on outcomes in later life are well known in literature, relatively little attention, if any, has been directed toward conditions generating, fortifying, and enervating a various types of psychological pathology. In this paper, three models are introduced to test cumulative effects and timing effects of family income and poverty status on growth trajectories of psychopathological symptoms in childhood after controlling sex, race/ethnicity, mother's marital status, cohorts and birth order. Methodologically, growth curve models are fitted to data from the Children of National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. Psychopathological problems are measured as an anxiety and depression subscale of the Behavior Problem Index. Specifically, Persistent Poverty model fails to detect statistically significant, cumulative effects of poverty. Time-varying poverty model and time-varying income model show relatively strong effects of poverty status and low income levels in early childhood and early adolescence.
Bibliography Citation
Kim, Hyun Sik. "Developmental Trajectories of Anxiety and Depression from Preschool Childhood to Early Adolescence: Cumulative Effects and Timing Effects of Poverty and Low Income." Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America (PAA) 2008 Annual Meeting, April 17-19, 2008.
367. Kim, Keuntae
Intergenerational Transmission of Age at First Birth in the United States: Evidence from Multiple Surveys
Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Childbearing; First Birth; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG)

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It is well established that the timing of childbearing is transmitted from parents to children in the United States. However, little is known about how the intergenerational link has changed over time and under structural and ideological transformations associated with fertility behaviors. This study first considers changes across two birth cohorts from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY) in the extent to which parents� age at first birth is transmitted to their children. The first cohort includes individuals born during the late 1950s through the early 1960s (NLSY79) while the second includes individuals born in the early 1980s (NLSY97). Results from discrete-time event history analyses indicate that the intergenerational transmission of age at first birth between mothers and daughters as well as between mothers and sons significantly increased over the period. Father�s age at first birth had trivial effects on children�s timing of parenthood in both cohorts. These results were confirmed by analyses of data from three cycles of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) on five birth cohorts spanning the same time period. Over this period, age at first childbirth became increasingly younger for children born to teenage mothers and increasingly older for those born to mothers who entered parenthood after age 25. These patterns have important implications for reproductive polarization and the low-fertility trap hypothesis.
Bibliography Citation
Kim, Keuntae. "Intergenerational Transmission of Age at First Birth in the United States: Evidence from Multiple Surveys." Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013.
368. Kim, Sookon
Cross-Substitution Between Husband and Wife as One of the Factors Determining the Number of Hours of Labor Supplied by Married Women
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1972
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Child Care; Children; Employment; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Household Income; Husbands; Unemployment Rate; Wages; Wives

This paper investigates the determinants of variations in number of hours of labor supplied by married women during the survey week. The supply of labor is found to be positively related to a woman's hourly wage rate, her health, permissive attitude toward propriety of women working on the part of herself and her husband, and to the demand for female labor in the local labor market where the respondent resided. On the other hand, the supply of labor is negatively related to the amount of income available to the family without her own working, her "home wage" (a measure of child care burden), and to the husband's annual earning capacity relative to the wife's (cross substitution effect).
Bibliography Citation
Kim, Sookon. "Cross-Substitution Between Husband and Wife as One of the Factors Determining the Number of Hours of Labor Supplied by Married Women." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1972.
369. Kim, Sookon
Factors Determining the Number of Hours Supplied by Married Women
Presented: Toronto, Canada, Population Association of America Meetings, 1972
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Earnings; Family Resources; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Variables, Independent - Covariate; Wives

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors causing variations in number of hours of labor supplied by married women. Both black and white women were studied. The variations in hours supplied are regressed upon nine independent variables: actual or estimated wage rate, other family income, husband's earning capacity relative to that of wife's capacity, home wage as a proxy for child-care burden, respondent's attitude toward propriety of women working, husband's attitude toward wife's working, respondent's health limitation, unemployment rate in the local labor market, and index of demand for female labor in the local area. Except for the unemployment rate, the effects of all of the variables were found to be statistically significant. Relative to the cross-substitution effect of earnings capacity of the husband and wife, it is argued that the higher the relative earning capacity of the husband over that of the wife, the fewer hours of labor will be supplied by the wife. The home-wage scale was found to be the most powerful explanatory variable. It accounted for about 6 percent of the variance in the dependent variable, whereas all the variables combined explained 19 percent, for both color groups. An important intercolor difference was found in that the black women were less sensitive to market wage rates but more sensitive to variations in demand for female labor than their white counterparts.
Bibliography Citation
Kim, Sookon. "Factors Determining the Number of Hours Supplied by Married Women." Presented: Toronto, Canada, Population Association of America Meetings, 1972.
370. Kim, Yujin
Does Timing of First Incarceration Matter? The Effect of Age at First Incarceration on Midlife Health
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Criminal Justice System; Health Factors; Incarceration/Jail; Marital Status; Transition, Adulthood

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Mass imprisonment has affected inmate and ex-inmate's family, employment, and health life, and it is worthy to look at how the timing of incarceration might affect differently on ex-inmate's life, especially their midlife health. Experiencing incarceration during transition to adulthood might mean the different life trajectory of ex-inmates comparing to those with experiencing incarceration in adulthood. I investigated how the timing of first incarceration affects people's midlife health using NLSY79. Early incarceration and later incarceration lower the log odds of respondents to say that they are in good and excellent health comparing never incarcerated people at age 40. However, when current marital status and marital history are added in the model besides demographic, family background, and health behavior, later incarceration effect does not statistically significant, but early incarceration effect is still significant. It looks like the mechanism of effect of incarceration on midlife health differs by timing of first incarceration.
Bibliography Citation
Kim, Yujin. "Does Timing of First Incarceration Matter? The Effect of Age at First Incarceration on Midlife Health." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011.
371. King, MIke
First-Generation College Students and Patterns of Cohabitation and Marriage
Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; College Education; Educational Attainment; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Marriage

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Recent work has highlighted the relationship between demographic processes in the parent generation and subsequent intergenerational mobility. Specifically, researchers have illustrated the importance of incorporating demographic mechanisms into models of intergenerational transmission of status. Less work, however, has examined this interplay from the reverse direction. In this paper, I turn the relationship around, asking how experiencing intergenerational mobility might influence subsequent demographic processes. To answer this, I focus on how union formation (both cohabitation and marriage) is related to children earning higher levels of education than their parents (e.g., first-generation college students). Using data from NLSY97, I build discrete-time event history models to test a series of alternative hypotheses about the role of intergenerational educational mobility in union formation patterns. This paper examines heterogeneity in the relationship between educational attainment and union formation while also contributing a new perspective on the interplay between demographic processes, intergenerational mobility, and social reproduction.
Bibliography Citation
King, MIke. "First-Generation College Students and Patterns of Cohabitation and Marriage." Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017.
372. King, MIke
Marriage Outcomes of First-Generation College Graduates: Marital Market Constraint or Incomplete Assimilation?
Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Age at First Marriage; College Graduates; Marital History/Transitions; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper, I use NLSY79 to compare marital patterns of first-generation college graduates to non-college graduates and second-generation college graduates. I test marriage market explanations and social and cultural capital explanations for why first-generation graduates might have different marriage outcomes. Marriage market explanations predict that first-generation graduates might experience constrained marriage markets (because of difficulty integrating) and lower rates of marriage than non-college graduates or other college graduates. On the other hand, social and cultural capital explanations suggest that first-generation college graduates might experience marital outcomes somewhere in between those of non-graduates and other college graduates (because of incomplete assimilation). Initial results indicate that the age of first marriage for first-generation graduates does fall somewhere in between non-graduates and second-generation graduates (supporting the idea of incomplete assimilation), but that first-generation graduates have similar likelihoods of ever being married and similar levels of educational homogamy as second-generation graduates.
Bibliography Citation
King, MIke. "Marriage Outcomes of First-Generation College Graduates: Marital Market Constraint or Incomplete Assimilation?" Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016.
373. King, Valarie
Nonresidential Father Involvement and Child Well-Being: Can Dads Make a Difference?
Presented: Cincinnati, OH, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1993
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Support; Children, Well-Being; Fathers, Absence; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Self-Esteem; Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC); Well-Being

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the child supplement to the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), I test, through a series of multivariate regression models, whether father visitation or the payment of child support is significantly associated with several measures of child well-being. The results indicate that there is only limited evidence to support the hypothesis that nonresidential father involvement has positive benefits for children. The strongest evidence is for the effect of child support in the domain of academics.
Bibliography Citation
King, Valarie. "Nonresidential Father Involvement and Child Well-Being: Can Dads Make a Difference?" Presented: Cincinnati, OH, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1993.
374. Klepinger, Daniel H.
Lundberg, Shelly
Plotnick, Robert D.
How Does Adolescent Fertility Affect the Human Capital and Wages of Young Women?
Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America, May 1996
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Childbearing; Childbearing, Adolescent; Education; Educational Returns; Endogeneity; Human Capital; Maternal Employment; Racial Differences; Variables, Instrumental; Wage Dynamics; Wages, Adult; Wages, Young Men; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We present a model and estimates of the relationship between teenage childbearing and early human capital development, and the resulting consequences for wages in early adulthood. The analysis recognizes that the teenage childbearing decision is endogenous because it is likely to be related to the expected costs of and returns to investing in education teen work experience, and early adult work experience. We use instrumental variables procedures to generate unbiased estimates of the effects of early fertility on education and work experience, and of the effects of all these outcomes on adult wages.
Bibliography Citation
Klepinger, Daniel H., Shelly Lundberg and Robert D. Plotnick. "How Does Adolescent Fertility Affect the Human Capital and Wages of Young Women?" Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America, May 1996.
375. Koball, Heather
Young Fathers' Involvement with Fragile Families: A Longitudinal Analysis
Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Family Characteristics; Family Formation; Fathers; Fathers, Absence; Fathers, Involvement; Parental Marital Status

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Research shows that the majority of unwed parents create fragile families at the time of their child's birth. Fragile families include unmarried parents who cohabit or who live apart with frequent visitation. Within a few years, however, many unwed fathers have dropped out of the lives of their children and their children's mothers. This study uses longitudinal data to examine factors that predict young men's likelihood of forming fragile families and remaining involved in these families. Data come from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. Two research questions are addressed. One, what individual, family, and community characteristics are associated with a young man's likelihood of forming a fragile family? Two, what characteristics predict whether a nonmarital father will remain involved in his child's life, either through marriage, cohabitation, or through frequent visitation with his child?
Bibliography Citation
Koball, Heather. "Young Fathers' Involvement with Fragile Families: A Longitudinal Analysis." Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002.
376. Kohler, Hans-Peter
Rodgers, Joseph Lee
Skytthe, Axel
Subjective Well-Being, Fertility and Partnerships: A Biodemographic Perspective
Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2005
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior; Cross-national Analysis; Danish Twin-Omnibus-Survey; Denmark, Danish; Fertility; Genetics; Socioeconomic Factors; Well-Being

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We propose comparative behavior genetic analyzes of subjective well-being, fertility and partnerships from a biodemographic perspective using the 2002 Danish twin omnibus survey and the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY). Our preliminary analyzes of the Danish data suggest a systematic positive association between the genetic components of variation in subjective well-being and of variation in fertility/partnership behaviors. For males, for instance, genetic dispositions that tend to increase subjective well-being are associated with a higher number of partnerships, a higher probability of being currently in a partnership, and a larger number of children. The analyzes of the NLSY will augment these analyzes in two dimensions: first, the analyzes reveal whether the results vary across socioeconomic contexts (the U.S. versus Denmark), and second, the longitudinal data in the NLSY allow analyzes of changes in happiness, fertility and partnerships over time, which is impossible in the cross-sectional twin data.
Bibliography Citation
Kohler, Hans-Peter, Joseph Lee Rodgers and Axel Skytthe. "Subjective Well-Being, Fertility and Partnerships: A Biodemographic Perspective." Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2005.
377. Korenman, Sanders D.
Kaestner, Robert
Joyce, Theodore J.
Unintended Pregnancy and the Consequences of Non-Marital Childbearing
Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, March 2000
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Abortion; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Birthweight; Breastfeeding; Child Development; Child Support; Childbearing; Marital Status; Modeling; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Siblings; Variables, Instrumental

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We estimate consequences of non-marital childbearing for infant health and child development, including the first estimates of these effects based on comparisons of siblings or first cousins. We also estimate effects of non-marital births by treating non-martial births that result from unintended pregnancies as exogenously determined. To bolster the case for exogeneity, in some models we use information on the availability of abortion services and indicators of state child support policies and enforcement as instrumental variables for pregnancy intention and marital status. Estimates from models with standard controls for mother's family background suggest that non-marital childbearing delays prenatal care initiation, lowers birth weight, increases smoking during pregnancy, reduces breastfeeding, and, according to several indicators, adversely affects child development. However, comparisons of siblings and first cousins suggest that these estimates exaggerate the adverse consequences of non-marital childbearing for children. Evidence of substantial adverse effects remains in comparisons of siblings and first cousins in two cases: elevated risks of smoking during pregnancy among divorced mothers, and reduced breastfeeding among never married mothers. Evidence for an effect of non-marital childbearing on child development is weaker.
Bibliography Citation
Korenman, Sanders D., Robert Kaestner and Theodore J. Joyce. "Unintended Pregnancy and the Consequences of Non-Marital Childbearing." Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, March 2000.
378. Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Effects of Participation in Food Assistance Programs on Children's Health and Development: Evidence from NLSY Children
Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 1999
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Child Health; Motor and Social Development (MSD); Siblings; Temperament; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori. "Effects of Participation in Food Assistance Programs on Children's Health and Development: Evidence from NLSY Children." Presented: New York, NY, Population