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Source: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Resulting in 19 citations.
1. Bennett, Neil G.
Bloom, David E.
The Influence of Nonmarital Childbearing on the Formation of Marital Unions
Presented: Bethesda, MA, NICHD Conference, "Outcomes of Early Childbearing: An Appraisal of Recent Evidence", May 1992
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Behavior; Childbearing; Fertility; Marriage; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG)

The central objective of this paper is to explore the interrelationships between out-of-wedlock childbearing and subsequent marriage behavior. In Section II we document a negative association between these events in three large survey data sets. We also fit some simple hazard models, which account for the varying degrees of exposure to marriage formation experienced by individuals, that show that this negative association persists (although somewhat less strongly) when one contrasts women who are comparable in terrns of a standard set of social and demographic background variables. In Section III we attempt to disentangle some of the alternative explanations for the negative association between out-of-wedlock childbearing and subsequent marriage. We do this by examining the effect of children (both those maritally and nonmaritally borne) on a woman's remarriage prospects and by analyzing some time use data for unwed mothers and other women. We also explore the presence of reverse causality in the relationship between unwed motherhood and marriage by examining whether women who think they are less likely to marry (for whatever reason) have higher rates of unwed motherhood. Our results are summarized and discussed in Section IV. The data sets were extracted from Cycle IV of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), and the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women (NLSYW).
Bibliography Citation
Bennett, Neil G. and David E. Bloom. "The Influence of Nonmarital Childbearing on the Formation of Marital Unions." Presented: Bethesda, MA, NICHD Conference, "Outcomes of Early Childbearing: An Appraisal of Recent Evidence", May 1992.
2. Currie, Janet
Thomas, Duncan
Nature vs. Nurture? The Bell Curve and Children's Cognitive Achievement
Working Paper Series 95-19, Labor and Population Program, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, August 1995
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Cognitive Ability; Cognitive Development; I.Q.; Intelligence; Intelligence Tests; Mothers, Education; Mothers, Income; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Racial Differences; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

In The Bell Curve, Herrnstein and Murray demonstrate that a mother's score on the Armed Forces Qualification Test is a powerful predictor of her child's score on a cognitive achievement test. We replicate this finding. However, even after controlling for maternal scores, there are significant gaps in the scores of black and white children which suggests that maternal scores are not all that matter. In fact, both maternal education and income are important determinants of child test scores, conditional on maternal AFQT. We argue that racial gaps in test scores matter because even within families, children with higher scores are less likely to repeat grades. However, conditional on both child test scores and maternal AFQT, maternal education and income also affect a child's probability of grade repetition. We conclude that, even if one accepts test scores as valid measures of "nature", both nature and nurture matter. Finally, we show that the effects on child test scores of maternal test scores, education, and income differ dramatically depending on the nature of the test, the age of the child, and race. The results suggest that understanding the relationships between different aspects of maternal achievement and child outcomes may help unravel the complex process through which poverty is transmitted across generations.
Bibliography Citation
Currie, Janet and Duncan Thomas. "Nature vs. Nurture? The Bell Curve and Children's Cognitive Achievement." Working Paper Series 95-19, Labor and Population Program, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, August 1995.
3. Geronimus, Arline T.
Korenman, Sanders D.
Hillemeier, Marianne M.
Does Young Maternal Age Adversely Affect Child Development? Evidence from Cousin Comparisons
Presented: Bethesda, MA, NICHD Conference, "Outcomes of Early Childbearing: An Appraisal of Recent Evidence", May 1992
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; All-Volunteer Force (AVF); Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Birthweight; Child Development; Child Health; Family Influences; Fertility; First Birth; General Assessment; Heterogeneity; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Marital Status; Mothers; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Siblings; Teenagers; Verbal Memory (McCarthy Scale)

We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) 1979-1988 to estimate relations between maternal age at first birth and measures of early socioemotional and cognitive development of children. We compare cross-sectional estimates to estimates based on comparisons of first cousins to gauge the importance of bias from family background heterogeneity. Cross-sectional estimates suggest moderate adverse consequences of teen motherhoo for child development. However, children of teen mothers appear to score no worse on measures of development than first cousins whose mothers had first births after their teen years. The evidence suggests that differences in far background of mothers (factors that precede their childbearing years) account for the low scores on measures of socioemotional and cognitive development seen in young children of teen mothers.
Bibliography Citation
Geronimus, Arline T., Sanders D. Korenman and Marianne M. Hillemeier. "Does Young Maternal Age Adversely Affect Child Development? Evidence from Cousin Comparisons." Presented: Bethesda, MA, NICHD Conference, "Outcomes of Early Childbearing: An Appraisal of Recent Evidence", May 1992.
4. Greene, Angela Dungee
Emig, Carol
Conference on Father Involvement: A Summary Report
Bethesda, MD, NICHD Family and Child Well-Being Research Network by Child Trends, July 1997
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Keyword(s): Children, Well-Being; Fathers, Absence; Fathers, Biological; Fathers, Involvement; Household Composition; Parents, Single

This report summarizes the presentations and findings from the "Conference on Father Involvement" which took place on October 10 and 11, 1996 and the half-day Methodology Workshop held on October 12, 1996. These activities were sponsored by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Family and Child Well-Being Research Network. Conference organizers invited noted researchers to present multidisciplinary perspectives on the study of fatherhood and empirical papers examining aspects of two broad and complementary questions pertaining to factors that predict increased involvement of fathers and the impact of father involvement on child outcomes. Following the main conference a Methodology Workshop was held to provide a forum for more in-depth discussion of methodological issues related to the study of father involvement. This conference was the third in a year-long series of meetings designed to improve the capacity of the federal statistical system to conceptualize, measure, and gather information from men about their fertility and their role as fathers. This series of meetings was organized by representatives of the various federal agencies that gather and use data on children and families, with significant input from leading members of the research community and support from the Ford, Kaiser, and Annie E. Casey Foundations. In addition, the comprehensive work of the Center on Fathers and Families (NCOFF) at the University of Pennsylvania enhances the federal initiative to improve data on fathers. The other meetings in this series' are described in the introduction to this report (pp. 1-5).
Bibliography Citation
Greene, Angela Dungee and Carol Emig. "Conference on Father Involvement: A Summary Report." Bethesda, MD, NICHD Family and Child Well-Being Research Network by Child Trends, July 1997.
5. Hofferth, Sandra L.
Moore, Kristin Anderson
The Consequences of Age At First Childbirth: Causal Models
Final Report, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 1978
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Child Health; Childbearing, Adolescent; Children; Earnings; Fertility; Income Dynamics/Shocks; Marriage; Schooling; Welfare

The impact of a woman's age at the birth of her first child on later poverty was assessed using two national longitudinal data sets. Analyses are based on annual interviews conducted between l968 and l972 with young women aged 14 to 24 in l968. Information on women aged 22 to 52 in l976, both wives and female heads, was obtained from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) interviews, which were conducted between l968 and l976. Related analyses document a direct impact of early childbearing on schooling, marriage, and family size, and an indirect impact on employment, earnings, and welfare recipiency, through its effect on education, marriage,and fertility. To explore these indirect effects, causal models were developed and estimated. Results indicate that the impact of an early birth is complicated and differs among different population sub-groups. Early childbearing was associated with greater poverty in both samples.
Bibliography Citation
Hofferth, Sandra L. and Kristin Anderson Moore. "The Consequences of Age At First Childbirth: Causal Models." Final Report, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 1978.
6. Hofferth, Sandra L.
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Caldwell, Steven B.
The Consequences of Age at First Childbirth: Labor Force Participation and Earnings
Final Report, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 1978
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Career Patterns; Childbearing; Earnings; Employment; Family Influences; Fertility; Income Dynamics/Shocks; Teenagers; Work Experience

The impact of a woman's age at the birth of her first child on labor force participation and earnings was assessed using two national longitudinal data sets. Information on women aged 22 to 52 in 1976, both wives and female heads, was obtained from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) interviews, which were conducted between 1968 and 1976. A first birth during the teen years does not directly affect whether a woman is working years later, her accumulated work experience, or the occupational status, hours of work, hourly wages, and annual earnings of working women, when other factors are controlled. However, since early childbearing affects schooling and fertility, it has an indirect impact on labor force participation and earnings. For example, teenage childbearers have larger families and consequently accumulate less work experience and earn less per hour net of other factors.
Bibliography Citation
Hofferth, Sandra L., Kristin Anderson Moore and Steven B. Caldwell. "The Consequences of Age at First Childbirth: Labor Force Participation and Earnings." Final Report, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 1978.
7. McCrate, Elaine
Expectations of Adult Wages and Teenage Childbearing
Presented: Bethesda, MD, NICHD Conference, "Outcomes of Early Childbearing: An Appraisal of Recent Evidence", May 1992
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Childbearing; Childbearing, Adolescent; Family Background; Mothers; Regions; Religion; Sex Education; Sex Roles; Teenagers; Wages, Adult; Welfare

Teenage mothers typically experience lower adult earnings than other women. Conventional wisdom has emphasized a one-way causal relationship, with teenage childbearing accounting in large measure for low incomes later in life. According to this logic, adolescent mothers make irrational choices, or perhaps exceptionally poorly informed ones: in either case, their decisions ultimately undermine their future economic well-being. Many empirical studies have investigated in detail the hypothesis that teenage childbearing reduces adult earnings and employment opportunity, generally concluding, emphatically, that it does. In this paper I investigate the second opportunity cost hypothesis: whether the expectation of low adult wages increases the probability of adolescent childbearing. I develop a model in which education, wages, and adolescent motherhood are jointly determined, and test it using data from the 1986 cross-section of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth.
Bibliography Citation
McCrate, Elaine. "Expectations of Adult Wages and Teenage Childbearing." Presented: Bethesda, MD, NICHD Conference, "Outcomes of Early Childbearing: An Appraisal of Recent Evidence", May 1992.
8. McLaughlin, Steven D.
Consequences of Adolescent Childbearing for the Mother's Occupational Attainment
Final Report, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 1977
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Age at First Birth; Child Health; Childbearing; Childbearing, Adolescent; Educational Attainment; Educational Returns; Family Background; Occupational Attainment; Wages

This research provided documentation of the impact of adolescent childbearing on the economic attainment of the mother. Drawing on data from the NLS of Young Women, causal models of economic attainment were estimated separately for subsamples of women having their first child at different ages. The educational attainment of the early childbearer was found to be severely attenuated. Even after socioeconomic background was controlled, the earlier the birth of the first child, the lower the average education. The findings regarding labor force experience were inconclusive; however, there was a slight positive effect from early childbearing on experience. The earning potential of the short- and long-term occupation was found to be negatively associated with early childbearing. The effect was indirect, so that the mother's age at first parity influenced her education which, in turn, influenced her earning potential. In the short term, the adolescent mother was found to realize a far lower rate of economic return to her education. The mother's ability to exchange education for earning potential is reduced as age at first parity declines. This effect was not found in the long term model. The analysis of actual wages earned demonstrated no age-at-first-parity effect.
Bibliography Citation
McLaughlin, Steven D. "Consequences of Adolescent Childbearing for the Mother's Occupational Attainment." Final Report, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 1977.
9. McLaughlin, Steven D.
Educational and Occupational Aspirations as Determinants of Adolescent Fertility
Final Report, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 1981
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Educational Attainment; Family Influences; Fertility; High School Curriculum; Occupational Attainment; Sex Roles; Siblings; Teenagers; Vocational Education

Using the 14 to 24-year-old female cohort of the NLS, this report investigates the relationship between high educational and occupational aspirations and fertility. These aspirations are included in an equation along with measures of socioeconomic background, number of siblings, high school curriculum, and sex role attitudes. The equation is estimated separately within four categories of age (14/15, 16, 17, and 18) and two categories of race (white and black). Findings show that racial differences in adolescent fertility disappear for adolescents age 17 and 18 but remain among those who are younger; older white and black adolescents enrolled in a college preparatory high school curriculum are less likely to experience a birth than those enrolled in general vocational or technical curriculum; sex role attitudes and number of siblings do not affect probability of a birth for any of the age-race groups; and educational aspirations significantly affect birth probabilities only among whites age 14/15 and 17. Analyses show overall, however, that the adolescent fertility process is not profoundly influenced by aspirations.
Bibliography Citation
McLaughlin, Steven D. "Educational and Occupational Aspirations as Determinants of Adolescent Fertility." Final Report, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 1981.
10. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Hofferth, Sandra L.
The Consequences of Age at First Childbirth: Family Size
Final Report, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 1978
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Age at First Marriage; Children; Earnings; Fertility; First Birth; Income Dynamics/Shocks; Schooling; Teenagers

The impact of a woman's age at the birth of her first child on family size was assessed using two national longitudinal data sets. Analyses are based on annual interviews conducted between l968 and l972 with the Young Women's cohort of the NLS. Information on women age 22 to 52 in l976, both wives and female heads, was obtained from Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) interviews, which were conducted between l968 and l976. Analyses on both data sets provide strong support for an association between an early first birth and higher subsequent fertility. Among PSID women aged 35 to 52, mothers whose first child was born when they were 17 or younger bore an average of more than five children each, approximately three children more per mother compared to women who delayed their first birth to age 24 or later. Age at first birth is found to have a far greater impact on fertility than age at first marriage.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson and Sandra L. Hofferth. "The Consequences of Age at First Childbirth: Family Size." Final Report, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 1978.
11. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Hofferth, Sandra L.
The Consequences of Age at First Childbirth: Female Headed Families and Welfare Recipiency
Final Report, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 1978
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Childbearing, Adolescent; Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Children; Earnings; Employment; First Birth; Income Dynamics/Shocks; Marriage; Teenagers; Welfare

The impact of a woman's age at the birth of her first child on female-headed families and welfare recipiency was assessed using two national longitudinal data sets. Analyses are based on annual interviews conducted between l968 and l972 with the Young Women's cohort of the NLS. Information on women aged 22 to 52 in l976, both wives and female heads, was obtained from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) interviews, which were conducted between l968 and l976. Teenage childbearing per se does not appear to be related to subsequent female headship, although a premarital first birth and a teenage marriage do predict to later being a female household head. The strong association between early childbearing and receipt of welfare disappears when controls for education, family size, labor force participation, age at marriage and race are included.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson and Sandra L. Hofferth. "The Consequences of Age at First Childbirth: Female Headed Families and Welfare Recipiency." Final Report, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 1978.
12. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Hofferth, Sandra L.
The Consequences of Age at First Childbirth: Final Research Summary
Final Report, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 1978
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Children; Fertility; First Birth; Income Dynamics/Shocks; Marriage; Schooling; Teenagers

The impact of a woman's age at the birth of her first child on her subsequent social and economic status was assessed using two national longitudinal data sets. Analyses are based on annual interviews conducted between l968 and l972 with the Young Women's cohort of the NLS. Information on women aged 22 to 52 in l976, both wives and female heads was obtained from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) interviews, which were conducted between l968 and l976. Analyses indicate that an early first birth reduces the amount of schooling a young woman is able to complete, even net of family background, motivation, and age at marriage, particularly among white and high school age mothers. Teenage mothers also have substantially larger families, net of controls. An early birth does not increase marital dissolution, except indirectly by precipitating teenage marriages. The variables in turn affect earnings, income and the probability of poverty.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson and Sandra L. Hofferth. "The Consequences of Age at First Childbirth: Final Research Summary." Final Report, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 1978.
13. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Meyers, David E.
Morrison, Donna Ruane
Nord, Christine Winquis
Teenage Childbearing and Poverty
Presented: Bethesda, MD, NICHD Conference, "Outcomes of Early Childbearing: An Appraisal of Recent Evidence", National Institutes of Health, May 18-19, 1992
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at First Birth; Age at First Marriage; Childbearing, Adolescent; Fertility; Hispanics; Poverty

An association between teenage parenthood and subsequent poverty has been noted for several decades. However, because early childbearing is more common among women from disadvantaged backgrounds, whether teenage childbearing increases the probability of poverty over and above the risk due to background factors has not been clear. In this paper, the effect of the timing of the first birth on the ratio of family income to the poverty threshold for the family is examined using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. All women are age 27 when studied. Direct effects are not hypothesized; rather the effect of age at first birth is expected to be mediated by intervening variables including educational attainment, age at first marriage, family size, women's work experience and earnings, and the earnings of other members of the household. Structural equation models are estimated, taking into account background variables that affect both selection into early childbearing and the outcome variables in the model, and employing a variant of Amemiya's principle to deal with problems of censoring and selectivity. Results indicate that age at first birth has a substantial effect on the ratio of family income to the poverty threshold at age 27 among blacks, Hispanics, and whites, though the effect is particularly large among blacks and Hispanics. Age at first birth is found to have a significant direct effect on highest grade completed and number of children among all three race/ethnicity groups. In addition, age at first birth has a significant direct effect on age at first marriage among whites. These variables in turn affect family income and thus poverty.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson, David E. Meyers, Donna Ruane Morrison and Christine Winquis Nord. "Teenage Childbearing and Poverty." Presented: Bethesda, MD, NICHD Conference, "Outcomes of Early Childbearing: An Appraisal of Recent Evidence", National Institutes of Health, May 18-19, 1992.
14. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Morrison, Donna Ruane
Glei, Dana A.
Ebbing and Flowing, Learning and Growing: Family Economic Resources and Children's Development
Presented: Washington, DC, Workshop on Welfare and Child Development, sponsored by the Board on Children and Families and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Family and Child Well-Being Network, 1994
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Keyword(s): Child Development; Children, Well-Being; Family Resources; Family Studies

Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson, Donna Ruane Morrison and Dana A. Glei. "Ebbing and Flowing, Learning and Growing: Family Economic Resources and Children's Development." Presented: Washington, DC, Workshop on Welfare and Child Development, sponsored by the Board on Children and Families and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Family and Child Well-Being Network, 1994.
15. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Waite, Linda J.
Caldwell, Steven B.
Hofferth, Sandra L.
The Consequences of Age at First Childbirth: Educational Attainment
The Final Report, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 1978
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Children; Earnings; Educational Attainment; Family Influences; Fertility; First Birth; Income Dynamics/Shocks; Marriage; Schooling

The impact of a woman's age at the birth of her first child on the amount of schooling she completes was assessed using two national, longitudinal data sets. National Longitudinal Survey (NLS) analyses are based on annual interviews conducted between l968 and l972 with young women aged 14 to 24 in l968. Information on women aged 22 to 52 in l976, both wives and female heads, was obtained from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) interviews, which were conducted between l968 and l976. Results from analyses on both data sets indicate that early childbearing is associated with significant educational losses, even when the impact of family background, educational goals, and age at marriage are statistically controlled. There is some evidence that older women catch up slightly; but in no instance did even half of the women who became mothers at 17 or younger manage to complete high school. Losses appear to be particularly great for white teenage mothers and for young women who marry as teenagers.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson, Linda J. Waite, Steven B. Caldwell and Sandra L. Hofferth. "The Consequences of Age at First Childbirth: Educational Attainment." The Final Report, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 1978.
16. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Waite, Linda J.
Hofferth, Sandra L.
Caldwell, Steven B.
The Consequences of Age at First Childbirth: Marriage, Separation and Divorce
Final Report, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 1978
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Childbearing, Adolescent; Children; First Birth; Income Dynamics/Shocks; Marital Dissolution; Marriage; Teenagers

The impact of a woman's age at the birth of her first child on marriage, separation and divorce was assessed using two national longitudinal data sets. Analyses are based on annual interviews conducted between l968 and l972 with the Young Women's cohort of the NLS. Information on women aged 22 to 52 in l976, both wives and female heads, was obtained from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) interviews, which were conducted between l968 and l976. A link between early pregnancy and early marriage was confirmed. An issue of greater debate-the associations among early childbearing, early marriage, and subsequent marital dissolution, was explored in varied ways. Analyses indicate that early marriage, rather than an early birth, increases the probability of subsequent marital break- up. Early childbearing does contribute to marital break-up indirectly, however, since pregnancy is a factor that precipitates many teenage marriages.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson, Linda J. Waite, Sandra L. Hofferth and Steven B. Caldwell. "The Consequences of Age at First Childbirth: Marriage, Separation and Divorce." Final Report, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 1978.
17. Morrison, Donna Ruane
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Meyers, David E.
Maternal Age at First Birth and Children's Behavior and Cognitive Development
Presented: Bethesda, MA, NICHD Conference, "Outcomes of Early Childbearing: An Appraisal of Recent Evidence", May 1992
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at First Birth; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Behavioral Development; Fathers, Absence; Fertility; General Assessment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

The aim of this paper is to further illuminate the processes through which an early birth affects child well-being. Since it is not possible to capture the developmental status and well-being of a child with a single indicator, such as an IQ score, most child experts prefer a developmental profile that covers a breadth of dimensions or domains. For this reason, this study examines the effect of the mother's age at first birth on three measures related to the child's cognitive development and academic achievement -- the reading and mathematics sub-scales of the Peabody Individual Achievement Test cognitive, and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) -- and one measure of social behavior -- the child's score on the mother-rated Behavior Problems Index (BPI). The study uses a national-level sample of children and limits its analysis to first borns to eliminate the possible confounding influence of birth order. The explicit assumption of the present study is that the consequences of being born to a teenage mother do not derive from the mother's age per se, but are largely the product of the correlates of early child-bearing such as low maternal education and father absence, some of which reflect selectivity into early motherhood and some of which are consequences of the timing of her first birth.
Bibliography Citation
Morrison, Donna Ruane, Kristin Anderson Moore and David E. Meyers. "Maternal Age at First Birth and Children's Behavior and Cognitive Development." Presented: Bethesda, MA, NICHD Conference, "Outcomes of Early Childbearing: An Appraisal of Recent Evidence", May 1992.
18. Mott, Frank L.
Fertility-Related Data in the 1982 National Longitudinal Survey of Work Experience of Youth: An Evaluation of Data Quality & Some Preliminary Analytical Results
Report, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda MD, 1983
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Keyword(s): Abortion; Adolescent Fertility; Behavior; Birth Rate; Child Care; Contraception; Data Quality/Consistency; Fertility; Male Sample; Methods/Methodology; Sexual Activity; Teenagers; Wantedness

The quality of the fertility related data in the 1982 round of the NLSY is evaluated, and highlights of findings from these fertility data are summarized. The study specifies the potential magnitude of reporting errors, how these potential error levels are related to characteristics of the respondents, and the procedures used to clean up the fertility records. Differentials in period and cohort birth rates are also examined, as are sexual activity and contraception, birth wantedness, and pregnancy outcomes for selected respondent characteristics within cross tabular and multivariate frameworks. The multivariate results suggest the utility of a variety of background factors and more proximate respondent attitudes and behaviors for investigating a variety of adolescent and young adult fertility related attitudes and behavior.
Bibliography Citation
Mott, Frank L. "Fertility-Related Data in the 1982 National Longitudinal Survey of Work Experience of Youth: An Evaluation of Data Quality & Some Preliminary Analytical Results." Report, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda MD, 1983.
19. Upchurch, Dawn M.
Early Schooling and Childbearing Experiences: Implications for Post-Secondary School Attendance
Presented: Bethesda, MD, NICHD Conference, "Outcomes of Early Childbearing: An Appraisal of Recent Evidence", May 18-19, 1992
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Childbearing, Adolescent; Family Background; Fertility; Heterogeneity; Household Composition; Mothers, Education; Schooling, Post-secondary

A continuing research question among social scientists concerns the relationship between educational attainment and fertility, and of specific interest has been better understanding the relationship between educational attainment and adolescent fertility. Early studies suggested that adolescent mothers suffered educational deficits due primarily to the interruption of high school, thereby blocking their entry into post-secondary schooling. Later studies, recognizing that not all adolescent mothers drop out of high school permanently, suggested that even for those young mothers who were eligible to attend post-secondary school, their rates of entry and completion were lower than women who were not adolescent mothers. Fully understanding how adolescent childbearing and education are inter-linked is crucial to forming valid conclusions regarding the social consequences of adolescent childbearing, especially as they relate to poverty. This paper attempts to further define relevant categories of young women (based on their high school and childbearing experiences), to compare these groups conditioned on a number of characteristics, and to examine the impact on post-secondary school attendance. It is new in its approach because it considers fertility and schooling as joint decisions and allows for heterogeneity between the groups of women. In addition, it tests specific mechanisms by which adolescent mothers education might be hindered: "blockage" and "persistent disadvantage."
Bibliography Citation
Upchurch, Dawn M. "Early Schooling and Childbearing Experiences: Implications for Post-Secondary School Attendance." Presented: Bethesda, MD, NICHD Conference, "Outcomes of Early Childbearing: An Appraisal of Recent Evidence", May 18-19, 1992.