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Source: Monthly Labor Review
Resulting in 70 citations.
1. Andrisani, Paul J.
Kohen, Andrew I.
The Effects of Collective Bargaining as Measured for Men in Blue-Collar Jobs
Monthly Labor Review 100,3 (April 1977): 46-49
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Blue-Collar Jobs; Collective Bargaining; Racial Differences; Unemployment; Unions; Wages

This study examines the effect of collective bargaining coverage on hourly rates of pay, unemployment experiences, and growth in hourly earnings of young and middle-aged blue collar men. The authors find a significant and consistent positive impact of coverage on the level of hourly earnings but the impact of unions on joblessness and wage growth is more mixed. Age as well as race differences in these outcomes are noted and discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Andrisani, Paul J. and Andrew I. Kohen. "The Effects of Collective Bargaining as Measured for Men in Blue-Collar Jobs." Monthly Labor Review 100,3 (April 1977): 46-49.
2. Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen
Who Goes To College? Evidence From The NLSY97
Monthly Labor Review 131,8 (August 1, 2008): 33-43.
Also: http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2008/08/art3abs.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): College Education; Colleges; Ethnic Studies; Gender; High School Transcripts; Racial Studies

Estimates from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 show that sex, race, and ethnicity are unrelated to the student's decision to complete the first year of college, but are related to the decision to start college; high school grades, by contrast, affect both the decision to start college and the decision to stay in college for the first year. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen. "Who Goes To College? Evidence From The NLSY97." Monthly Labor Review 131,8 (August 1, 2008): 33-43.
3. Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen
Pierret, Charles R.
Rothstein, Donna S.
The National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth: Research Highlights
Monthly Labor Review (September 2015): .
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/monthlylaborrev.2015.09.006
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult, NLSY97
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Bureau of Labor Statistics; Data Sets Documentation; Research Methodology

To help mark the Monthly Labor Review's centennial, the editors invited several producers and users of BLS data to take a look back at the last 100 years. This article highlights research based on data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth. The studies presented demonstrate the breadth and uniqueness of the surveys, covering topics from employment and education to health and criminal behavior.
Bibliography Citation
Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen, Charles R. Pierret and Donna S. Rothstein. "The National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth: Research Highlights." Monthly Labor Review (September 2015): .
4. Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen
Robles, Omar
Sun, Hugette
Marriage and Divorce: Patterns by Gender, Race, and Educational Attainment
Monthly Labor Review (October 2013):.
Also: http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2013/article/marriage-and-divorce-patterns-by-gender-race-and-educational-attainment.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Divorce; Educational Attainment; Ethnic Differences; Gender Differences; Marriage; Racial Differences

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79), this article examines marriages and divorces of young baby boomers born during the 1957–1964 period. The article presents data on marriages and divorces by age, gender, race, and Hispanic origin, as well as by educational attainment.
Bibliography Citation
Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen, Omar Robles and Hugette Sun. "Marriage and Divorce: Patterns by Gender, Race, and Educational Attainment." Monthly Labor Review (October 2013):.
5. Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen
Sun, Hugette
Fertility of Women in the NLSY79
Monthly Labor Review (April 2016): .
Also: http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2016/article/fertility-of-women-in-the-nlsy79.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): College Degree; Educational Attainment; Family Size; Fertility; First Birth

This article uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79)—a survey of people born between 1957 and 1964—to examine the fertility patterns of women up to age 46. Women in the NLSY79 cohort have two children, on average, and more than 80 percent of them give birth to at least one child by age 46. The bulk of first births occur before age 30. Fertility patterns differ markedly by education. Women with a college degree are more than twice as likely as those who never attended college to have no children, with this pattern being stronger among Black and Hispanic women. Fertility is delayed as education increases. Patterns of fertility related to labor market experience are evident, but they are weaker than those related to educational attainment.
Bibliography Citation
Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen and Hugette Sun. "Fertility of Women in the NLSY79." Monthly Labor Review (April 2016): .
6. Black, Dan A.
Michael, Robert T.
Pierret, Charles R.
Knowing Younger Workers Better: Information from the NLSY97.
Monthly Labor Review 131,9 (September 1. 2008): 42-51.
Also: http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2008/09/art3abs.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Employment, Youth; NLS Description; Schooling; Wages, Youth

Papers from the 10th anniversary conference of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 cohort, addressed schooling, employment, adolescent behaviors, and many other aspects of youths lives [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Monthly Labor Review is the property of US Department of Labor and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Bibliography Citation
Black, Dan A., Robert T. Michael and Charles R. Pierret. "Knowing Younger Workers Better: Information from the NLSY97." Monthly Labor Review 131,9 (September 1. 2008): 42-51.
7. Boudett, Kathryn Parker
Murnane, Richard J.
Willett, John B.
'Second-Chance' Strategies for Women Who Drop Out of School
Monthly Labor Review 123,12 (December 2000): 19-31.
Also: http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2000/12/art2abs.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Earnings; Economics of Gender; Educational Returns; High School Dropouts; Human Capital; Job Tenure; Poverty; Training; Training, On-the-Job; Wage Differentials; Women's Education

This article investigates four educational opportunities pursued by young women who drop out of high school. It begins with a discussion of the mechanisms through which these educational investments may affect earnings, and offers a brief review of relevant research. It then documents the ways in which women who engage in educational activities differ from those who do not. Next discussed is the analytic strategy employed for distinguishing the effects of education and training on earnings from the effects of different preexisting characteristics on earnings. The article concludes with a presentation of the results of the study and a discussion of their significance. Findings include the fact that young female dropouts may make several kinds of educational investments, all of which enhance earned income markedly; for the average woman, however, the increase in earnings is not enough to lift a family out of poverty. Copyright Superintendent of Documents Dec 2000.
Bibliography Citation
Boudett, Kathryn Parker, Richard J. Murnane and John B. Willett. "'Second-Chance' Strategies for Women Who Drop Out of School." Monthly Labor Review 123,12 (December 2000): 19-31.
8. Bowers, Norman
Youth Labor Force Activity: Alternative Surveys Compared
Monthly Labor Review 104,3 (March 1981): 3-17.
Also: http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2000/12/art2abs.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; NLS of H.S. Class of 1972; Research Methodology; Teenagers; Unemployment, Youth

Important findings from this comparative analysis include: (1) all three longitudinal surveys reveal higher estimates of labor force participation ratios and employment-population ratios than does the CPS; (2) with the important exception of the newest NLS, unemployment rates are little different between studies; (3) raw inter- survey differences are, in many instances, not statistically significant; (4) comparisons of the full CPS with other one-time or yearly surveys ignore the problem of rotation group bias, a factor that certainly accounts for some of the inter-survey differences; (5) the discrepancies, especially between the CPS and the 1966 and 1979 NLS data, appear to be concentrated among young teenagers and those whose major activity is attending school, perhaps because of the marginal nature of their labor force activity. Again, however, the evidence for this proposition is only suggestive; (6) the focus on self versus proxy response as the cause of inter-survey variations probably obscures a number of other important influences that may be producing the differences.
Bibliography Citation
Bowers, Norman. "Youth Labor Force Activity: Alternative Surveys Compared." Monthly Labor Review 104,3 (March 1981): 3-17.
9. Bureau of Labor Statistics
Labor Month in Review
Monthly Labor Review 116,6 (June 1993): 2
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Labor Force Participation; Marital Status

Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women were used to track the experiences of women as they aged from 40 to 49 during the 1967-1986 period.
Bibliography Citation
Bureau of Labor Statistics. "Labor Month in Review." Monthly Labor Review 116,6 (June 1993): 2.
10. Bureau of Labor Statistics
Training
Monthly Labor Review 116,4 (April 1993): 2
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Hispanics; Racial Differences

According to data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, approximately 20 percent of individuals who were aged 25 to 33 in 1990 received employer-provided training between 1986 and 1990. Much of the disparity in training between men and women--22.3 percent of the men received training as compared to 18.4 percent of the women--originates from differences in the number of weeks worked by the 2 groups; among employees who had worked 200 weeks or more, the probability of women receiving training was similar to that of men. Further analysis indicates that, on average, training lasted twice as long for men as for women and lasted longer for blacks than for whites and Hispanics. To a great extent, workers who were more educated were more likely to receive training.
Bibliography Citation
Bureau of Labor Statistics. "Training." Monthly Labor Review 116,4 (April 1993): 2.
11. Bureau of Labor Statistics
Youth Employment
Monthly Labor Review 124,8 (August 2001): 3-67.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2001/08/contents.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Education; Educational Returns; Labor Force Participation; Labor Market Outcomes; Racial Differences; Teenagers; Youth Problems

Examines labor market experiences of teenagers aged 12-16; based on in-person interviews, Jan. 1997, as part of the US Bureau of Labor Statistics' (BLS) National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97); 6 articles.

Participation in school-to-work programs; profile of work activity; initiation into the labor market; relationship between work, education, and labor market outcomes; and differences among racial groups.

Bibliography Citation
Bureau of Labor Statistics. "Youth Employment ." Monthly Labor Review 124,8 (August 2001): 3-67.
12. Carrington, William J.
Fallick, Bruce C.
Do Some Workers Have Minimum Wage Careers?
Monthly Labor Review 124,5 (May 2001): 17-27.
Also: http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2001/05/art2abs.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): College Graduates; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Demography; High School Completion/Graduates; Minimum Wage; Wage Differentials; Wage Levels

Examines incidence of and proportion of time spent in minimum and near-minimum wage jobs among workers who have finished high school or college; based on the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979 (NLSY79); statistical analysis; US. Includes relative incidence of minimum wage jobholding across various demographic groups; in broader context of Current Population Survey (CPS) 1993-94.
Bibliography Citation
Carrington, William J. and Bruce C. Fallick. "Do Some Workers Have Minimum Wage Careers?" Monthly Labor Review 124,5 (May 2001): 17-27.
13. Cattan, Peter
Child-Care Problems: An Obstacle to Work
Monthly Labor Review 114,10 (October 1991): 3-9.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/opub/mlr/1991/10/art1abs.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Child Care; Educational Attainment; Employment, Intermittent; Hispanics; Maternal Employment; Poverty; Racial Differences; Unemployment

The lack of affordable child care can be a serious obstacle that prevents mothers of young children from seeking or holding employment. To examine this issue, data are derived from the NLSY, an ongoing sample of persons in the U.S. who, in 1986, were 21 to 29 years old. An estimated 1.1 million mothers in this age group said they were out of the labor force because of child care problems in 1986. They represented almost 14% of the total population of mothers in this age group and 23% of all people out of the labor force in 1986. Poor mothers were much more likely than other mothers to be out of the labor force due to child care problems, and minority mothers, particularly Hispanics, were more likely to be out of the labor force due to child care problems than mothers who were poor and lacked high school diplomas. [ABI/INFORM]
Bibliography Citation
Cattan, Peter. "Child-Care Problems: An Obstacle to Work." Monthly Labor Review 114,10 (October 1991): 3-9.
14. Chenoweth, Lillian Cochran
Maret-Havens, Elizabeth G.
Women's Labor Force Participation--A Look at Some Residential Patterns
Monthly Labor Review 101,3 (March 1978): 38-41
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Children; Earnings; Employment; Husbands, Influence; Marital Status; Rural Women; Rural/Urban Migration; Schooling; Urban and Regional Planning

Rural women--roughly one-third of the U.S. women--experience much less labor force activity than their urban counterparts. This study provides no support for the speculation that women in rural areas would be affected by greater opportunities for labor market activity. Conversely, the supply characteristics of rural women, although different in some respects from urban women, indicate a potentially large untapped resource for American labor.
Bibliography Citation
Chenoweth, Lillian Cochran and Elizabeth G. Maret-Havens. "Women's Labor Force Participation--A Look at Some Residential Patterns." Monthly Labor Review 101,3 (March 1978): 38-41.
15. Cobb-Clark, Deborah A.
Dunlop, Yvonne
The Role of Gender in Job Promotions
Monthly Labor Review 122,12 (December 1999): 32-38
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/opub/mlr/1999/12/art4abs.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Gender; Gender Differences; Job Promotion; Unemployment Rate

Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth indicate that most young men and women are promoted in their jobs on the basis of performance; although a gender gap in the rate of promotion does exist, the gap was smaller in 1996 than in 1990. This article examines the role of gender in the promotion process for young men and women early in their careers. It first highlights the qualitative nature of promotions and then focuses on who gets promoted by considering the characteristics of men and women who have been promoted. Finally, the relationship between labor market conditions-in particular, unemployment rates, and employment growth in industries and occupations-and promotion is assessed.
Bibliography Citation
Cobb-Clark, Deborah A. and Yvonne Dunlop. "The Role of Gender in Job Promotions." Monthly Labor Review 122,12 (December 1999): 32-38.
16. Davis, Joseph M.
Health and the Education-Earnings Relationship
Monthly Labor Review 96,4 (April 1973): 61-63
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Disabled Workers; Earnings; Educational Attainment; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale

Results from an examination of the relationship between educational attainment and annual earnings of healthy and unhealthy men show that earnings increase in a steady, upward direction through the entire range of educational attainment among healthy men, but not among disabled men.
Bibliography Citation
Davis, Joseph M. "Health and the Education-Earnings Relationship." Monthly Labor Review 96,4 (April 1973): 61-63.
17. Davis, Joseph M.
The Impact of Health on Earnings and Labor Market Activity
Monthly Labor Review 95,10 (October 1972): 46-49
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Earnings; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Unemployment

Results from a comparison of the earnings and the labor market activity of healthy and disabled men show that poor health negatively affects annual earnings through both total hours worked and hourly rates of pay. The effect on total hours worked is a consequence of differences between healthy and unhealthy men in number of weeks worked during the year. Time spent out of the labor force is more important than unemployment to explain the differences in weeks worked annually.
Bibliography Citation
Davis, Joseph M. "The Impact of Health on Earnings and Labor Market Activity." Monthly Labor Review 95,10 (October 1972): 46-49.
18. Dey, Judith G.
Pierret, Charles R.
Independence for Young Millennials: Moving Out and Boomeranging Back
Monthly Labor Review (December 2014): .
Also: http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2014/article/pdf/independence-for-young-millennials-moving-out-and-boomeranging-back.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Household Structure; Residence, Return to Parental Home/Delayed Homeleaving

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, this article examines the process of household formation for young adults born between 1980 and 1984. The analysis finds that, by age 27, about 90 percent of these individuals had left their parental households at least once and more than 50 percent of them had moved back at some point after moving out. The article also reveals that the likelihood of moving out and boomeranging back is correlated with certain individual and family characteristics, including gender, race, educational attainment, and household income.
Bibliography Citation
Dey, Judith G. and Charles R. Pierret. "Independence for Young Millennials: Moving Out and Boomeranging Back." Monthly Labor Review (December 2014): .
19. Fairlie, Robert W.
Self-employment, Entrepreneurship, and the NLSY79
Monthly Labor Review 128,2 (February 2005): 40-47.
Also: http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2005/02/art6exc.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Earnings; Longitudinal Surveys; Self-Employed Workers

Researchers have used the rich data from the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate the relationship between self-employment and various job and earnings outcomes; future inquiry may afford valuable insights into other interesting consequences of self-employment.

The NLSY79 is an excellent source of data for conducting research on self-employment and entrepreneurship. The wealth of information available in the survey allows one to build rich empirical models of the entrepreneurial process. Measures of previous wage and salary, self-employment, and unemployment experience can be created, and the NLSY79 contains several uncommon variables, such as those associated with detailed asset categories, family background information, data on criminal activities, Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) scores, and psychological characteristics. Furthermore, a plethora of measures of the dynamics of self-employment may be extracted from the longitudinal data in the survey. For example, measures of transitions to and from self-employment, number of years of self-employment, and whether an individual ever tries self-employment can easily be created. Finally, the returns to self-employment, measured as earnings, job satisfaction, net worth, or other outcomes, can be estimated. Changes over time in labor market status can be used to identify the effects of self-employment, potentially removing biases created by unobserved heterogeneity across individuals. Given these advantages, it is somewhat surprising that more researchers have not used the NLSY79 to study self-employment. In the sections that follow, this article presents estimates of self-employment from the NLSY79, reviews findings from previous studies that used the survey, and discusses some of the merits of the data sets making up the survey.

Bibliography Citation
Fairlie, Robert W. "Self-employment, Entrepreneurship, and the NLSY79." Monthly Labor Review 128,2 (February 2005): 40-47.
20. Ferber, Marianne A.
Waldfogel, Jane
Long-Term Consequences of Nontraditional Employment
Monthly Labor Review 121,5 (May 1998): 3-12.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/opub/mlr/1998/05/art1abs.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Benefits; Earnings; Employment; Human Capital; Manpower Research; Occupational Choice; Occupational Investment; Training, On-the-Job; Wage Growth; Work Experience

An article used 15 years of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine the possible effects of nontraditional employment and nontraditional work experience over time. It also examined the effects of changes in nontraditional employment on wage growth, to control for unobserved variation between those who are currently in, or ever have been in, nontraditional, as opposed to traditional, jobs. The results confirm that both men and women in nontraditional employment tend to have different earnings and benefits than those in traditional employment, whether or not other characteristics are controlled for.
Bibliography Citation
Ferber, Marianne A. and Jane Waldfogel. "Long-Term Consequences of Nontraditional Employment." Monthly Labor Review 121,5 (May 1998): 3-12.
21. Frazis, Harley Jay
Herz, Diane E.
Horrigan, Michael W.
Employer-provided Training: Results from a New Survey
Monthly Labor Review 118,5 (May 1995): 3-17.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/opub/mlr/1995/05/art1exc.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; High School Completion/Graduates; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP); Training, Occupational; Training, On-the-Job; Wage Gap

In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the role that training-especially job skills training-plays in the economy. Concerns over the competitiveness of U.S. labor in the globalized economy, the weak performance of labor productivity since 1973, and the widening gap between the earnings of high school graduates and the college educated workers are among the reasons cited to support increasing the training provided the U.S. work force. As researchers attempt to examine the potential impact of training on the economy, and as lawmakers wrestle with the question of the appropriate role of public policy, a growing need has arisen for more and better data on both the nature and the extent of private-sector training. To be sure, a rich array of data on the training received by individuals is provided by various household surveys, such as the Current Population Survey, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the Survey of Income and Program Participation, and the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. In contrast to this information, however, data on the nature and extent of training opportunities provided by private businesses are scarce. Indeed, a comprehensive data base containing such information simply does not exist. Despite the gap, academic researchers have been innovative in their use of the limited data that do exist. Some researchers have adopted a case study approach, others have used the information on training that can be found in existing Federal surveys, and still others have conducted their own surveys. Still, given the concerns over the competitiveness and relative productivity of U.S. industries, it is important that improved information on the nature of employer-provided training be collected.
Bibliography Citation
Frazis, Harley Jay, Diane E. Herz and Michael W. Horrigan. "Employer-provided Training: Results from a New Survey." Monthly Labor Review 118,5 (May 1995): 3-17.
22. Frazis, Harley Jay
Spletzer, James R.
Worker Training: What We've Learned from the NLSY79
Monthly Labor Review 128,2 (February 2005): 48-58.
Also: http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2005/02/art7exc.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Bureau of Labor Statistics; Human Capital Theory; Longitudinal Surveys; Training, Employee

The 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth has been a wellspring of knowledge about worker training and a valuable means of empirically testing human-capital theory.

How individuals obtain their skills and how they are paid for the use of those skills are concepts that are fundamental to the field of labor economics. Productive skills are often referred to as "human capital." The basic idea of human-capital theory is that workers invest in their own skills in order to earn higher wages, much as persons invest in financial or physical assets to earn income. Although this idea goes back at least to Adam Smith, modern human-capital research was originated in the late 1950s by economists Theodore Schultz, Jacob Mincer, and Gary Becker. Their ideas, focusing on investments in and returns to education and training, have provided the theoretical and empirical basis for decades of ensuing research.

Much of the empirical research on the topic of human capital has analyzed the relationship between education and wages. This focus on education is due to the abundance of high-quality data sources with information on both education and wages. For example, analysts using cross-sectional data from the Current Population Survey (CPS) have found that individuals in the United States receive earnings that are approximately 10 percent higher for every additional year of schooling they have completed. Kenneth I. Wolpin's article on education in this special edition of the Monthly Labor Review shows that, over the 15-year period between ages 25 and 39, a male college graduate earns 80 percent more than a male high school graduate without any college, and a male high school graduate earns 57 percent more than a high school dropout.

However, empirical research on training—the other key component of human capital--has lagged research on the economics of education. The human-capital model yields straightforward predictions about the relations hip of on-the-job training to wages, wage growth, and job mobility; still, as will become clear, testing these predictions requires good longitudinal microdata.

Bibliography Citation
Frazis, Harley Jay and James R. Spletzer. "Worker Training: What We've Learned from the NLSY79." Monthly Labor Review 128,2 (February 2005): 48-58.
23. Gabriel, Paul E.
Haugen, Steven E.
An Examination of Occupational Mobility among Full-Time Workers
Monthly Labor Review 126,9 (September 2003): 32-40.
Also: http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2003/09/art2abs.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Earnings; Gender Differences; Mobility, Job; Mobility, Occupational; Occupational Choice; Transition, Job to Job

As workers approached mid-career in the late 1990s, they saw an increase in their occupational stability; however, mobility rates varied between men and women in certain occupations

There is extensive literature on the processes that influence the occupational choices of workers. However, less attention is devoted to examining the rate at which workers move from one occupation to another. Fortunately, the availability of panel data sets makes it possible to measure the extent that workers shift jobs within the occupational distribution over time. This study explores recent trends in occupational mobility among full-time wage and salary workers in the United States as they move from young labor market entrants to their approach to mid-career. Our objective is to determine if their occupational mobility rates changed over time, and then to compare occupational mobility rates by gender.

The results of our analysis can provide an additional perspective on the recent increase in wage disparities between high- and low-income workers, an increase that has been well documented. In terms of equity, the recent increase in earnings inequality is generally viewed with concern among policymakers. However, several studies have suggested that an increase in labor-market mobility may actually counterbalance the growth in earnings inequality. This argument asserts that flexible labor markets provide ample opportunity for upward (and downward) mobility. Consequently, if an increase in the propensity of low-wage workers moves into higher-paying occupations, lifetime earnings inequality may be reduced in spite of increases in annual cross-sectional measures of labor-market inequality.

Bibliography Citation
Gabriel, Paul E. and Steven E. Haugen. "An Examination of Occupational Mobility among Full-Time Workers." Monthly Labor Review 126,9 (September 2003): 32-40.
24. Gabriel, Paul E.
Schmitz, Susanne
Gender Differences in Occupational Distributions Among Workers
Monthly Labor Review 130,6 (June 2007): 19-24.
Also: http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2007/06/art2full.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Occupational Attainment

An investigation of gender differences in occupational attainment of prime-age U.S. workers reveals that such differences do exist, especially among women, but apparently are the results of voluntary choices and long-term changes in the labor market.

DO WOMEN AND MEN ENCOUNTER unequal employment prospects across occupations, given their personal characteristics? Empirical evidence presented in this article indicates that gender differences in occupational distributions remained stable during the 1990s at levels comparable to those of the 1980s. The multinomial logit model of occupational attainment set forth here also detected a significant shift of women across occupational categories if their characteristics are evaluated according to the men's occupational structure. These shifts did not change significantly throughout the 1990s and are similar to comparable estimates from the late 1970s and 1980s. A more detailed examination of the occupational shifts occupational distribution predicts a movement of women from white-collar to blue-collar jobs. This is unlikely, however, especially in light of recent literature on occupational employment patterns and choice by gender. Thus, U.S. women in their thirties and forties do not appear to encounter significant levels of involuntary segregation across broad occupational categories. Although gender differences in occupational attainment persist, they apparently result from voluntary choices of men and women and from long-term changes in labor markets, such as the simultaneous growth of white-collar occupations and women's labor force participation rates.

Bibliography Citation
Gabriel, Paul E. and Susanne Schmitz. "Gender Differences in Occupational Distributions Among Workers." Monthly Labor Review 130,6 (June 2007): 19-24.
25. Gardecki, Rosella M.
Racial Differences in Youth Employment
Monthly Labor Review 124,8 (August 2001): 51-67.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2001/08/art6abs.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Child Care; Economics of Minorities; Employment, Youth; Family Studies; Fertility; Racial Differences

This article examines the factors that affect different types of jobholding among teens in order to understand employment decisions the youngest workers must confront, and how these decisions may differ by racial group. Data are from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. The article focuses on the individual, family, neighborhood, and spatial characteristics that affect jobholding among teens living in a parental household. The author finds that the employment of older teens may be considered a positive outcome, with further findings suggesting that future programs should address issues such as teen job opportunities and job search networks.
Bibliography Citation
Gardecki, Rosella M. "Racial Differences in Youth Employment." Monthly Labor Review 124,8 (August 2001): 51-67.
26. Gleason, Philip M.
Veum, Jonathan R.
Pergamit, Michael R.
Drug and Alcohol Use at Work: A Survey of Young Workers
Monthly Labor Review 114,8 (August 1991): 3-7.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/opub/mlr/1991/08/art1abs.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Drug Use; Gender Differences; Industrial Sector; Occupations; Racial Differences

This article uses data from the 1984 NLSY to examine the incidence of drug use on the job among young workers in the United States. It is found that drug use is higher among men than women, among whites than minorities, and among workers aged 19 to 23 than those aged 24 to 27. Blue-collar workers have higher rates of drug use than white-collar workers. Also, drug use is most common among young workers in entertainment/recreation and construction industries, and least common among those in professional services and public administration industries.
Bibliography Citation
Gleason, Philip M., Jonathan R. Veum and Michael R. Pergamit. "Drug and Alcohol Use at Work: A Survey of Young Workers." Monthly Labor Review 114,8 (August 1991): 3-7.
27. Handcock, Mark S.
Morris, Martina
Bernhardt, Annette
Comparing Earnings Inequality Using Two Major Surveys
Monthly Labor Review 123,3 (March 2000): 48-61.
Also: http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2000/03/art4full.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Earnings; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID)

Some previous research suggests that discrepancies exist between the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the Current Population Survey in terms of earnings trends; when the sample is limited to full-time, year-round workers, however, the discrepancies are largely eliminated. Much of the research on the growing dispersion of earnings has relied on the March supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS). As the research questions have turned to such issues as job instability and long-term wage growth, however, the focus often has shifted to longitudinal surveys, such as the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS). In a recent unpublished but widely cited paper, Peter Gottschalk and Robert A. Moffitt compare annual earnings trends from the PSID and two cohorts of the NLS with those of the CPS. The authors find that reported earnings in the PSID and the original NLS cohort show roughly the same trends as the CPS, although the magnitudes are quite different.
Bibliography Citation
Handcock, Mark S., Martina Morris and Annette Bernhardt. "Comparing Earnings Inequality Using Two Major Surveys." Monthly Labor Review 123,3 (March 2000): 48-61.
28. Hight, Joseph E.
Young Worker Participation in Post-School Education and Training
Monthly Labor Review 121,6 (June 1998): 14-21.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/opub/mlr/1998/06/art2abs.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Education; Employment, Youth; Inflation; Training; Training, Post-School

Although participation in post-school adult education and training has increased for all workers, data from the 1991 National Household Education Survey confirm that workers with more formal education are more likely to participate in employment-related training. The level of formal education attained by U.S. workers increased substantially during the 1970s and 1980s. Over the same period, real (inflation-adjusted) earnings declined for many workers, prompting some analysts to focus on the methods by which workers augment their skills once they have completed full-time schooling. Inquiry into the issue, however, has been hampered by a relative lack of data. Finally, the results of this study are compared with those of earlier studies that used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and the Current Population Survey (CPS).
Bibliography Citation
Hight, Joseph E. "Young Worker Participation in Post-School Education and Training." Monthly Labor Review 121,6 (June 1998): 14-21.
29. Hill, Elizabeth T.
The Labor Force Participation of Older Women: Retired? Working? Both?
Monthly Labor Review 125,9 (September 2002): 39-48.
Also: http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2002/09/art4abs.htm
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Career Patterns; Labor Force Participation; Part-Time Work; Re-employment; Retirees; Retirement; Work Reentry

Noneconomic factors--such as level of education, job flexibility in work hours, and physical stress--appear to influence older women's labor force participation more strongly than economic ones, resulting in many "retired" women who are employed.
Bibliography Citation
Hill, Elizabeth T. "The Labor Force Participation of Older Women: Retired? Working? Both?" Monthly Labor Review 125,9 (September 2002): 39-48.
30. Horrigan, Michael W.
Walker, James R.
NLSY97: An Introduction
Monthly Labor Review 124,8 (August 2001): 3-5.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2001/08/art1abs.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI); Education; Educational Attainment; Employment, Youth; Youth Problems

The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 follows the lives of 12- to 16-year-olds as they make pivotal decisions regarding education and employment. This issue of the Monthly Labor Review introduces readers to the newest addition to the family of surveys sponsored by the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS) Program of the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). Termed the NLSY97, the respondents to this survey are individuals who were aged 12 to 16 on December 31, 1996. The first set of interviews began January 1997 (hence, the NLSY97), and members of this longitudinal cohort have been interviewed on an annual basis ever since. This survey is conducted as an in-person interview, with the field interviewer entering the respondent's answers into a laptop computer--sometimes called a Computer Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI).

Designed as a longitudinal survey, the NLSY97 follows the lives of these young men and women as they make pivotal decisions as to whether they should continue their education after high school or choose an occupation and enter the world of work. We follow the progression of their lives as they become independent adults, settle into careers, form relationships, and make decisions about cohabitation, marriage, and the formation of families.

Bibliography Citation
Horrigan, Michael W. and James R. Walker. "NLSY97: An Introduction." Monthly Labor Review 124,8 (August 2001): 3-5.
31. Huang, Lynn
Pergamit, Michael R.
Shkolnik, Jamie
Youth Initiation into the Labor Market
Monthly Labor Review 124,8 (August 2001): 18-24.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2001/08/art3abs.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Absenteeism; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Drug Use; Employment, In-School; Employment, Youth; Labor Supply; Parents, Single; Part-Time Work; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Risk-Taking; School Performance; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Substance Use; Time Use; Work Hours

This article examines exclusively 12- and 13-year-olds, focusing on who holds jobs and the nature of those jobs. It asks whether early initiation into the labor market is associated with youths from upper income or more educated families, or if it occurs among youths who will not pursue advanced schooling; and does this work supplement household income in lower-income, single-parent families. It uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. The authors summarize that youths from families of higher socioeconomic status, with better school performance (as evidenced by Peabody Individual Achievement Test-Math scores), and who engage in positive time-use activities such as reading and homework are more likely to be employed. At the same time, youths who engage in risky behaviors or who have been suspended from school also have increased likelihood of early employment.
Bibliography Citation
Huang, Lynn, Michael R. Pergamit and Jamie Shkolnik. "Youth Initiation into the Labor Market." Monthly Labor Review 124,8 (August 2001): 18-24.
32. Joyce, Mary
Neumark, David B.
School-To-Work Programs: Information from Two Surveys
Monthly Labor Review 124,8 (August 2001): 38-50.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2001/08/art5abs.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Employment, Youth; High School; Transition, School to Work; Transitional Programs

Data from the 1996 School Administrator's Survey show that three-fifths of US high schools offer school-to-work programs, while data from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey show that nearly two-fifths of students participate in such programs; also, public high school students and those who work are more likely tol participate in school-to-work programs.
Bibliography Citation
Joyce, Mary and David B. Neumark. "School-To-Work Programs: Information from Two Surveys." Monthly Labor Review 124,8 (August 2001): 38-50.
33. Klerman, Jacob Alex
Karoly, Lynn A.
Young Men and the Transition to Stable Employment
Monthly Labor Review 117,8 (August 1994): 31-48,
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/opub/mlr/1994/08/art4abs.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Employment, Youth; Job Tenure; Labor Turnover; Part-Time Work; Transition, School to Work

The transition from school to work among male high school students is more heterogeneous and successful than is normally assumed. Data are from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. A sample of young men from 1978-90 is used to estimate the distribution of their ages at entrance into jobs lasting various lengths of time, researchers found that by age 20 half of all graduates have jobs that will last more than two years and that by age 22 half have jobs that will last more than three years. This refutes the widely held belief that young males flounder from one short-term job to another until their mid-twenties. There is, however, a significant difference between and within the school-leaving groups examined. Although the foregoing characterization holds for the median male high school graduate, those in the 75th percentile did not reach a job with one, two, or three years of tenure until the ages of 20, 23, and 25, respectively.
Bibliography Citation
Klerman, Jacob Alex and Lynn A. Karoly. "Young Men and the Transition to Stable Employment." Monthly Labor Review 117,8 (August 1994): 31-48,.
34. Labor Month In Review
Young Adults at 23
Monthly Labor Review 134,2 (February 2011): .2-2.
Also: http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2011/02/mlr201102.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): College Graduates; Education; Educational Attainment; Educational Outcomes; Gender Differences; High School Dropouts; NLS Description

This month, BLS released its latest findings from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 regarding school enrollment, training, and employment transitions of young people. The survey is a nationally representative study of about 9,000 young men and women who were born from 1980 to 1984. Among its many findings, the report indicates that a gender gap exists in educational attainment, with nearly 1 in 4 women having earned a bachelor’s degree by age 23 but only 1 in 7 men having done so. The data also indicate that the labor force status of 23-year-olds differed significantly by educational attainment--89 percent of those with a bachelor’s degree who were no longer enrolled in school were employed, as compared with 60 percent of high school dropouts. Additional information can be found on the National Longitudinal Surveys Web site at http://www.bls.gov/nls/.
Bibliography Citation
Labor Month In Review. "Young Adults at 23." Monthly Labor Review 134,2 (February 2011): .2-2.
35. Light, Audrey L.
Job Mobility and Wage Growth: Evidence from the NLSY79
Monthly Labor Review 128,2 (February 2005): 33-39.
Also: http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2005/02/art5exc.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Employment; Employment, History; Job Turnover; Labor Market Surveys; Longitudinal Surveys; Transfers, Skill; Wage Growth

Data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth provide an unusually complete history of employment experiences; analyses of why workers separate from their employers, frequencies of these separations, and job mobility's impact on earnings reveal that today's labor markets are far more dynamic than previously realized.

One phenomenon that has received considerable scrutiny is the persistent, voluntary job mobility of young workers. In the mid 1970s, economists began using search-theoretic models to explain why information costs compel workers to systematically "shop" for a better job. The idea is that workers cannot immediately locate firms where their skills are valued the most highly, so upon accepting a job offer they continue to search for an even better outside opportunity. Workers might also learn over time that their current job is not as productive as they initially predicted. New information regarding outside offers or the current job is predicted to lead to a worker-initiated job separation. Empirical researchers have used longitudinal data to determine which theoretical models are supported by the data and to identify the contribution of "job shopping" to life-cycle wage growth.

A related issue of long-standing concern is the effect of job immobility on wage growth. Human capital models predict that wages rise with job seniority when workers "lock in" and invest in firm-specific skills. Because these skills cannot be transferred to a new job if a separation occurs, workers and firms agree to share the costs and benefits of the investment--and the worker's return on the shared investment takes the form of within-job wage growth above and beyond any gains due to the acquisition of general (transferable) skills. A variety of agency models provide alternative explanations for upward sloping wage-tenure profiles. In these models, employers defer wages as a means of discouraging workers from quitting or shirking; stated differently, they require workers to "post a bond" as an incentive to sustain the employment relationship. Longitudinal data have proved to be essential for assessing the merits of these theoretical models and identifying the effect of tenure on wages.

Bibliography Citation
Light, Audrey L. "Job Mobility and Wage Growth: Evidence from the NLSY79." Monthly Labor Review 128,2 (February 2005): 33-39.
36. Manser, Marilyn E.
Pergamit, Michael R.
Peterson, Wanda B.
National Longitudinal Surveys: Development and Uses
Monthly Labor Review 113,7 (July 1990): 32-37.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/opub/mlr/1990/07/contents.htm
Cohort(s): NLS General
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Labor Market Surveys; Longitudinal Data Sets; Longitudinal Surveys; Mobility; NLS Description; Transition, School to Work; Well-Being

This paper summarizes NLS data used by economists, sociologists, and other researchers to examine such policy issues as employment and earnings; educational experience, achievement, and the transition from school to work; training programs; geographic mobility; relationships between the workplace and the well-being of the family; attitudes toward the military; and the retirement behavior of older workers. [ERIC EJ-412643]
Bibliography Citation
Manser, Marilyn E., Michael R. Pergamit and Wanda B. Peterson. "National Longitudinal Surveys: Development and Uses." Monthly Labor Review 113,7 (July 1990): 32-37.
37. Maret-Havens, Elizabeth G.
Developing an Index to Measure Female Labor Force Attachment
Monthly Labor Review 100,5 (May 1977): 35-38
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Employment; Employment, Intermittent; Labor Force Participation; Occupations, Female; Part-Time Work; Work Attachment

The labor force participation of mature American women is highly variable. Not only is there variation among women as to whether there is participation at a given point in time, but among working women, the nature or extent of their participation varies markedly. Five types of labor force attachment are identified on the basis of an attachment index. Each is characteristic of an important segment of women who participate in the American labor force.
Bibliography Citation
Maret-Havens, Elizabeth G. "Developing an Index to Measure Female Labor Force Attachment." Monthly Labor Review 100,5 (May 1977): 35-38.
38. Maret, Elizabeth G.
How Women's Health Affects Labor Force Attachment
Monthly Labor Review 105,4 (April 1982): 56-58
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Health Factors; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Labor Force Participation; Maret-Havens Formula; Part-Time Work; Wives, Work; Work Attachment; Work History

The findings of this research indicate that: (1) the supply of labor varies significantly among health categories for both white and black women; (2) although health is correlated with labor force attachment for both races, it is more important in the labor supply of blacks than of whites; and (3) differences in the labor supplied by black and by white women increase under conditions of excellent and good health, but virtually disappear under conditions of poor health.
Bibliography Citation
Maret, Elizabeth G. "How Women's Health Affects Labor Force Attachment." Monthly Labor Review 105,4 (April 1982): 56-58.
39. Mueller, Charles F.
Migration of the Unemployed: A Relocation Assistance Program
Monthly Labor Review 104,4 (April 1981): 62-64.
Also: http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/1981/04/rpt3full.pdf
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Job Search; Migration; Unemployment

The Job Search and Relocation Assistance Program furnishes financial and other assistance to Employment Service registrants who are willing to relocate to find employment for which they are qualified by reason of training and experience. As a result of questions about the operating practices of the program, the migratory experiences of the unemployed were analyzed, using data different from that of the Job Search and Relocation Assistance Program. The data chosen was taken from the NLS of Young Men. It seems that the Job Search and Relocation Assistance Program's policy of restricting enrollment to persons willing to relocate may be overly exclusionary. Also, since friends and relatives at the destination are an important factor in the migration of the unemployed, the program should continue to encourage the use of such contacts in placing relocatees.
Bibliography Citation
Mueller, Charles F. "Migration of the Unemployed: A Relocation Assistance Program." Monthly Labor Review 104,4 (April 1981): 62-64.
40. Nardone, Thomas
Veum, Jonathan R.
Yates, Julie A.
Measuring Job Security
Monthly Labor Review 120,6 (June 1997): 26-33.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/opub/mlr/1997/06/art3abs.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Event History; Job Search; Job Tenure; Job Turnover; Self-Employed Workers

The Bureau of Labor Statistics has collected some information that can be used to analyze job security in the United States. In periodic supplements to the Current Population Survey, individuals are asked about job tenure. In February 1995, the Bureau conducted the first supplement designed to obtain more information on contingent jobs and alternative employment arrangements. In this article, data from recent CPS supplements are used to examine the quality and the nature of variables that are utilized to measure job security.
Bibliography Citation
Nardone, Thomas, Jonathan R. Veum and Julie A. Yates. "Measuring Job Security." Monthly Labor Review 120,6 (June 1997): 26-33.
41. Noonan, Mary Christine
Glass, Jennifer L.
The Hard Truth about Telecommuting
Monthly Labor Review 135,6 (June 2012): 38-45.
Also: http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2012/06/art3exc.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Telecommuting; Work Experience; Work Hours; Work, Atypical

Telecommuting has not permeated the American workplace, and where it has become commonly used, it is not helpful in reducing work-family conflicts; telecommuting appears, instead, to have become instrumental in the general expansion of work hours, facilitating workers’ needs for additional worktime beyond the standard workweek and/or the ability of employers to increase or intensify work demands among their salaried employees.
Bibliography Citation
Noonan, Mary Christine and Jennifer L. Glass. "The Hard Truth about Telecommuting." Monthly Labor Review 135,6 (June 2012): 38-45.
42. Oettinger, Gerald S.
Seasonal and Sectoral Patterns in Youth Employment
Monthly Labor Review 123,4 (April 2000): 6-12.
Also: http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2000/04/art2full.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Education; Education Indicators; Educational Attainment; Statistical Analysis; Unemployment, Youth

The seasonal and sectoral patterns in youth unemployment are examined using data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLYS79). The panel structure and detailed educational data in the NLSY79 allow youths to be reliably distinguished by educational attainment and current enrollment status. Copyright: Copyright Superintendent of Documents Apr 2000.
Bibliography Citation
Oettinger, Gerald S. "Seasonal and Sectoral Patterns in Youth Employment." Monthly Labor Review 123,4 (April 2000): 6-12.
43. Olsen, Randall J.
Problem of Respondent Attrition: Survey Methodology is Key
Monthly Labor Review 128,2 (February 2005): 63-70.
Also: http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2005/02/art9exc.htm
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Attrition; Longitudinal Surveys; Methods/Methodology

Longitudinal surveys will suffer from attrition and nothing will change that; however, years of lessons learned in the field show that straightforward survey methodology can minimize the impact of losing respondents.

The central problem of longitudinal surveys is attrition. The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth in 1979 (NLSY79), which this issue of the Monthly Labor Review features, is the gold standard for sample retention against which longitudinal surveys are usually measured. However, we cannot understand how the NLSY79 has done so well without considering what was done differently in the other cohorts of the NLS and what we have learned by formal evaluations of attrition aversion measures that evolved over a quarter century of field work. The lessons here are hard-won and, to some, unconventional.

Background
The NLS began in 1965 at the urging of an Assistant Secretary of Labor, Daniel Patrick Moynihan. He believed that although the Current Population Survey provided crucial snapshots of the Nation's labor force and labor market, the Nation needed a data source that was more dynamic and capable of tracking the long-run evolution of careers. The task of starting the study went to Howard Rosen at the Department of Labor, who enlisted Herb Parnes from Ohio State University, to assemble a team, design the surveys, and analyze the data. This team comprised representatives from the Census Bureau, Ohio State University, and the Department of Labor.

The original plan was to follow the cohorts for 5 years to study some of the pressing questions of the time—the shrinking labor force participation rate of older men, the problem of youth unemployment and the transition from school to work, and the growing labor force participation of women whose children were entering school, leading to steady growth in the number of working mothers. Childcare was an important issue along with the problem of how the family would pay for a college education for the children of the baby boom.

Bibliography Citation
Olsen, Randall J. "Problem of Respondent Attrition: Survey Methodology is Key." Monthly Labor Review 128,2 (February 2005): 63-70.
44. Parnes, Herbert S.
Inflation and Early Retirement: Recent Longitudinal Findings
Monthly Labor Review 104,7 (July 1981): 27-30.
Also: http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/1981/07/rpt1full.pdf
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Harris Poll; Inflation; Retirees; Retirement

The potential effects of continuing high rates of inflation on retirement decisions are unclear, despite a 1978 poll by Louis Harris which has been taken as an indication that high inflation is causing many men to postpone retirement. The trend toward earlier retirement discernible in the longitudinal data between 1966 and 1976 continued without interruption between 1976 and 1978. Moreover, men who had been retired in 1976 showed only slightly more interest in postretirement jobs in 1978 than they had in l976. The more recent retirees, who had retired between 1976 and 1978, were only slightly more likely to be working, 13 percent versus 10 percent. Retirees were not unmindful of the impact of rising prices, but the chief manifestation of their concern was in the expression of less satisfaction with their economic circumstances.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. "Inflation and Early Retirement: Recent Longitudinal Findings." Monthly Labor Review 104,7 (July 1981): 27-30.
45. Parnes, Herbert S.
Longitudinal Surveys: Prospects and Problems
Monthly Labor Review 95,2 (February 1972): 11-15
Cohort(s): NLS General
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Longitudinal Surveys; NLS Description; Research Methodology

This paper discusses the design of the NLS studies, the types of data being collected, some of the unique contributions of longitudinal analyses of labor market phenomena, and certain methodological problems of this type of research.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. "Longitudinal Surveys: Prospects and Problems." Monthly Labor Review 95,2 (February 1972): 11-15.
46. Parnes, Herbert S.
Spitz, Ruth S.
A Conceptual Framework for Studying Labor Mobility
Monthly Labor Review 92,11 (November 1969): 55-58
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Earnings; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Work Attitudes; Work History

A discussion of a method of measuring mobility as a propensity to change jobs in response to economic incentives using data from two national samples of employed men leads to the conclusion that labor mobility is a much more complex phenomenon than would be imagined on the basis of conventional labor market theory, which tends to perceive labor as a more or less homogeneous and fluid factor continuously flowing in the direction of net economic advantage.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. and Ruth S. Spitz. "A Conceptual Framework for Studying Labor Mobility." Monthly Labor Review 92,11 (November 1969): 55-58.
47. Pergamit, Michael R.
Krishnamurty, Parvati
Multiyear Nonfatal Work Injury Rates
Monthly Labor Review 129,5 (May 2006): 35-38.
Also: http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2006/05/art5full.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Education; Injuries, Workplace

Longitudinal data (editor: NLSY79) indicate a higher rate of nonfatal workplace injuries than might be expected from annual statistics; less educated workers, whose jobs often involve considerable physical activity, have a substantial risk of on-the-job injury.
Bibliography Citation
Pergamit, Michael R. and Parvati Krishnamurty. "Multiyear Nonfatal Work Injury Rates." Monthly Labor Review 129,5 (May 2006): 35-38.
48. Peterson, James Lloyd
Work and Socioeconomic Life Cycles: An Agenda for Longitudinal Research
Monthly Labor Review 102,2 (February 1979): 23-27
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Life Cycle Research; Longitudinal Surveys; Research Methodology; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Some of the major themes concerning longitudinal surveys are summarized in the form of a brief agenda for socioeconomic life cycle research. The author goes on to suggest that several ancillary surveys, designed to complement the NLS by testing new content before it is incorporated into the main set of instruments and to check the validity and reliability of existing measures should be instituted. Thus, a foundation would be laid to judge which measures work well and which should be discontinued in favor of those showing more promise.
Bibliography Citation
Peterson, James Lloyd. "Work and Socioeconomic Life Cycles: An Agenda for Longitudinal Research." Monthly Labor Review 102,2 (February 1979): 23-27.
49. Pierret, Charles R.
'Sandwich Generation': Women Caring for Parents and Children
Monthly Labor Review 129,9 (September 2006): 3-9.
Also: http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2006/09/art1full.pdf
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Caregivers, Adult Children; Women

Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women are used to estimate the number and characteristics of women 45 to 56 years old who care for both their children and their parents; these women transfer a significant amount of money to their children and time to their parents.
Bibliography Citation
Pierret, Charles R. "'Sandwich Generation': Women Caring for Parents and Children." Monthly Labor Review 129,9 (September 2006): 3-9.
50. Pierret, Charles R.
The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth: 1979 Cohort at 25
Monthly Labor Review 128,2 (February 2005): 3-7.
Also: http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2005/02/art1exc.htm
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Bureau of Labor Statistics; Longitudinal Surveys; NLS Description

The 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth has been a font of information for researchers of all stripes; the Monthly Labor Review brings together the results of research on topics ranging from employment, to attrition in the survey, to data on education, to the children of survey respondents.

This issue of the Monthly Labor Review celebrates the 25th anniversary of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 Cohort (NLSY79). The National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS) program, of which the NLSY79 is the flagship survey, is a bit of an anomaly among the Bureau of Labor Statistics many data collection efforts. None of the Bureau's key economic indicators relies on NLS data. Only a couple of the more than one hundred press releases the Bureau publishes each year involve data collected by the NLS program. It is doubtful that financial markets ever will react strongly to the release of NLS data. And unlike the current employment statistics, the inflation statistics, or the unemployment rate, measures from the NLSY79 are not likely to be discussed in everyday conversation or even in the business news.

Yet, the NLSY79 has been extremely influential. Over the last 25 years, it has provided the data for thousands of Ph.D. dissertations, working papers, journal articles, and books that have shaped theory and knowledge in disciplines such as economics, sociology, education, psychology, and health sciences. The survey's primary constituency includes hundreds of researchers within universities, think tanks, and government agencies both in the United States and abroad. Because of its quality, breadth, and thoroughness, the NLSY79 has become probably the most analyzed longitudinal data set in the social sciences. Almost every issue of leading labor economics and demography journals contain at least one article that uses NLSY79 data.

Bibliography Citation
Pierret, Charles R. "The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth: 1979 Cohort at 25." Monthly Labor Review 128,2 (February 2005): 3-7.
51. Polivka, Anne E.
Contingent and Alternative Work Arrangements, Defined
Monthly Labor Review 119,10 (October 1996): 3-9.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/opub/mlr/1996/10/art2abs.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Absenteeism; Benefits, Fringe; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Labor Economics; Labor Supply; Part-Time Work; Time Use; Work Attitudes

There is a growing sense that employers, in their attempts to reduce costs, have increased their use of employment intermediaries and are relying more on alternative staffing arrangements. This article discusses the definitions of contingent workers and alternative work arrangements used by the Bureau of Labor Statistics to analyze data from a special supplement to the Current Population Survey, and presents aggregate estimates of workers in each group thus identified. Data from the 1994 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth also are used. The conclusion discusses the overlap between contingent workers and workers in alternative arrangements.
Bibliography Citation
Polivka, Anne E. "Contingent and Alternative Work Arrangements, Defined." Monthly Labor Review 119,10 (October 1996): 3-9.
52. Presser, Harriet B.
Ward, Brian W.
Nonstandard Work Schedules over the Life Course: A First Look
Monthly Labor Review 134,7 (July 2011): 3-16.
Also: http://bls.gov/opub/mlr/2011/07/art1exc.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Maternal Employment; Racial Differences; Shift Workers; Work Experience; Work Histories; Work History; Work Hours; Work, Atypical

High percentages of Americans work nonstandard schedules over the course of their worklife; almost 90 percent of those ages 14 to 18 in 1979 had at least one such experience by age 39, with some marked differences by gender, race or ethnicity, and education.
Bibliography Citation
Presser, Harriet B. and Brian W. Ward. "Nonstandard Work Schedules over the Life Course: A First Look." Monthly Labor Review 134,7 (July 2011): 3-16.
53. Rothstein, Donna S.
An Analysis of Long-term Unemployment
Monthly Labor Review (July 2016): .
Also: http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2016/article/an-analysis-of-long-term-unemployment.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Racial Differences; Unemployment; Unemployment Duration

This article uses the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) to examine long-term unemployment of men in the United States during their early careers and midcareers. Over 22 percent of men in the sample experienced at least one long-term spell of unemployment from their mid-20s through 2009. On average, the first spell lasted over 1 year. Logit estimates from hazard models showed that being black, having lower educational attainment, and having lower cognitive skills were associated with increased odds of having a long-term spell of unemployment in any given month. Hazard estimates also showed that black men had decreased odds of reemployment in any given month after onset of a long-term spell. Having a higher cognitive test score, being younger, and having been displaced on the prior job were associated with increased odds of reemployment. The wage costs of a long-term spell were persistent with wage losses found 5 years after onset of the first long-term unemployment spell.
Bibliography Citation
Rothstein, Donna S. "An Analysis of Long-term Unemployment." Monthly Labor Review (July 2016): .
54. Rothstein, Donna S.
Entry into and Consequences of Nonstandard Work Arrangements
Monthly Labor Review 119,10 (October 1996): 75-82.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/opub/mlr/1996/10/art7abs.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Benefits, Fringe; Childbearing; Demography; Employment; Event History; Labor Market Demographics; Labor Supply; Marital Status; Time Use; Work Ethic

Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth suggest that recent occurrences such as the birth of a child can affect the likelihood of entering different types of employment arrangements. This article explores the impact on workers aged 29 to 37 of being in a nonstandard employment arrangement. It examines the distribution of workers among various employment arrangements, then looks at aspects of work behavior and life "events" that may have influenced the likelihood of working in a nonstandard arrangement. It compares wages and hours worked on the previous job with those on the current nonstandard employment arrangements.
Bibliography Citation
Rothstein, Donna S. "Entry into and Consequences of Nonstandard Work Arrangements." Monthly Labor Review 119,10 (October 1996): 75-82.
55. Rothstein, Donna S.
Leaving a Job during the Great Recession: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979
Monthly Labor Review (December 2016):.
Also: https://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2018/article/leaving-a-job-during-the-great-recession-evidence-from-the-national-longitudinal-survey-of-youth-1979.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Cognitive Ability; Economic Changes/Recession; Educational Attainment; Exits; Labor Force Participation

This article uses longitudinal data from a nationally representative sample of young baby boomers to examine job leaving during a study period that runs from the early months of the Great Recession through a full year after the recession ended. Of the men and women who had worked at least 30 hours per week during the 6 weeks before the study period, more than 20 percent left a job at some point during this period. Men and women who left a job during the period tended to have lower educational attainment and lower cognitive test scores than those who did not leave a job. Job leavers experienced a large shift out of the labor force in the years after the recession ended, whereas those who did not leave a job experienced a more gradual shift.
Bibliography Citation
Rothstein, Donna S. "Leaving a Job during the Great Recession: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979." Monthly Labor Review (December 2016):.
56. Rothstein, Donna S.
Youth Employment During School: Results from Two Longitudinal Surveys
Monthly Labor Review 124,8 (August 2001): 25-37
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2001/08/art4abs.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Absenteeism; College Enrollment; Educational Attainment; Employment, In-School; Employment, Part-Time; Employment, Youth; Labor Market Outcomes; Work Hours

Students who worked 20 or fewer hours per week during the school year were more likely to attend college; youths who worked a greater percentage of weeks during the school year worked more consistently when they reached ages 18 to 30. According to a popular perception, youths work more today than in the past and their employment may not always lead to desirable consequences. The concern is that a young person's employment, particularly when the individual works many hours, may reduce study time, increase school lateness and absenteeism rates, and adversely affect grades. However, a youth's employment also may provide some positive benefits, teaching about workplace norms and responsibilities and helping to ease the person's subsequent transition from school to work full time. In addition, these costs and benefits associated with a person's working while young could have an impact on the individual's long-term educational and labor market outcomes.

The first part of this article compares the employment of today's youth with that of a youth cohort from nearly 20 years ago. It asks whether 15- and 16-year-olds are, in fact, more likely to work today and examines whether the likelihood of a young person's being employed while attending school varies across youths with different demographic characteristics. Also examined in this part is how the distribution of hours of work of 16-year-olds varies across the two cohorts. Data come from the first round of a new survey of youth -- the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) -- and from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79). In the first round of each survey, 15- and 16-year-olds answered similar questions about their current employment status and hours of work. In addition, many demographic measures that may be associated with youths' decisions to work are similar across the two surveys.

Bibliography Citation
Rothstein, Donna S. "Youth Employment During School: Results from Two Longitudinal Surveys." Monthly Labor Review 124,8 (August 2001): 25-37.
57. Rothstein, Donna S.
Youth Employment in the United States
Monthly Labor Review 124,8 (August 2001): 6-17.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2001/08/art2abs.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Employment, Youth; Ethnic Groups; Family Structure; Gender Differences; Household Income; Racial Differences; Teenagers; Work Experience

Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 show substantial work activity among 14- and 15-year-olds. Today's youths commonly gain employment experience through working for a particular employer, such as a fast-food restaurant, or through a less formal arrangement, such as babysitting for a neighbor. The purpose of this article is to provide a detailed profile of the employment of today's youths using round-1 data from a new survey of youth: the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. The article reports the incidence, intensity, and timing of youth employment, shows the industries and occupations in which youths commonly work, and examines employment differences across gender, race, ethnic group, household income, and family structure.
Bibliography Citation
Rothstein, Donna S. "Youth Employment in the United States." Monthly Labor Review 124,8 (August 2001): 6-17.
58. Shapiro, David
Mott, Frank L.
Effects of Selected Variables on Work Hours of Young Women
Monthly Labor Review 106,7 (July 1983): 31-34.
Also: http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/1983/07/rpt1full.pdf
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Fertility; Labor Supply; Work Hours

This research summary reports on estimates of the determinants of hours of work among women in their twenties for the two periods, 1968-73 and 1973-78. Educational attainment and fertility status are key determinants of hours worked among both blacks and whites, and husband's earnings are significantly associated with the hours of work of white wives. Over the course of the decade, there is a pattern among both whites and blacks of reduced impact on labor supply of being married and of husband's earnings, lesser effect of educational attainment among non-mothers and larger effects of schooling among mothers. There is a clear trend toward greater work activity among mothers, and it is the better- educated (high-wage) mothers who are leading the way.
Bibliography Citation
Shapiro, David and Frank L. Mott. "Effects of Selected Variables on Work Hours of Young Women." Monthly Labor Review 106,7 (July 1983): 31-34.
59. Shaw, Lois B.
Shapiro, David
Women's Work Plans: Contrasting Expectations and Actual Work Experience
Monthly Labor Review 110,11 (November 1987): 7-13.
Also: http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/1987/11/art2abs.htm
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Children; Earnings; Educational Attainment; Family Influences; Labor Force Participation; Wages; Work Attachment; Work Attitudes; Work Experience

Utilizing data from the Young Women's cohort, this paper examines how young women's work plans affect their subsequent work experiences and earnings. It was found that those young women who planned to be in the labor market at age 35 were more likely to be employed when they reached that age. Planning to work, in fact, yielded a significant net wage advantage. Women in their mid-thirties who had, throughout their twenties, consistently planned to work had wages that were nearly thirty percent higher than those of women who had never planned to work even after controlling for work experience and other determinants of wage rates. This wage advantage was even greater for those women who were employed in occupations in which they had expected to be employed.
Bibliography Citation
Shaw, Lois B. and David Shapiro. "Women's Work Plans: Contrasting Expectations and Actual Work Experience." Monthly Labor Review 110,11 (November 1987): 7-13.
60. Sproat, Kezia
How Do Families Fare When the Breadwinner Retires?
Monthly Labor Review 106,12 (December 1983): 40-44.
Also: http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/1983/12/art7abs.htm
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Employment; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Income Dynamics/Shocks; Leisure; Life Satisfaction; Retirement

This review article focuses on recent NLS-based research on retirement. Using the older men's data, researchers have found stark differences in the effects of retirement on family life, depending on the retiree's reason for leaving the work force. Poor health forces many to retire early and the families of such men often suffer economic disadvantages; but the trend to early retirement is largely driven by the increasing attractiveness of pensions with early retirement provisions, which make retirement economically feasible for those covered by such plans. The 1980 NLS survey also included questions about leisure time activities, attitudes toward retirement and life satisfaction. Health, occupational level, and family income influenced the extent of purposeful leisure time activities, which in turn influenced satisfaction. Women's retirement plans were independent of their husbands' except when both spouses were the same age.
Bibliography Citation
Sproat, Kezia. "How Do Families Fare When the Breadwinner Retires?" Monthly Labor Review 106,12 (December 1983): 40-44.
61. Sproat, Kezia
Using National Longitudinal Surveys to Track Young Workers
Monthly Labor Review 102,10 (October 1979): 28-33
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Employment; Unemployment, Youth

How can young people's employment difficulties be resolved, or better still, prevented? Data from the NLS of Young Men, Young Women, and NLSY hold rich potential for answering questions about labor force dynamics as they affect youth employment and unemployment. This article summarizes recent findings and ongoing research based on the three NLS youth cohorts.
Bibliography Citation
Sproat, Kezia. "Using National Longitudinal Surveys to Track Young Workers." Monthly Labor Review 102,10 (October 1979): 28-33.
62. Veum, Jonathan R.
Interrelation of Child Support, Visitation, and Hours of Work
Monthly Labor Review 115,6 (June 1992): 40-47.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/opub/mlr/1992/06/art4abs.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Child Care; Child Support; Fathers, Absence; Hispanics; Maternal Employment

This article focuses on employment and other characteristics of mothers with custody of children, and of absent fathers, by father's child support payment and visitation practices, 1988. Data are from National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. It includes 5 tables that show mothers and absent fathers aged 23-31, by marital status, educational attainment, race, Hispanic origin, distance father lives from child and frequency of visits, whether employed in previous year, and annual earnings and hours worked; and mothers, by child care expenditures in last four weeks, and average expenditures; all by whether father pays child support and visits children, 1988.
Bibliography Citation
Veum, Jonathan R. "Interrelation of Child Support, Visitation, and Hours of Work." Monthly Labor Review 115,6 (June 1992): 40-47.
63. Veum, Jonathan R.
Training Among Young Adults: Who, What Kind, and for How Long?
Monthly Labor Review 116,8 (August 1993): 27-32.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/opub/mlr/1993/08/art3abs.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Apprenticeships; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Employment, Youth; Hispanics; Minorities; Training; Training, Off-the-Job; Vocational Training

Investments in education and training are widely expected to improve the U.S. position in the global market by improving worker productivity. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth found that 38% of young adults received training between 1986 and 1991. The types of training included company training programs, seminars, apprenticeships, business school, vocational and technical institutes, and correspondence courses. Whites and men were more likely to receive company training, while Blacks, Hispanics, and women were more likely to attend off-the-job training programs. The likelihood of receiving training increased with education and score on the Armed Forces Qualifying Test.
Bibliography Citation
Veum, Jonathan R. "Training Among Young Adults: Who, What Kind, and for How Long?" Monthly Labor Review 116,8 (August 1993): 27-32.
64. Veum, Jonathan R.
Gleason, Philip M.
Child Care: Arrangements and Costs
Monthly Labor Review 114,10 (October 1991): 10-17.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/opub/mlr/1991/10/art2abs.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Child Care; Dual-Career Families; Educational Attainment; Family Income; Marital Status; Maternal Employment; Racial Differences; Unemployment; Work Hours

The 1988 NLSY and the 1983 NLS of Young Women are used to examine several child care issues in the United States. Younger and older women frequently use relatives to provide child care, but older women use persons other than relatives more frequently. These data indicate that the use of child care centers by mothers is directly related to family income. The results also indicate that upper-income families can more easily afford private centers, while poorer families are more likely to use public centers. Average weekly expenditures on child care are about $60 for younger women and $45 for older women. Younger women utilize child care services an average of 39.4 hours a week, compared with 24.7 hours for older women. These data suggest that child care expenditures and hourly usage are also related to family income. Findings also suggest that women in low-income families are more likely to have gaps in employment because adequate child care arrangements are more difficult to find.
Bibliography Citation
Veum, Jonathan R. and Philip M. Gleason. "Child Care: Arrangements and Costs." Monthly Labor Review 114,10 (October 1991): 10-17.
65. Veum, Jonathan R.
Weiss, Andrea B.
Education and the Work Histories of Young Adults
Monthly Labor Review 116,4 (April 1993): 11-20.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/opub/mlr/1993/04/art2abs.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Dropouts; Educational Attainment; Work Experience; Work Histories

Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth show significant differences by sex and race in youth labor market experience; however, many of these differences become smaller or disappear completely with increases in educational attainment. These data allow for fairly precise determination of measures of labor market activity not available from any other data source. These data indicate that work experience between the ages of 18 and 27 varies substantially by sex, race, and educational level, and reveal patterns of work behavior that are somewhat surprising. For example, by age 27, individuals with 1 to 3 years of college education have, on average, worked more weeks than have high school graduates. Also, college graduates average more total weeks worked than do high school dropouts at all ages, even between the ages of 18 and 22, when many college graduates are attending school full time. This finding reflects the fact that young female high school dropouts acquire very little work experience. This article analyzes the work histories of young workers, focusing on differences in work experience by educational level. The results permit comparison by educational level of work patterns by years of age for persons aged 18 to 27 over the 1978-90 period. (Copyright Superintendent of Documents 1993)
Bibliography Citation
Veum, Jonathan R. and Andrea B. Weiss. "Education and the Work Histories of Young Adults." Monthly Labor Review 116,4 (April 1993): 11-20.
66. Walker, James R.
Antecedents and Predecessors of NLSY79: Paving the Course
Monthly Labor Review 128,2 (February 2005): 8-14.
Also: http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2005/02/art2exc.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Longitudinal Surveys; NLS Description

A historical view of the NLSY79 development stages highlights lessons learned during an era filled with new concepts and innovations in sociology, economics, and computer science.

In 1965, at the prompting of the Assistant Secretary of Labor, Daniel Patrick Moynihan, individuals from the Department of Labor (DOL) and Ohio State University designed the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience. At the time, the participants did not realize that they were creating one of the premier, large scale national longitudinal surveys in the United States. Initially funded for 5 years by the Department of Labor, the "Parnes" data, as the Original Cohorts were called, continued for 37 years, with the last scheduled fielding of the women samples in 2003.1 The success of the Original Cohorts led to the creation of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79).

This article explores antecedents and predecessors of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979.2 Longitudinal data are now so plentiful that it is difficult to imagine the world in which they did not exist. Yet, in the mid-1960s, the large scale longitudinal household surveys that came to dominate areas of sociology, demography, and labor economics did not exist. Analyses that are now commonplace were either not possible or inference was restricted to small or specialized samples.
Bibliography Citation
Walker, James R. "Antecedents and Predecessors of NLSY79: Paving the Course." Monthly Labor Review 128,2 (February 2005): 8-14.
67. Wiatrowski, William J.
Factors Affecting Retirement Income
Monthly Labor Review 116,3 (March 1993): 25-35.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/opub/mlr/1993/03/art2abs.htm
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Benefits; Income; Job Tenure; Pensions; Retirees; Retirement; Women

Compared with their counterparts earlier in the century, today's Americans are working in different industries, retiring earlier; and living longer; yet these changes are not always recognized in the design of retirement income benefits. Older Americans may receive income from several sources, including Social Security, employer-provided pension plans, savings, and current earnings. The trend over the last several years has been toward increased availability of income from employer-provided pension plans. In 1988, 55 percent of households headed by persons aged 65 and older received some income from such plans. That number is projected to reach 88 percent by 2018. This increase is due in large part to the growing coverage of women by pension benefit plans. For example, the increase in the labor force participation of women in recent years, and the more widespread availability of survivor benefits for both men and women is likely to result in greater overall availability of pension benefits in the future. Following are several trends in retirement plan design that will affect these future retirees, together with some facts about changes in the population in general, and the labor force in particular. Note that these trends are not always consistent. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women suggest a correlation between a worker's concern for retirement income and his or her job tenure. Among women aged 50 to 60, average tenure was 12 years. For those women working for an employer providing pension coverage, the average was 16 years, compared with 8 years for those to whom no pension was available. While other factors may influence these findings, there appears to be some relationship between pension coverage and job tenure. (Copyright Superintendent of Documents 1993)
Bibliography Citation
Wiatrowski, William J. "Factors Affecting Retirement Income." Monthly Labor Review 116,3 (March 1993): 25-35.
68. Wolpin, Kenneth I.
Education Data in the NLSY79: A Premiere Research Tool
Monthly Labor Review 128, 2 (February 2005): 15-20.
Also: http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2005/02/art3exc.htm
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Education; Longitudinal Surveys; NLS Description

Social science researchers widely use the NLSY79 schooling data because of its longitudinal nature and range of content. Perhaps the most widely used data in social science research are those related to measures of education; among such measures, years of schooling is the most ubiquitous. A search of the National Longitudinal Survey (NLS) Annotated Bibliography yields 1,803 articles, book chapters, dissertations, and so forth, in which either the word "education" or "schooling" appears in the title, abstract, or as a keyword. Of those, more than 1,000 were based on the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 (NLSY79) data.

Researchers' use of education measures found in the NLSY79 spans several social science disciplines, particularly economics and sociology, and, to a lesser extent, psychology. A large number of articles using NLSY79 education measures have appeared in major general audience and specialty journals. (See table 1.) In economics, there were 8 such journals, totaling 78 published articles, and in sociology, 6 journals with 47 articles. In psychology, one journal specializing in child development published five articles, and one medical science journal also published five.

Bibliography Citation
Wolpin, Kenneth I. "Education Data in the NLSY79: A Premiere Research Tool." Monthly Labor Review 128, 2 (February 2005): 15-20.
69. Wu, Lawrence L.
Li, Jui-Chung Allen
Children of the NLSY79: A Unique Data Resource
Monthly Labor Review 128,2 (February 2005): 59-62.
Also: http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2005/02/art8exc.htm
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Behavior; Children; Education; Longitudinal Surveys; Overview, Child Assessment Data; Socioeconomic Background

The survey provides a wealth of information on the education, socioeconomic background, and cognitive, social, and emotional development of children aged 14 and younger; and on the workforce participation, education, marital, and fertility behaviors of young adults aged 15 or older; the data have been heavily used by researchers across a wide range of disciplines.

A remarkable design aspect of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) is the availability of longitudinal data on all children born to women in the original NLSY79 sample. The resulting data from the Children of the NLSY79 provide a resource that is unique in many respects. Perhaps not surprisingly, these data have been used by researchers across a wide range of disciplines, including child development, demography, economics, epidemiology, family studies, social policy, and sociology. Much of the usefulness of these data stem from two key factors: they can be linked to the rich longitudinal data for the NLSY79 mothers, and the child and young adult surveys are themselves longitudinal, covering a wide range of ages from early childhood and adolescence through the young adult years.

Sample design
As noted in other articles in this issue of the Monthly Labor Review, the main respondents in the NLSY79 are a nationally representative sample of individuals aged 14–22 in 1979, with surveys conducted annually through 1994 and biennially since 1996. The child sample—consisting of offspring aged 14 or younger—was begun in 1986, while the young adult sample—consisting of offspring aged 15 or older—was begun in 1994, with both the child and young adult samples fielded biennially since initial data collection.1 The survey instruments differ substantially in the child and young adult surveys, as reviewed below. Because of the longitudinal design of the child and young adult samples, offspring are interviewed initially in the child sample, and then in the young adult sample as they reach adolescence. Thus by design, sample sizes in the two samples will vary from wave to wave, but as of the 2002 wave, the child sample contained 11,340 children, and the young adult sample contained 4,648 young adults.

Bibliography Citation
Wu, Lawrence L. and Jui-Chung Allen Li. "Children of the NLSY79: A Unique Data Resource." Monthly Labor Review 128,2 (February 2005): 59-62.
70. Yates, Julie A.
The Transition from School to Work: Education and Work Experiences
Monthly Labor Review 128, 2 (February 2005): 21-32.
Also: http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2005/02/art4exc.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Bureau of Labor Statistics; College Graduates; Education; Employment; Longitudinal Surveys; Transition, School to Work

Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 found that the average worker, approximately 5 years after leaving school for the first time, starts a job that will last 3 years; however, there was considerable variation by education.

Education is clearly linked to these employment processes. In high school, youths learn mainly general skills. These include not only hard skills such as literacy and numeracy, but soft skills such as punctuality, dependability, and following directions. Because of their youth, those seeking jobs just after high school may know less about the world of work and be less committed to a particular occupation. Likewise, employers of these youths have less information about their skills. Both employer and employee may look at entry-level jobs as a learning process by which each can evaluate the long-term potential of their "match." College graduates, on the other hand, invest more in specific skills and may acquire a greater knowledge of the job market within their field. They can match their interests to skills and reject potential career paths before entering the labor market. Employers of new college graduates have potentially greater knowledge of the particular skills of their new hires, and, because of the higher wages they must pay, more incentive to find a good match. For these reasons, matches between new college graduates and their employers may be expected to last longer than those between new high school graduates and employers. Youths who have left school without a high school degree are doubly disadvantaged; they lack both general and job-specific skills, and they face employers who have low expectations and little incentive to invest in their matches. Consequently, schooling choices may dictate the speed and ease of the school-to-work transition.

Bibliography Citation
Yates, Julie A. "The Transition from School to Work: Education and Work Experiences." Monthly Labor Review 128, 2 (February 2005): 21-32.