Search Results

Source: M.A. Thesis - pre 2005
Resulting in 34 citations.
1. Adibe, Patience Oluchi
Cognitive Attainment Among Older Children of Adolescent Mothers: Environments and Outcomes
M.A. Thesis, Michigan State University, 1998.
Also: http://www.mendeley.com/research/cognitive-attainment-among-older-children-adolescent-mothers-environments-outcomes/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Cognitive Development; Family Size; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Intelligence; Mothers, Education; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Poverty

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between adolescents' verbal intelligence and maternal intelligence, maternal education, family size, poverty status, the quality of the home environment and neighborhood characteristics. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), the study focused on 195 African American adolescent mothers and their 14 to 18 year-old children. Pearson product moment correlations were used to determine the relations between the dependent and predictor variables and to determine the extent to which the predictor variables are correlated with each other. Multiple regression analysis was employed to examine the combined effect of the predictor variables on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R). The following variables were predictive of adolescents' PPVT Scores in the multiple regression analysis: maternal intelligence, maternal education, and quality of the home environment.
Bibliography Citation
Adibe, Patience Oluchi. Cognitive Attainment Among Older Children of Adolescent Mothers: Environments and Outcomes. M.A. Thesis, Michigan State University, 1998..
2. Anderson, K. J.
Effects of Migration and Training on Post-Service Earnings of All-Volunteer Force Veterans
M.A. Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School - Monterey CA, 1990
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): All-Volunteer Force (AVF); Earnings; Human Capital Theory; Migration; Military Training; Training; Veterans

NTIS Accession Number: AD-A237 233/2/XAB. This thesis investigated the effects of migration on the post-service earnings of 21-to-27 year old veterans from the All-Volunteer Force Era. The National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience, Youth Cohort, years 1979 to 1984, was used as the source of data. The effects of migration by veterans and civilians between states and counties were studied using human capital theory. Additionally, this thesis investigated the effects of different branches of service and military training (both formal and on-the-job training) on post-service civilian earnings. When military experience was characterized with a single dummy variable, veterans incurred approximately a five percent earnings penalty for their military service. However, migration between states by veterans was found to increase post-service earnings by nearly ten percent. When the veterans' military experience was characterized by branch of service and the amount of formal and on-the-job training, no penalty was associated with military service. Veterans who served in the Air Force received a 1.0 to 1.2 percent earnings premium for each week of formal training they received.
Bibliography Citation
Anderson, K. J. Effects of Migration and Training on Post-Service Earnings of All-Volunteer Force Veterans. M.A. Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School - Monterey CA, 1990.
3. Bliss, Mark Richard
Racial Differences In The Rates Of Return To Education
M.A. Thesis, California State University - Fullerton, 1998
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); College Graduates; Disadvantaged, Economically; Educational Returns; Human Capital Theory; Labor Market Outcomes; Racial Differences

Only recently has the economic literature begun to address the characteristics and labor market payoffs unique to those who have attended sub-baccalaureate degree issuing institutions. This analysis extends this new branch of human capital theory by analyzing these payoffs across racial groups. Several earnings equations are estimated using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1993 sample. The results imply that, controlling for those factors expected to influence earnings, there are no significant differences in the rates of return to education between young black and white men. It is only when the control for the Armed Forces Qualifying Test score is removed that the race dummy becomes significant. Possible explanations are provided as well as a discussion of what can be done to improve the labor market outcomes of economically disadvantaged groups.
Bibliography Citation
Bliss, Mark Richard. Racial Differences In The Rates Of Return To Education. M.A. Thesis, California State University - Fullerton, 1998.
4. Bronson, Deborah Richey
Gender and the Journey-To-Work: Commuting Behavior and Reward Systems in the American Workplace
M.A. Thesis, Mississippi State University, May 1995
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Commuting/Type, Time, Method; Discrimination, Sex; Earnings; Economics of Discrimination; Job Satisfaction; Sex Roles

Women's economic inequality and their work trip time relative to men's have both been documented consistently in the literature. Recently, the relationship has been considered important. The purpose of this study was three-fold. One was to review the relationship between work trip time and earnings. Next, gender role ideology was introduced into the study. Finally, intangible rewards measured as job satisfaction were examined. The thesis addressed three research questions. First, is there a relationship between a person's journey-to-work and their earnings? Second, is there a relationship between a person's gender role ideology, travel, and earnings? Finally, is there a relationship between travel and job satisfaction? Analysis-of-variance and multiple regression were the techniques used in the analysis of the data. Findings from the study indicate that there is a small positive relationship between journey-to-work time and earnings, but this may, in fact, be spurious. Gender role ideology and job satisfaction were not significant predictors of travel time.
Bibliography Citation
Bronson, Deborah Richey. Gender and the Journey-To-Work: Commuting Behavior and Reward Systems in the American Workplace. M.A. Thesis, Mississippi State University, May 1995.
5. Burchett-Patel, Diane
Formation of the Stepfamily: Are Men Substituting New, Residential Stepchildren for Children from Their First Unions?
M.A. Thesis, The Ohio State University, 2000
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Fatherhood

Research has long viewed a woman's children from prior unions as a liability on the remarriage market. However, little attention has focused on possible linkages between a man's prior fathering experience and his subsequent unions. Since most children reside with their mothers following union disruption, for men disruption typically means the loss of co-residence with their children and a reduction in father-child contact. Identity theory suggests that these men may seek to replace or restore their fathering role by acting as social fathers to their partners' children in new unions. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, this study identifies 1,428 men who have entered a second union following the disruption of their first union, and examines the relationship between prior fathering roles and the likelihood that the second union is with a woman who already has children. Both marriages and informal unions are included. As hypothesized, the findings indicate that men who have resided with biological children at the last point of their first union are more likely to live with stepchildren at the start of their second union, and men who have lived with stepchildren in union one are also more likely to live with stepchildren in the second union. These linkages are not significantly different for marriage and informal unions. Men's family attitudes, earnings, and ethnicity have no significant association with the likelihood of living with stepchildren in the second union. However, men whose family of origin remained intact through their childhood and men educated beyond a high school diploma are less likely to live with stepchildren in their second unions. The findings are interpreted to suggest that men who already have resided with their own biological children or their partner's children are more willing to assume fathering responsibilities in subsequent unions and may even seek out the opportunity to do so.
Bibliography Citation
Burchett-Patel, Diane. Formation of the Stepfamily: Are Men Substituting New, Residential Stepchildren for Children from Their First Unions? M.A. Thesis, The Ohio State University, 2000.
6. Campbell, Alondo C.
Labor Market Experiences of African and European American Men, 1979--1996
M.A. Thesis, California State University - Fullerton, 2002. MAI, 40, no. 03 (2002): 611
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Job; Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Household Income; Income Level; Labor Market Demographics; Labor Market Segmentation; Racial Differences

Research reveals an income disparity between Americans of African and European descent. This research offers a historical interpretation of American males of African descent and their experiences in the labor market. In contrast with theories of labor market experiences that suggest a declining significance of race a historical interpretation suggests ideologies of white supremacy has systematical maintained inequality. The data used for this study is from the 1979-1996 NLSY (National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979). The dependent variable is the yearly earnings of the respondents, which was separated into three periods. Results of OLS regression estimates show African American males from low-income households earn less than their European counterparts holding human capital attributes constant. European American males from low-income households income is not significantly different from African American males from non-poor households. The tentative results are consistent with claims that the gap in income derives from the historical experiences of residential segregation, employment in occupations subject to high turnover and labor market discrimination.
Bibliography Citation
Campbell, Alondo C. Labor Market Experiences of African and European American Men, 1979--1996. M.A. Thesis, California State University - Fullerton, 2002. MAI, 40, no. 03 (2002): 611.
7. Chamarette, Stephen
Military Service as a Determinant of Post-Service Earnings
M.S. Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School - Monterey CA, 1981
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Earnings; Military Draft; Military Personnel; Schooling; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Unemployment; Vocational Training

The relationship between military service and post-service earnings was analyzed using the l976 data of the NLS of Young Men (age 14 to 24 years in l966). The sample was broken down by race and veteran status. When earning attributes were examined, it was found black veterans on average were socio- economically better off than black non-veterans, while the reverse was true for whites. This era, which included draftees, lottery selectees, and volunteers, failed to produce a military which was representative of society. The post-service earnings analysis indicates that the effect of military service on subsequent civilian income was negative. This effect was particularly true for those veterans who failed to use the military's in-service or post-service opportunities to further their general level of education or undertake vocational training. In sum, a term in the military has a more positive earnings effect than civilian unemployment, but a more negative earnings effect than civilian employment. A major recommendation is that programs withdrawing members from the civilian sector for extended periods need to compensate adequately those members either during or after service.
Bibliography Citation
Chamarette, Stephen. Military Service as a Determinant of Post-Service Earnings. M.S. Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School - Monterey CA, 1981.
8. Christenson, Bruce
Occupational Achievement Process Among 30 to 44 Year Old Married, Never-Married, and Divorced or Separated Females
M.A. Thesis, University of Iowa, 1976
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Divorce; Family Influences; Marital Status; Occupational Status; Sex Roles; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Wives

The process of occupational achievement among white females is examined, with focuses on: (1) implications of sex role socialization for female occupational achievement; (2) the impact of role conflict on occupational achievement of married women; and (3) differences in the achievement process across marital categories.
Bibliography Citation
Christenson, Bruce. Occupational Achievement Process Among 30 to 44 Year Old Married, Never-Married, and Divorced or Separated Females. M.A. Thesis, University of Iowa, 1976.
9. Cohen, Jennifer Lynn
The Effect of Parental Involvement on Academic Achievement in Children Who Attended Head Start
M.S.W. Thesis, California State University - Long Beach, 2002. MAI 41/02, p. 430, April 2003
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Children, Academic Development; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Ethnic Differences; Head Start; Hispanics; Parent-School involvement; Parental Influences; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Racial Differences

The purpose of this study was to research whether several different forms of school parental involvement made a positive impact on a child's academic achievement among children who have previously or who are currently attending the Head Start program. Ethnic differences in parental aspirations among Caucasian, Hispanic and African American respondents were also explored. The sample for this study consisted of 192 parents of former or current Head Start children who participated in the National Longitudinal Survey (NLSY) and academic achievement was measured by PIAT math, reading recognition, reading comprehension and PPVT total standard scores. Results of the study revealed a significant relationship between the number of times a parent attended a school event and child reading recognition scores. It was found that Caucasian mothers had higher aspirations for their child's educational future than Hispanic or African American mothers did. Implications for school social work, policy and further research are also addressed.
Bibliography Citation
Cohen, Jennifer Lynn. The Effect of Parental Involvement on Academic Achievement in Children Who Attended Head Start. M.S.W. Thesis, California State University - Long Beach, 2002. MAI 41/02, p. 430, April 2003.
10. Escamilla, Sandra
Educational Attainment and Poverty Status of Teen Mothers and Non-Teen Mothers
M.A. Thesis, MSW, California State University - Long Beach, 2003. MAI 42/02, p. 462, Apr 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Educational Attainment; Poverty; Program Participation/Evaluation

This study used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), interviews from 1998. The objective of this study was to examine the educational attainment and poverty status of the teen and non-teen mothers of NLSY97. The results revealed that a difference in educational attainment exists between the teen mother group and the non-teen mother group. This study found that White teen mothers had the lowest educational attainment of the groups. Furthermore, the poverty status also proved to vary by groups. Overall, Black respondents regardless of their age at first birth were more likely to be living in poverty. The multiple regression analysis suggests that being a teen mother is inversely related to educational attainment. Being a teen mother, poverty status, number of children ever born, ever receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) and being married were predictors of educational attainment. These variables explained 16.9% of variance in educational level. The implications of this study, results for future research, multicultural issues and social work practice are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Escamilla, Sandra. Educational Attainment and Poverty Status of Teen Mothers and Non-Teen Mothers. M.A. Thesis, MSW, California State University - Long Beach, 2003. MAI 42/02, p. 462, Apr 2004.
11. Falci, Christina
The Effects of Family Structure and Family Process on the Psychological Well-Being of Children: From the Children's Point of View
M.A. Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1997
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Depression (see also CESD); Family Income; Family Structure; Household Composition; Marital Satisfaction/Quality; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Pearlin Mastery Scale; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem)

The impact of family structure on children's outcomes is a highly debated topic in literature on the family. This research made an attempt to engage in this debate by testing the family process perspective. Theorists who favor this perspective believe that the effects of family structure on children can be mediated by the family processes occurring within families, such as the quality of parent-child relationships. The psychological wellbeing of children from six family structures were compared. After controlling for family processes and background variables the majority of the effects of family structure on children's psychological well-being disappeared. Only children from stepfamilies had significantly lower levels of psychological well-being than children from intact homes. Stepfamilies, however, are a very complex family form and this research could not account for the possible unique processes occurring within stepfamilies. Finally, children from divorced homes did not have significantly lower levels of psychological well-being even before family processes and background variables were controlled. Overall, this research shows support for the family process perspective.
Bibliography Citation
Falci, Christina. The Effects of Family Structure and Family Process on the Psychological Well-Being of Children: From the Children's Point of View. M.A. Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1997.
12. Geschwender, Laura Ellen
Why Do Southern Children Have Lower Verbal Facility Scores Than Children in Other Regions?
M.A. Thesis, The Ohio State University, 1991
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Child Development; Children; Children, Academic Development; Children, Home Environment; Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Geographical Variation; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Composition; Maternal Employment; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Regions; Religion; Religious Influences; Tests and Testing

This paper seeks to explain regional differences in young children's scores on standardized tests of verbal facility. Using a sample of 3 to 6 year old children of employed mothers in 1986 from the NLSY, the author regresses children's verbal facility on region, and adds explanatory variables in sets. It was found that factors explaining much of the regional variation in verbal facility include: maternal ethnicity, maternal measured mental ability, mother being raised fundamentalist, maternal religious attendance, home environment, maternal hourly pay, and maternal work hours. These factors are discussed as possible indicators of environmental complexity. The findings have implications for regional differences in social inequality.
Bibliography Citation
Geschwender, Laura Ellen. Why Do Southern Children Have Lower Verbal Facility Scores Than Children in Other Regions? M.A. Thesis, The Ohio State University, 1991.
13. Guo, Yan
The Effects of Family Background Variables on Children's Educational Attainment
M.S. Thesis, Utah State University, 2001. MAI, 40, no. 03 (2001): 612
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Ethnic Differences; Gender Differences; Hispanics; Household Income; Human Capital; Marital Status; Parents, Single; Racial Differences

This study examines the effects of parents' marital status on educational attainment among youth in the United States. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth are used, specifically from the survey of youth ages 14-22 in 1979. A sample of 2,390 respondents is examined using multiple regression to estimate the effects of gender, age, race/ethnicity, family structure and size, family resources, and students' self-esteem on children's educational attainment. Children living in single-parent families obtain less education than children in two-parent families, but with other variables controlled this effect disappears. Children from minority groups-non-Hispanic black and Hispanic-receive slightly fewer years of education in both family types. Females, especially non-Hispanic black and Hispanic females, attain more years of education than their male counterparts particularly in single parent households. Family financial and human capital is the best predictor of children's educational attainment in both single and two-parent families.
Bibliography Citation
Guo, Yan. The Effects of Family Background Variables on Children's Educational Attainment. M.S. Thesis, Utah State University, 2001. MAI, 40, no. 03 (2001): 612.
14. Harris, Douglas Wayne
An Analysis of Youth Labor Force Transition Probabilities
M.A. Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School - Monterey CA, 1984.
Also: http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a153763.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Labor Force Participation; Military Service; Transition, School to Work

Many of the enlisted supply research to date focuses on the transition of individuals from high school to the military. Little is known of those who have chosen other options, such as further education, employment, or to remain out of the labor force completely. With the decline of the 17-21 year old male population, research must be directed towards the entire labor market. This thesis uses data from the NLSY to estimate the transition probabilities among seven possible states for individuals aged 17-22. The states are high school, college, active service, employment full time, employment part time, unemployment, and out of the labor force. Tests are made to determine if the transition probabilities are stable across and independent of time. It was found that the system was generally stable across time but was not independent of age and labor force industry. [NTIS AD-A153-763-8-XAB]
Bibliography Citation
Harris, Douglas Wayne. An Analysis of Youth Labor Force Transition Probabilities. M.A. Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School - Monterey CA, 1984..
15. Henry, Cailen Vanessa
Youth Substance Use and Human Capital Formation
M.A. Thesis, University Of Calgary - Canada, 2002. MAI 41/02, p. 404, April 2003
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Drug Use; Educational Attainment; Educational Returns; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Human Capital; Substance Use

This thesis, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, examines the association between using alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and tobacco and eventual educational outcomes. The analysis replicates previous results indicating that each substance individually is associated with significantly lower outcomes. However, the estimates suggest that these results may be misleading, as controlling for all of these substances dramatically diminishes the negative effects of alcohol, cocaine and marijuana while revealing that the strongest negative association is with tobacco.
Bibliography Citation
Henry, Cailen Vanessa. Youth Substance Use and Human Capital Formation. M.A. Thesis, University Of Calgary - Canada, 2002. MAI 41/02, p. 404, April 2003.
16. Hills, S. J.
An Analysis of the Relationship Among Ability Measures, Education and Earnings
M.A. Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School - Monterey CA, 1987.
Also: http://oai.dtic.mil/oai/oai?verb=getRecord&metadataPrefix=html&identifier=ADA189174
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Aptitude; Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Education; Educational Returns; Occupations; Tests and Testing

This thesis analyzes the interrelationship of measures of ability and education on earnings differentials by using a standard human capital earnings function. The data used are from the 1983 and 1984 panels of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth aged 14 to 21 in 1979. The Armed Forces Qualifying Test (AFQT) and coding speed (a subtest of the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) Form 8A) were examined and compared for their relative utilities in measuring ability. The results showed that both AFQT and coding speed performed as measures of ability by refining the estimates returns to education. Their relative utilities varied according to an individual's occupation and level of education. [NTIS AD-A189-1746-XAB]
Bibliography Citation
Hills, S. J. An Analysis of the Relationship Among Ability Measures, Education and Earnings. M.A. Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School - Monterey CA, 1987..
17. Hunt, Andrea Nicole
Family, Gender, and Delinquency from an Integrated Power-Control Model
M.A.Thesis, University of South Alabama, 2004. MAI 43/02, p. 455, Apr 2005
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Family Models; Gender Differences; Life Course; Modeling

Trends in juvenile offending, in particular gender differences, have recently received attention from researchers. This paper integrates a theoretical conceptualization of the family and female delinquency developed partly from the general life course perspective that considers the consequences of adolescent deviance for adult stratification (Sampson & Laub, 1994). In addition, I will draw on the more specific tenets of power-control theory, which focuses on linking gender differences in power at the structural level to controls at the individual level. I then use Ordinary Least Squares nested multivariate regression to test the revised theoretical model of delinquency with longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) 1997. The findings are consistent with previous research in the power-control tradition.
Bibliography Citation
Hunt, Andrea Nicole. Family, Gender, and Delinquency from an Integrated Power-Control Model. M.A.Thesis, University of South Alabama, 2004. MAI 43/02, p. 455, Apr 2005.
18. Jekielek, Susan Marie
The Relative and Interactive Impacts of Parental Conflict and Marital Disruption on Children's Well-Being
M.A. Thesis, The Ohio State University, 1995
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Well-Being; Divorce; Marital Disruption; Marital Status; Parental Influences; Parental Marital Status; Parents, Behavior

This study uses the merged child-mother data from the NLSY to examine effects of parental conflict and marital disruption on child well-being. For a sample of 1640 children aged 6-14 in 1992, I find that both conflict and disruption tend to decrease child well-being. I find significant interactions of parental conflict and marital disruption: Children who remain in high conflict environments exhibit higher levels of problem behaviors than do children who experience similar levels of conflict, but whose parents divorce or separate. These results support the possibility that parental divorce, followed by high conflict, may improve the well-being of children.
Bibliography Citation
Jekielek, Susan Marie. The Relative and Interactive Impacts of Parental Conflict and Marital Disruption on Children's Well-Being. M.A. Thesis, The Ohio State University, 1995.
19. Jordan, Lisa C.
Familial and Self-Concept Variables Related to Substance Abuse in a National Study of Disadvantaged Young Adults
M.A. Thesis, Michigan State University, 1993
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Disadvantaged, Economically; Family Models; Family Studies; Gender Differences; Hispanics; Income Level; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Modeling; Self-Esteem; Self-Perception; Substance Use

This study tested a model of self-concept as a "buffer" between exposure to substance abuse in the family system and outcomes of substance abuse in children of alcoholics. Descriptive analyses were conducted with data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). The analyses focused on a supplemental sample from the NLSY (n = 4,777) including African American, Hispanic, and low-income Caucasian youth. It was anticipated that high self- concept (as measured by indices of self-esteem, locus of control, and level of aspirations/expectations for academic success) would act as a "buffer," decreasing rates of substance abuse in high risk youth. This study found minimal support for the "buffer" model. The only confirmatory evidence was obtained from analyses using the self-esteem measure with females aged 24-27. While the evidence for the other groups was less conclusive, some interesting gender and age effects were identified. The findings suggested that self-con cept may exert variable effects on substance use depending on the age and gender of the individual.
Bibliography Citation
Jordan, Lisa C. Familial and Self-Concept Variables Related to Substance Abuse in a National Study of Disadvantaged Young Adults. M.A. Thesis, Michigan State University, 1993.
20. Kuo, Hsiang-Hui Daphne
Marriage and Sex Role Attitudes of Young Women
M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1988
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Aptitude; Marital Status; Marriage; Role Models; Sex Equality; Sex Roles

Using data from NLS of Young Women, this study tests three hypotheses on the effects of marriage on sex role attitudes: (1) perceived inequality and "liberalizing" effects; (2) rationalization and "traditionalizing" effects; and (3) recovery of premarital socialization for sex roles, effects depend on "liberal" vs "traditional" socialization. Controlling for other adult socialization experiences such as education, work and parenthood, marriage had neither liberal nor traditional effects on sex role attitudes. However, marital disruptions were associated with increasingly liberal attitudes. Although young women with traditional role models were more likely to change in the traditional direction, there were no interactions with effects of marriage.
Bibliography Citation
Kuo, Hsiang-Hui Daphne. Marriage and Sex Role Attitudes of Young Women. M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1988.
21. Laughlin, Teresa Laine Clarke
Curious Workmanship: An Analysis of the Role of Nonpecuniary Rewards to Work, and the Female-Male Wage Differential
M.A. Thesis, California State University - Fullerton, 1992
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Sex; Gender Differences; Wage Differentials; Wage Rates; Working Conditions

This study investigates the role that nonpecuniary rewards play in the determination of wages for women and men. Using the idea of compensating differentials, the question of whether the measure of discrimination against women in the workplace falls when working conditions are included in the analysis, is investigated. This study analyzes a data set from the 1984 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Regression estimates of the earnings functions of men and women are run, using the logarithm of the wage rate, and the logarithm of a total compensation index which includes a weighted measure of nonpecuniary benefits. The results suggest that, although the wage differential between women and men is reduced, the measure of discrimination against women is increased.
Bibliography Citation
Laughlin, Teresa Laine Clarke. Curious Workmanship: An Analysis of the Role of Nonpecuniary Rewards to Work, and the Female-Male Wage Differential. M.A. Thesis, California State University - Fullerton, 1992.
22. Mahan, Melissa Lynne
Intergenerational Transmission Of Relationship Behaviors : The Influence Of The Marital Relationship Versus Parent-Youth Relationship
M.S. Thesis, Iowa State University, 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parental Marital Status; Transfers, Family

This study is an analysis of the intergenerational transmission of relationship behaviors. The purpose of the study was to determine whether the quality of the parents' marital relationship and the parent-youth relationship were predictive of conflict and closeness in the youth's romantic relationships. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 were analyzed using parent and youth reports from 1997 and 2001. The analyses revealed that parents' marital relationship, and not the parent-youth relationship, was influential on the youth's romantic relationship five years later. Specifically, the mother's compromise behaviors significantly predicted the amount of conflict in the youth's romantic relationship. Implications of these results for family life educators and marriage and family therapists are presented.
Bibliography Citation
Mahan, Melissa Lynne. Intergenerational Transmission Of Relationship Behaviors : The Influence Of The Marital Relationship Versus Parent-Youth Relationship. M.S. Thesis, Iowa State University, 2004.
23. Malone, Sarah Q.
Effect of Change in Industrial Structure on the Early Retirement of American Men
Master's Thesis, The Pennsylvania State University, 1988
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Assets; Business Cycles; Health Factors; Income; Industrial Sector; Occupations; Pensions; Retirement

Decline of employment opportunities and rise of early retirement inducements in some industrial sectors may be forcing older men to leave the labor force in growing numbers. The effect of sectoral decline on likelihood of early retirement was tested using data from the 1980, 1981, and 1983 waves of the NLS Older Men's cohort, along with employment data by three-digit industry compiled from County Business Patterns for the years 1977 through 1983. A variable representing employment trend in a respondent's industry in his census division was included in a model predicting the early retirement decision including age, health limits, being vested in a pension plan, assets, marital status and dependents, and race. The variable was found to slightly enhance the probability of withdrawal from the labor force, other things equal. Further research may suggest that policymaking should be directed at accommodating this and other inevitable effects of a changing economy.
Bibliography Citation
Malone, Sarah Q. Effect of Change in Industrial Structure on the Early Retirement of American Men. Master's Thesis, The Pennsylvania State University, 1988.
24. McCool, Laurie
Effects of Children's Behavior Difficulties on Mother's Self-Esteem
Master's Thesis, The Ohio State University, 1999
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Self-Esteem; Temperament

While the impact of parenting on children is taken for granted, the reverse relationship is generally ignored. In this paper, I test for the significance of a feedback effect of children's behavior on maternal self-esteem - if a mother perceives her child as difficult, does the mother suffer a loss of self-esteem? I use 1,570 women, their children, from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and its Child-Mother Supplement. From the NLSY main survey, I extracted mothers' self-esteem scores from before the birth of their first child and after they were mothers to measure changes in self-esteem, and from the Mother Supplement I obtained mothers' perception of their children's behavior. By controlling for other potential influences, independent of the children's behavior, I attempt to isolate the influence of the mothers' perceptions of their children's behavior on changes in their self-esteem between 1980 and 1987. The inclusion of mothers' self-esteem from a time before they were mothers addresses the time ordering condition of causation - changes in mothers' self-esteem are not due to conditions which existed prior to the potential influence of their children's problematic behavior (or their perception thereof). My analyses conclude that, controlling for other variables considered important to an individual's self-esteem, children's behavior difficulties is a statistically significant factor in predicting changes in their mothers' self-esteem.
Bibliography Citation
McCool, Laurie. Effects of Children's Behavior Difficulties on Mother's Self-Esteem. Master's Thesis, The Ohio State University, 1999.
25. Nickoll, Rebecca A.
The Effects of Parental Work Characteristics and Maternal Nonemployment on Children's Reading and Math Achievement
M.A. Thesis, The Ohio State University, Summer 1995.
Also: http://books.google.com/books/about/The_Effects_of_Parental_Work_Characteris.html?id=xNtcNwAACAAJ
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Child Health; Cognitive Development; Gender Differences; Marital Status; Maternal Employment; Mothers; Mothers, Education; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Underemployment

This study examines how parental work characteristics as well as maternal nonemployment affect children's reading and math achievement. I argue that parents who perform complex work will encourage self-direction and cognitive achievement in their children. My sample consists of children 9-12 years-old in 1992 (N=1067) from the 1992 NLSY Merged Child-Mother Data who have valid scores on the Reading Recognition and Math Peabody Individual Achievement Tests. Child background characteristics, as well as maternal cognitive skills and spouse's education are important predictors of both reading and math outcomes. Results show that the effects of maternal nonemployment vary by maternal education, child sex, and marital status, while the effects of maternal occupational complexity vary by child sex and extent of employment. Finally, I suggest possible avenues for future research.
Bibliography Citation
Nickoll, Rebecca A. The Effects of Parental Work Characteristics and Maternal Nonemployment on Children's Reading and Math Achievement. M.A. Thesis, The Ohio State University, Summer 1995..
26. Olatunji, Anane Nokware
The Effects of High School Employment on Educational Attainment Among Hispanic American Youths
Master's Thesis, Tulane University, February 1998
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Employment, In-School; Employment, Youth; Ethnic Differences; High School Diploma; High School Students; Hispanics; School Completion

As a result of the growing service economy increasing numbers of adolescents hold jobs while attending high school. Consequently, social scientists have addressed the concern that teenage employment might undermine educational achievement. This paper investigates whether the effects of teenage employment on high school completion and educational attainment by age 25 are different for Hispanic youths compared to non- Hispanic White adolescents. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, I examine the effects of working on the odds of completing high school and on educational attainment in general among Mexican American and Puerto Rican students I find that Mexican American students who work are somewhat disadvantaged in terms of high school completion but not in educational attainment overall. I report other effects of teenage employment that are consistent with previous research.
Bibliography Citation
Olatunji, Anane Nokware. The Effects of High School Employment on Educational Attainment Among Hispanic American Youths. Master's Thesis, Tulane University, February 1998.
27. Reams, Paul Orin Jr.
Civilian Returns to Earnings from Prior Military Service
M.A. Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School - Monterey CA, June 1983.
Also: http://oai.dtic.mil/oai/oai?verb=getRecord&metadataPrefix=html&identifier=ADA132781
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Earnings; Military Service; Racial Differences

The relationship between military service and post-service earnings was analyzed using the 1980 data from the NLS of Young Men (14 to 24 years of age in 1966). The sample was broken down by race and veteran status. Two techniques for analyzing post-service earnings were employed. Both the veteran as a dummy-variable technique and the counterfactual earnings technique predicted earnings disadvantages for white Vietnam-Era veterans. Results for black Vietnam-Era veterans were inconclusive; the veteran as a dummy-variable technique predicted significantly large premiums for veteran status, while the counterfactual earnings equations yielded inconsistent predictions. In sum, the military was found to be an ineffective method of investment in human capital for whites, while the results for blacks were inconclusive. [NTIS AD-A132-781-6]
Bibliography Citation
Reams, Paul Orin Jr. Civilian Returns to Earnings from Prior Military Service. M.A. Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School - Monterey CA, June 1983..
28. Sidhu, Nirmal S.
The Role of Cognitive Ability in the Health-Education Nexus
M.A. Thesis, University of Calgary (Canada), 2004. MAI 43/02, p. 419, Apr 2005
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Cognitive Ability; Endogeneity; Health Factors; Schooling

This thesis, using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), examines the role of cognitive ability in the health-education nexus and tries to estimate the effect of cognitive ability on health. The results of our study suggest that though schooling is still associated with health, this association is reduced by about half with inclusion of cognitive ability. The effect of cognitive ability on health is more stable and robust to different measures of health. Therefore, the well-documented association between health and schooling is partially attributable to cognitive ability. However, when schooling is treated as endogenous to health, cognitive ability is no longer statistically related to health but schooling appears to cause better health. We also find that studies that do not control for cognitive ability in the schooling equation, or in both the schooling and the health equation, tend to overestimate the association between schooling and health.
Bibliography Citation
Sidhu, Nirmal S. The Role of Cognitive Ability in the Health-Education Nexus. M.A. Thesis, University of Calgary (Canada), 2004. MAI 43/02, p. 419, Apr 2005.
29. Snider, Lisa D.
Working Moms: A Study of the Factors That Affect the Hours of Employment Per Week of Married Mothers Whose Youngest Child Is Less Than Six
M.A. Thesis, North Carolina State University, 2003. MAI 42/04, p. 1172, Aug 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Child Care; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Mothers, Education; Work Hours

Data from 1983--1986 and 1988 waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY) are drawn upon to explore how type of childcare utilized affects the extent of mother's employment. Fixed-effects analysis suggests using relative care decreases mother's hours of employment per week. Once age of the youngest child is introduced, nuclear care decreases mother's hours of employment per week. Surprisingly, mothers of infants and toddlers are predicted to work slightly more hours per week than mothers of preschoolers. Husband's hours of employment per week interacts with non-family care to decrease mother's hours of employment. The effect of the number of children in the household on mother's hours of employment is found to depend on the childcare utilized. Interestingly, mother's years of education and husband's annual income do not have statistically significant effects on mother's hours of employment in this analysis. Some possible reasons and implications of these findings are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Snider, Lisa D. Working Moms: A Study of the Factors That Affect the Hours of Employment Per Week of Married Mothers Whose Youngest Child Is Less Than Six. M.A. Thesis, North Carolina State University, 2003. MAI 42/04, p. 1172, Aug 2004.
30. Sweeten, Gary
School Dropout and Subsequent Offending: Distinguishing Selection from Causation
M.A. Thesis, University of Maryland - College Park, 2004. MAI 42/04, p. 1170, Aug 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior, Antisocial; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Dropouts; High School Dropouts; Modeling, Random Effects; School Dropouts

Past research on the relationship between school dropout and offending is inconclusive. In explaining their findings, researchers have focused on strain and control theories, and have been unable to rule out selection effects. A key advance in understanding the effect of high school dropout is disaggregation by reason for dropout. Waves one through five of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 is used to answer the question: Does dropout have a causal impact on offending? Dropouts are divided into four groups depending on reason given for dropout: personal, school, economic and other. Estimation of a random effects model indicates that dropout for school reasons and "other" reasons causes a small temporary increase in the frequency of offending whereas dropout for personal or economic reasons does not affect frequency of offending. It also shows that youths who drop out for school reasons have higher rates of offending across all five waves compared to non-dropouts.
Bibliography Citation
Sweeten, Gary. School Dropout and Subsequent Offending: Distinguishing Selection from Causation. M.A. Thesis, University of Maryland - College Park, 2004. MAI 42/04, p. 1170, Aug 2004.
31. Thompson, Ann S.
Psychosocial Functioning of Well Siblings of Chronically Ill Children: Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
M.S. Thesis, University of Alabama, 1993
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Child Health; Family Characteristics; Family Environment; Psychological Effects; Siblings; Social Emotional Development

Bibliography Citation
Thompson, Ann S. Psychosocial Functioning of Well Siblings of Chronically Ill Children: Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. M.S. Thesis, University of Alabama, 1993.
32. Tovar, Stephanie
Family Processes and Delinquency: The Consistency of Relationships by Race/Ethnicity
M.S. Thesis, Michigan State University, 2000. MAI 39,02 (2000): 413
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Control; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Ethnic Studies; Family Studies; Hispanics; Racial Differences; Racial Studies; Social Influences

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship of family process variables and delinquency in relation to social control theory. The main objective is to examine whether the relationship between family process variables and delinquency will vary across racial/ethnic groups. A secondary analysis of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 is conducted in order to achieve the objectives. Data was obtained from 9,022 adolescent boys and girls between the ages of 12 and 18 years old. The significance of using this data is that it allows for group comparisons of three racial/ethnic groups: white, African American, and Hispanic adolescents. Social control theory implies that there should be consistency across racial/ethnic groups regarding social bonding. In this study racial/ethnic differences were found in the strength of the relationships between family processes and delinquency. Therefore, future research may want to reinvestigate whether social control theory is adequate to explain delinquency for all adolescents.
Bibliography Citation
Tovar, Stephanie. Family Processes and Delinquency: The Consistency of Relationships by Race/Ethnicity. M.S. Thesis, Michigan State University, 2000. MAI 39,02 (2000): 413.
33. Williams, William Patrick
The Effects of Youth Organizations on High School Graduation
M.S. Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 2001.
Also: http://www.concord.edu/sites/default/files/wwilliams.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Extracurricular Activities/Sports; Youth Services

Organizations such as the Boy Scouts of America, the Girl Scouts of America, church groups, community recreation sports, high school sports, and other youth organizations provide educational, recreational, and social interaction opportunities for many adolescents in the United States. As sociologists we can ask, what kind of impact do they have on participants? The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of participation in one or more of these youth organizations on completing high school. Previous research is lacking in this specific area, though there is research that addresses other positive aspects, and some negative, of these organizations. The hypothesis of this study is that youth who participate in extracurricular activities or youth organizations have a greater likelihood of graduating from high school than those who do not participate in extracurricular activities. The data were taken from the National Longitudinal Survey. A logistical regression was conducted to see if there is an association between participation in these youth organizations and high school graduation.
Bibliography Citation
Williams, William Patrick. The Effects of Youth Organizations on High School Graduation. M.S. Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 2001..
34. Winship, Scott
Early Warning: The Persistence of Cognitive Inequalities at the Start of Schooling
M.A. Thesis, Harvard University, 2003
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Academic Development; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Grade Retention/Repeat Grade; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); School Entry/Readiness

Many parents, policymakers, researchers, and other participants in educational policy debates are concerned with inequality in scholastic outcomes and with achievement gaps between advantaged and disadvantaged children. The federal No Child Left Behind Act will also focus attention on these inequalities. This paper explores the associations between measured child achievement levels at the start of schooling and scholastic outcomes in adolescence. In so doing, it also considers the extent to which earlier inequalities account for unequal outcomes roughly eight years later. Using the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data, I first reproduce the finding from an earlier literature in psychology that scores of young children on tests of vocabulary, mathematics, and reading are strongly correlated with adolescent test scores. I also show that high test scores in early childhood are associated with other positive scholastic outcomes in adolescence. There is evidence that these associations vary somewhat for different categories of children, but in nearly all cases, the associations are not much diminished. Finally, I show that where significant adolescent cognitive inequalities exist between categories of children, half or more of the gap in group averages is predictable from cognitive inequalities at the start of schooling. The findings imply a fair amount of mobility within cognitive skill distributions, but also indicate that observers concerned with scholastic inequalities should focus on early childhood education and compensatory or universal measures that attenuate the links between initial and later inequalities. Half or more of adolescent inequality in scholastic achievement (as measured by test scores) can be predicted by test scores at the start of schooling. And there is as much test-score inequality between siblings within the same family as between children in different families.
Bibliography Citation
Winship, Scott. Early Warning: The Persistence of Cognitive Inequalities at the Start of Schooling. M.A. Thesis, Harvard University, 2003.