Search Results

Source: M.A. Thesis - post 2004
Resulting in 66 citations.
1. Alatorre, Arnulfo C.
Cognitive and Noncognitive Factors of Poverty
M.A. Thesis, Department of Economics and Statistics, California State University, Los Angeles, 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Family Size; Human Capital; Income Level; Marriage; Parenthood; Poverty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This thesis investigates the cognitive and noncognitive determinants of poverty and annual income in the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979 cohort. The empirical analysis uses a standard human capital function that accounts for noncognitive factors along with traditional measures of productivity such as education, work experience, ability, and age to determine the effect they have on yearly income and poverty status. Poverty status is defined according to the U.S. Census Bureau's definition. The study uses quantile regression at the 5th, 10th, 25th, 35th, 50th, 65th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles to analyze income and uses probit regression to determine the probability of being in poverty. The results of the quantile regressions show that education, cognitive skills, work experience, time preference, reservation wage, marriage, and parenthood have different magnitudes and directions of effect along the continuum of the quantiles. The probit regression shows that personal relationship factors such as family size, childbirth before first marriage, family poverty status in 1980, spousal income, and human capital factors of productivity affect the cohort's probability of being in poverty.
Bibliography Citation
Alatorre, Arnulfo C. Cognitive and Noncognitive Factors of Poverty. M.A. Thesis, Department of Economics and Statistics, California State University, Los Angeles, 2014.
2. Arsenault, Jacques
Reassessing the College Gender Gap: Analyzing Current Trends in College Attainment by Gender
M.A. Thesis, Georgetown Public Policy Institute, Georgetown University, 2007.
Also: http://aladinrc.wrlc.org/dspace/bitstream/1961/4167/1/etd_arsenauj.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Collective Bargaining; College Education; College Enrollment; Educational Attainment; Educational Returns; Gender Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The improvement of women's educational outcomes throughout the latter part of the twentieth century was a cause for celebration as women closed the gap in achievement on all levels, but particularly in attending and graduating from college. As the gap closed in the mid-1970s, however, women's rates of college attainment continued to rise at a higher pace than men's, to the point where now, women account for 55% of the student body in U.S. colleges and universities. While this trend represents tremendous success on the part of women, the stagnancy of men's college attainment has only begun to be recognized. This stagnancy will soon take on a new urgency due to the reduction of manufacturing jobs in the United States in the last decade and the resultant decline in career prospects for non-college educated men. This thesis draws upon and tests previous theories of the college attainment gender gap, applying several statistical models to a dataset, the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, which has not been previously used to address this issue. The study finds that controlling for race/ethnicity and family background characteristics among high school graduates, women enter college at a rate approximately ten percentage points higher than men. The gap is largest for black students, and smallest for non-black, non-Hispanic students. When controlling for high school academic performance in addition to the above factors, the gender gap is reduced to approximately six percentage points. Additionally, when adding controls for a set of variables indicating non-cognitive skills, the gap is further reduced to near three percentage points. The study also finds that the gap in college attainment is attenuated as time goes on. The gender gap is considerably higher when measuring college attainment by age nineteen than it is when measuring attainment by age twenty-three. This narrowing could be attributable to several explanations: boys being more likely to be held back a year in school; boys starting school at a later age; or young men being more likely to wait at least a year between high school graduation and college enrollment. This thesis adds to the literature on college attainment by gender, and it provides an early example of the potential to examine these questions with the NLSY97 dataset. The findings of this study support several theories proffered by earlier researchers and provide several avenues for further study of this important policy question.
Bibliography Citation
Arsenault, Jacques. Reassessing the College Gender Gap: Analyzing Current Trends in College Attainment by Gender. M.A. Thesis, Georgetown Public Policy Institute, Georgetown University, 2007..
3. Bagully, Michael David
The Impact of Childhood Obesity on Academic Performance
M.A. Thesis, Georgetown Public Policy Institute, Georgetown University, 2006.
Also: http://aladinrc.wrlc.org/bitstream/1961/3590/1/etd_mdb57.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Academic Development; Body Mass Index (BMI); Depression (see also CESD); Health Factors; Obesity; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Socioeconomic Factors; Television Viewing; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Besides resulting in numerous physical health problems, childhood obesity has also been proven to lead to mental and emotional problems, such as anxiety and depression. In this study, I hypothesize that, through the mechanism of depression, childhood obesity also leads to lower academic performance. Multivariate analysis, using ordinary-least squares regression, suggests that obesity does negatively impact academic performance, with parental obesity and time spent watching television accounting for part of obesity's total effect. However, after controlling for a variety of socioeconomic factors, the negative effect of obesity becomes statistically insignificant. It is worth noting though that this study's bivariate analysis reveals a strong correlation between these factors and obesity. For policy makers, the results of this study should serve warning that if the threat of obesity is not addressed, the labor market could suffer due to the diminished academic performance of America's next generation.
Bibliography Citation
Bagully, Michael David. The Impact of Childhood Obesity on Academic Performance. M.A. Thesis, Georgetown Public Policy Institute, Georgetown University, 2006..
4. Bersani, Bianca Elizabeth
Self-Control and School Failure: Examining Individual Effects on Academic Achievement
M.A. Thesis, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 2005
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Attitudes; Behavioral Differences; Behavioral Problems; Discipline; Mothers, Education; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; School Completion; School Dropouts; School Progress; Self-Regulation/Self-Control

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) indicate that in 2000 nearly 11% of youth ages 16 to 24 were either not enrolled in school or did not have a high school diploma. Furthermore, national rates of school failure have continually increased over the past three decades (NCES 2000) indicating that school dropout rates have risen. Research examining the prevalence of adolescent school failure has traditionally looked at the influence of structural characteristics such as family structure and maternal educational level, and relational characteristics such as parental attachment and monitoring to explain why youth drop out of school. In the present study, I incorporate individual level characteristics, specifically self-control, into the examination of predictors of school failure. Gottfredson and Hirschi (1990) suggest that individuals with low self-control have behavioral and attitudinal characteristics that are in direct opposition to academic achievement. I analyze the extent to which self-control predicts school failure net of the traditional explanations using data on 822 young adults from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth Child and Young Adult data, 1994 and 1998 waves. Significant effects of self-control on school attachment, expected level of education, and school dropout were found, even when controlling for structural and relational characteristics. Young adults with low self-control were significantly less likely to be attached to school, had lower educational expectations, and were more likely to drop out of school than their peers. With the exceptions of mother's educational level and maternal educational expectations, the structural and relational characteristics were not significant predictors of school failure. While structural and relational characteristics still have a significant effect on adolescent school failure, these findings suggest the need to examine the effects of individual level predictors, such as self-control in future research.
Bibliography Citation
Bersani, Bianca Elizabeth. Self-Control and School Failure: Examining Individual Effects on Academic Achievement. M.A. Thesis, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 2005.
5. Bohm, Maggie Y.
Inter-Religious Marriage and Migration
M.S., Department of Sociology, Social Work and Anthropology, Utah State University, 2008. MAI 47/01, Feb 2009
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Marriage; Migration; Religion

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study analyzes the influence of (1) inter-religious marriage and (2) differing levels of church attendance within a married couple on migration behavior. The study draws from previous research on inter-racial marriage for a framework to examine whether there is reason to expect a relationship between migration and inter-religious marriage. We hypothesize that the propensity for migration is higher for inter-religious couples than for couples constituted by individuals of the same religion and for couples who attend church at different frequencies. To examine the hypotheses, this study uses age, education, and length of residence as controls in logistic models.

Theories that have been utilized in examining the effects of inter-group marriages, especially inter-racial marriages, on the behavior of couples provide theoretical guidance for the analysis. Largely, this research, as well as research on other differences between husbands and wives, indicates that inter-group married couples have higher migration rates than intra-groups couples. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth in 1979 are used to analyze the relationships between these aspects of religious identities and migration and between church attendance and migration. Results actually show slightly lower migration odds for inter-group couples than for intra-group couples. Thus, our hypothesis is rejected.

Bibliography Citation
Bohm, Maggie Y. Inter-Religious Marriage and Migration. M.S., Department of Sociology, Social Work and Anthropology, Utah State University, 2008. MAI 47/01, Feb 2009.
6. Branstad, Jennifer
Tight Labor Markets and Extensive Job Searches: How Changes in the Unemployment Rate Affect Job Search Behaviors
M.A. Thesis, University of Washington, 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Job Search; Labor Force Participation; Unemployment Rate

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Understanding the ways people look for jobs is an important part of understanding employment outcomes. This paper examines various factors that contribute to the decision to search for a new or different job and the extensiveness of resulting job searches. I pay particular attention to the effect of unemployment rates on searching, contending that because the unemployment rate is a measure of demand for labor, it should also alter job search behaviors. As the shape of the labor market changes, the chance of a worker being matched to an employer also changes: a higher unemployment rate makes it more difficult to find a job while a lower unemployment rate favors job searchers. Workers should respond to these shifts by altering their job search behaviors to increase the likelihood of being matched to an employer. By using more job search methods, workers exploit more sources of information about potential job openings. Thus, when unemployment rate is high, job searchers should use more extensive searches. Using data from the NLSY97, I show that the job search behaviors of young workers are sensitive to shifts in the unemployment rate. Young workers' job search behaviors change with fluctuations in the unemployment rate in both predictable and surprising ways.
Bibliography Citation
Branstad, Jennifer. Tight Labor Markets and Extensive Job Searches: How Changes in the Unemployment Rate Affect Job Search Behaviors. M.A. Thesis, University of Washington, 2013.
7. Buemi, Sam J.
How Race-Gender Status Affects the Relationship Between Spanking and Depressive Symptoms Among Children and Adolescents
M.A. Thesis, Kent State University, 2009
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); CESD (Depression Scale); Children, Mental Health; Depression (see also CESD); Discipline; Gender Differences; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Punishment, Corporal

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using the Stress Process Model as a theoretical framework, this study examines data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY-C). Cross-sectional and change models are utilized to illustrate the symptoms of depression that exist among youth initially and over time. The purpose of this study is to investigate how race-gender status moderates the relationship between spanking and depressive mood among youth. Depressive symptoms do not vary among African American boys and girls and European American boys and girls either initially or over time. Results indicate that spanking is significantly and positively related to depressive symptoms for African-American girls and European American girls initially, but only for African American girls over time. These results suggest that spanking has a negative impact on depressive mood for girls of both races initially, but only for African American girls over time. Further, results of this study demonstrate that spanking does not appear to affect depressive symptoms among boys either short term or long term. Other notable factors under consideration in this study are maternal depression and emotional support offered by the mother. Maternal depression has a positive impact on youth regardless of race- gender status. Emotional support appears to have a positive effect on depressive symptoms for European American boys and girls initially, but only European American boys over time.
Bibliography Citation
Buemi, Sam J. How Race-Gender Status Affects the Relationship Between Spanking and Depressive Symptoms Among Children and Adolescents. M.A. Thesis, Kent State University, 2009.
8. Carnot, Thomas
The Impacts of Drinking Alcohol, Using Marijuana, and Smoking Cigarettes as a Teenager on the Educational Attainment and the Income of Young Adults
M.A. Thesis, Department of Economics, Clemson University, May 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Drug Use; Educational Attainment; Income; Smoking (see Cigarette Use); Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

It is widely believed that activities such as drinking alcohol, smoking cigarettes, and using marijuana during the teenage years have a harmful effect on a youth's development, thus damaging his or her value in the labor market once the individual reaches adulthood. There have been several studies in the past that have looked into the consequences of partaking in such activities during both the adult and college years, but this paper will investigate how the use of alcohol, marijuana, and cigarettes at the age of 16 affects the average individual's future income and the amount of education completed by the time he or she becomes a young adult. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), this paper will examine not only how having tried each of the aforementioned substances affects one's future outlook, but also the effect that various levels of drug or alcohol use at the age of 16 has on both the number of grades completed and the amount of money earned in the past year when the individual hits the ages of 23 and 25. Through regression analysis, the study finds that the net effect of using alcohol as a teenager on income as a young adult is generally positive for the sample. However, alcohol use as a teenager tended to have a negative effect on the amount of schooling finished. Both marijuana and cigarette use as a teen are met with a decrease in earnings and a reduction in the amount of education completed.
Bibliography Citation
Carnot, Thomas. The Impacts of Drinking Alcohol, Using Marijuana, and Smoking Cigarettes as a Teenager on the Educational Attainment and the Income of Young Adults. M.A. Thesis, Department of Economics, Clemson University, May 2011.
9. Cheng, Haotian
Characteristics that Influence Financially Risky Occupational Choice
M.S. Thesis, Department of Agricultural Economics, Oklahoma State University, 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Financial Behaviors/Decisions; Occupational Choice; Risk-Taking

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Direct employment in agriculture has historically comprised a small percentage of the total population. Improvement of technology and productivity is one reason for this phenomenon, while another is that agriculture is inherently risky. As a result, reliance on agriculture as an occupation introduces additional risk relative to many non-ag occupations. This study determines the characteristics of individuals, who are willing to choose financially risky occupations, with an emphasis on agricultural occupations, compared to the characteristics of those involved in other, non-risky occupations. Data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, are used to determine how demographic and risk preferences influence occupational choice. Results indicate that level of income, marital status, and gender has an impact on occupation choice for financially risky versus non-financially risky jobs. However, the results are improved when risk tolerance is included as a choice factor.
Bibliography Citation
Cheng, Haotian. Characteristics that Influence Financially Risky Occupational Choice. M.S. Thesis, Department of Agricultural Economics, Oklahoma State University, 2017.
10. Cifci, Eren
A Study of the Relationship between Family Income and Worker Compensation Measured as Wage and Fringe Benefits
M.A. Thesis, Department of Business Administration, Kent State University, 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Benefits, Fringe; Family Income; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this study, I investigate the relationship between family (or parental) income and worker compensation. I consider compensation in the form of wage and fringe benefits. Most existing studies of intergenerational linkages focus solely on wage income. Therefore, I add to the literature by examining the relationship between parental income and a broader measure of compensation. The data used for the analysis are from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY-79). I report results separately for (i) the intergenerational income elasticity, (ii) the relationship between family income and the number of benefits provided by an individual's employer and (iii) the likelihood that each of nine specific fringe benefits is available to the individual. For much of the thesis, I consider a single year of compensation data (2008), but I also extend the analysis to a measure of long term compensation.
Bibliography Citation
Cifci, Eren. A Study of the Relationship between Family Income and Worker Compensation Measured as Wage and Fringe Benefits. M.A. Thesis, Department of Business Administration, Kent State University, 2016.
11. Craig, Debra Lynde
Household Income and Depressive Mood Among Single Women in Midlife: A Nuanced Approach Across Economic Strata
M.S. Thesis, The University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 2005. MAI 44/04, Aug 2006.
Also: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1075704861&sid=1&Fmt=2&clientId=3959&RQT=309&VName=PQD
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Alimony; Depression (see also CESD); Family Studies; Health Factors; Income Level; Racial Differences; Women's Studies

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the 1999 wave of the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women (NLS-YW), this study examined the relationship between income and self-reported depressive mood in a national sample of 772 unmarried women aged 45 to 58. ANCOVA was used to compare depressive mood among three U. S. Census-based income groups (lower, middle, and higher) net of the effects of race and self-rated health. Mean levels of depressive mood did not vary significantly between women in the lower and middle-income groups, but were significantly lower in the higher-income group. Additionally, a series of multiple regression analyses was used to predict depressive mood in the total sample and the three income groups from nine sources of income, net of the effects of race, health, and total income. In the total sample, women who had income from labor had significantly lower levels of depressive mood than those not in the work force. Women who received alimony and hardship payments had significantly higher levels of depressive mood than those without income from these sources. Similar but distinct patterns emerged for the three income groups.
Bibliography Citation
Craig, Debra Lynde. Household Income and Depressive Mood Among Single Women in Midlife: A Nuanced Approach Across Economic Strata. M.S. Thesis, The University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 2005. MAI 44/04, Aug 2006..
12. Denice, Patrick A.
Does It Pay to Attend a For-Profit College? Horizontal Stratification in Higher Education
M.A. Thesis, University of Washington, 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): College Education; Colleges; Earnings; Educational Returns

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Mostly absent from the research investigating the economic returns to postsecondary education are examinations of the economic value of attending a for-profit institution, despite this sector's rapid growth over the past decade. Using the most recent available wave of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, I find that individuals who pursued their postsecondary education at a for-profit college earn significantly lower weekly compensation than individuals who did not attend a for-profit college. This difference is robust to the addition of individual, regional, and employment controls, and it is particularly concentrated among 2-year degree holders, women, and those working in the management and professional fields. Implications for the horizontal stratification of higher education are explored.
Bibliography Citation
Denice, Patrick A. Does It Pay to Attend a For-Profit College? Horizontal Stratification in Higher Education. M.A. Thesis, University of Washington, 2012.
13. Dickerson, Brian
Long Term Determinants of Income: Early Career Choices and Their Effect on Future Income
M.S. Thesis, Department of Economics, University of North Carolina and Charlotte, 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Educational Attainment; Income; Intelligence; Modeling, OLS

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The purpose of this thesis was to examine how early career decisions by young adults can affect their long term career outcomes, specifically income twenty years in the future. Previous research dedicated to this area looked at short-term effects. Data was gathered from the NLSY79, which followed young adults from 1979, when each individual was between 14 and 22, through 2010. This was used to create a log-linear OLS model that contained regressors of income, unemployment, educational attainment, intelligence, gender, and race demographics.

The results showed that income, unemployment, educational attainment, and intelligence each had a statistically significant effect on income as far out as twenty years. A one hundred dollar increase in income is associated with income twenty years out by a .147% increase. A week-spent unemployed is associated with 0.813% decrease in income twenty years later. Educational attainment results suggest that an additional year of education is associated with a 6.28% increase in income and a one percent increase in AFQT percentile is associated with a .715% increase in income twenty years out. Income, education, and intelligence results held significance at a 0.001 level while unemployment held significance at a 0.05 level.

Bibliography Citation
Dickerson, Brian. Long Term Determinants of Income: Early Career Choices and Their Effect on Future Income. M.S. Thesis, Department of Economics, University of North Carolina and Charlotte, 2014.
14. Dillon, Molly Danielle
Getting Ahead: The Statistical Relationship Between Head Start and College Attendance
Master's Thesis, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Georgetown University, April 2013
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Childhood Education, Early; Children, Preschool; College Enrollment; Family Income; Head Start; Modeling, Fixed Effects

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In 1965, Head Start was founded under President Johnson’s War on Poverty to help provide low-income families with free early childhood education. While it began as a summer program, it has evolved into a preschool program. Now run by the Administration for Children and Families in the Department of Health and Human Services, since its inception Head Start has served nearly 30 million children. Research on the Head Start program has found significant gains in school readiness and educational abilities, however those gains tend to wear off in the early elementary years. Some have used this as an argument against the government program. Research also shows the importance of having a college education in today’s modern workforce. This study therefore explores the relationship between participation in Head Start and college attendance. Without controlling properly for family background, we would be led to believe that Head Start has a significant and negative effect on the likelihood of college attendance. However, when we properly control for family background characteristics using a household level fixed effects model, we find that Head Start does not have a significant positive or negative effect on the likelihood of college attendance. The effects of Head Start coupled with rigorous and ongoing academic intervention programs should be explored in future research.
Bibliography Citation
Dillon, Molly Danielle. Getting Ahead: The Statistical Relationship Between Head Start and College Attendance. Master's Thesis, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Georgetown University, April 2013.
15. Drake, Angela
Who's Your Daddy?: A Comparison of Intergenerational Mobility of Socioeconomic Status for Sons and Daughters
M.A. Thesis, Wichita State University, 2007. MAI 46/06, Dec 2008
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Fathers and Children; Gender; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mobility, Economic; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Intergenerational mobility is of interest to social scientists, in part due to the persistence of the quest for the "American Dream". Intergenerational mobility is a gauge of the opportunities each group has to increase their privilege, class, and income. In addition, it helps researchers understand the way our society creates class structures. Many studies have addressed intergenerational mobility, focusing on socioeconomic status (socioeconomic status) of fathers and its effect on their sons. Other studies have looked at father's effect on son's and daughter's occupational mobility, but the effect of father's socioeconomic status on daughter's socioeconomic status has been overlooked thus far. This study examined the intergenerational mobility of socioeconomic status and if there are differences in the transmission of father's socioeconomic status to their sons and daughters. Secondary data analysis of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979-2002) was used for the analysis. A model was created in order to examine three sets of relevant theories: individual, structural, and gender-level. Univariate, bivariate and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression were utilized for analysis. Bivariate analysis shows that sons have higher socioeconomic status than daughters. OLS regression results indicate that father's socioeconomic status has a positive effect on children's socioeconomic status, net of other factors, but no statistical difference was found between sons and daughters.
Bibliography Citation
Drake, Angela. Who's Your Daddy?: A Comparison of Intergenerational Mobility of Socioeconomic Status for Sons and Daughters. M.A. Thesis, Wichita State University, 2007. MAI 46/06, Dec 2008.
16. Ekhator, Uche Eseosa
Gang Neighborhood and Youth Criminal Behavior
M.S. Thesis, Department of Statistics, Northern Illinois University, 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Mothers, Adolescent; Neighborhood Effects; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

I examine the effect of the presence of gangs in a youth's neighborhood on criminal behavior in the United States using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) with a Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA) model. There is evidence that the presence of gangs in a youth's neighborhood affects youth arrests, delinquency and substance use taken together for youths born to mothers who are 30 years or older. The negative effect of gangs on incidences of delinquency is larger for youths born to teen mothers than for those whose mothers were 30 years or older when they were born. The reverse is however the case for substance use. Youths born to teen mothers and residing in neighborhoods where gangs are present are less likely to have incidences of substance use than their counterparts born to mothers who were 30 years or older. This result suggests that children from teen pregnancies are at higher risks of criminal behavior when gangs are present in their neighborhoods than children born to older mothers. Policies aiming to prevent criminal behavior for youths in gang neighborhoods should therefore focus more on youths born to teen mothers.
Bibliography Citation
Ekhator, Uche Eseosa. Gang Neighborhood and Youth Criminal Behavior. M.S. Thesis, Department of Statistics, Northern Illinois University, 2017.
17. Fedor, Theresa Marie
Disparities in Birth Weight Between Non-Hispanic Blacks and Non-Hispanic Whites: The Effect of Rural Residency
MS Thesis, Utah State University, 2009.
Also: http://digitalcommons.usu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1424&context=etd
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Birth Outcomes; Birthweight; Children, Poverty; Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Geographical Variation; Household Composition; Poverty; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of low birth weight among non-Hispanic Blacks and non-Hispanic Whites along the rural/urban continuum, as well as the combined effect of being both non-Hispanic Black and residing in a completely rural county. Degree of social isolation and lack of support are proposed mechanisms for explaining disparities in low birth weight for Blacks in rural counties. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Child (NLSY79-C) datasets, logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds of low birth weight. Key variables employed in these models include race/ethnicity, a five category measure of counties by degree of rural versus urban residence, interaction terms for race by county categorization, measures of the degree of community level support or isolation, household composition as a measure of the family support structure, access to medical care, maternal SES, birth characteristics, and maternal pregnancy behavior. Results demonstrate that Blacks have much higher odds of low birth weight than Whites and living in a completely rural county exacerbates disadvantage in birth weight outcomes for non-Hispanic Blacks but not for non-Hispanic Whites. The community and household level support measures have little mediating effect on the magnitude of the negative birth weight outcomes found for non-Hispanic Blacks in the most rural counties. However, the first order effect for non-Hispanic Blacks was almost completely explained by the presence of the father in the household when interaction effects for race and place of residence were also included in the model.
Bibliography Citation
Fedor, Theresa Marie. Disparities in Birth Weight Between Non-Hispanic Blacks and Non-Hispanic Whites: The Effect of Rural Residency. MS Thesis, Utah State University, 2009..
18. Fulco, Celia J.
Time-Varying Outcomes Associated with Maternal Age at First Birth
M.S. Thesis, Department of Psychology, Colorado State University, 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Educational Attainment; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Mothers; Poverty; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Those who become mothers early in life face poorer outcomes related to social, economic, educational, and health factors for both mother and child. The literature often uses teenage and "early" parenting interchangeably as predictors of associated outcomes. However, changing the operational definition of early motherhood to include those who are 19 and under, 22 and under, or 25 and under does not significantly alter results that show younger mothers having worse economic outcomes, comparatively (Gibb, Fergusson, Horwood, & Boden, 2014). In response to the tendency of using age at first birth as a categorical predictor of outcomes, the time-varying relationship between maternal age at first birth and socioeconomic and parenting outcomes was examined using longitudinal data.

A time-varying effect model was employed to display average level of education, home/parenting quality scores, and the odds of poverty as a function of maternal age at first birth, controlling for race/ethnicity and having the father in the child's household. We used data from a national longitudinal study of mothers who participated in the Child and Young Adult cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth.

Peak scores for all outcomes were observed around maternal age of 30 for all three initial models. Parenting and home quality gradually improved until late 20's when scores appeared to level out throughout the 30's. Highest grade completed increased until just after age 30 then dipped again around age 40. The odds of poverty decreased until about age 30 then leveled out. Controlling for father's presence in the household and race/ethnicity shifted all three selected effects.

Overall, earlier maternal age at first birth was associated with incrementally decreasing parenting and home quality, lower educational attainment, and greater likelihood of poverty status. The results highlight the problematic nature of utilizing categorical (e.g., teenage vs. non-teenage) age groups to predict maternal and child outcomes. In fact, results of this study suggest that optimal socioeconomic and parenting outcomes level out around age 30 for this nationally representative sample. Current trends in psychological, developmental, and economic research should consider curvilinear patterns of outcomes related to maternal age at first birth rather than relying on categorical comparisons of age groups.

Bibliography Citation
Fulco, Celia J. Time-Varying Outcomes Associated with Maternal Age at First Birth. M.S. Thesis, Department of Psychology, Colorado State University, 2018.
19. Giguere, Rachelle Marie
How Incarceration Affects Juveniles: A Focus on the Changes in Frequency and Prevalence of Criminal Activity
M.A. Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, 2005
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Crime; Criminal Justice System; Incarceration/Jail

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

There has been a longstanding debate over the effectiveness of correctional institutions. Some argue that incarceration deters offenders while others argue that the experience of being incarcerated causes individuals to continue in their life of crime. Resolving this debate is of particular importance for young individuals when there is a national push for the increased treatment of youth as adults. Using NLSY panel data, this study focuses on how the criminal offending of a sample of incarcerated youth changes over time in relation to incarceration while including a control group of youth who are not incarcerated but are similar in demographics. Close attention is paid to overcome past problems with validity. The findings suggest that incarceration does little to stop criminal paths or future contacts with the criminal justice system, but perhaps may even have harmful effects on youth, particularly drug sellers, over the short term.
Bibliography Citation
Giguere, Rachelle Marie. How Incarceration Affects Juveniles: A Focus on the Changes in Frequency and Prevalence of Criminal Activity. M.A. Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, 2005.
20. Heymann, Orlaith D.
The Disadvantage of a Sex-Segregated Labor Market: Sex Composition and the Availability of Work-Family Benefits
M.A. Thesis, University of Massachusetts-Boston, August 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Benefits; Gender; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Occupational Segregation; Occupations, Female; Occupations, Male

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper I explore how the sex composition of occupations affects the work-family benefits made available to employees. Conducting a secondary data analysis on a subsample from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY 2010), I utilize a logistic regression modeling strategy including individual-level, workplace-level, and occupation-level characteristics. Previous literature suggests that male-dominated occupations may be unlikely to make work-family benefits available. I hypothesized that female-dominated occupations would be more likely than male-dominated occupations to offer work-family benefits. Consistent with the literature, I found that male-dominated occupations are not likely to offer parental leave or flexible schedules, especially if they are low-prestige occupations. Surprisingly, however, women in male-dominated occupations were especially likely to have parental leave available. Also surprising, I found that occupations with balanced sex compositions offered men the best access to parental leave compared to men in male-dominated occupations and offered both men and women the best access to flexible work schedules compared to male- or female-dominated occupations. My study suggests that efforts to balance occupational sex compositions may result in better availability of work-family benefits for both men and women. Importantly, I argue that the unequal distribution of benefits discovered within male-dominated occupations may create barriers for women trying to enter these occupations, reinforcing sex segregation in the United States' labor market.
Bibliography Citation
Heymann, Orlaith D. The Disadvantage of a Sex-Segregated Labor Market: Sex Composition and the Availability of Work-Family Benefits. M.A. Thesis, University of Massachusetts-Boston, August 2013.
21. Holland, Morgan
Task-specific Human Capital Accumulation and Wage Outcomes among Young Men: An Empirical Analysis
M.A. Thesis, Department of Economics, University of South Carolina, 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Human Capital; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Occupational Information Network (O*NET); Wage Effects

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Existing literature suggests that investment in different kinds of task-specific human capital may have significant effects on wage outcomes and overall economic wellbeing of individuals. To examine this claim, the accumulation of task-specific human capital in young male workers with no college education and its effects on wages is measured. Using National Longitudinal Survey of Youth panel data merged with six task-specific human capital measures derived from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles task contents data, fixed effects regression was utilized to measure how workers' task-specific human capital develops over time. This process shows that among the task measures used, accumulation of experience in routine cognitive tasks is the greatest determiner of wage outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Holland, Morgan. Task-specific Human Capital Accumulation and Wage Outcomes among Young Men: An Empirical Analysis. M.A. Thesis, Department of Economics, University of South Carolina, 2014.
22. Huffman, Amanda
Does Changing Jobs Pay Off? The Relationship Between Job Mobility and Wages
Master's Thesis, Georgetown University, April 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Job Tenure; Mobility, Job; Wage Gap; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Recent academic studies reveal a pronounced trend of increasing income inequality in the United States. For those policymakers concerned with increasing income inequality, wage inequality is a logical policy focus. Wage inequality analyses often focus on demographic characteristics or education; however, a more subtle consideration is job mobility, i.e., the movement of an individual from job to job throughout his career. To the extent that particular job mobility patterns are associated with higher wages, unequal opportunity for workers either to make job changes or to remain in their current jobs can contribute to wage inequality in general. In this study, I focus on the relationship between job mobility and wages in order to understand which job mobility levels are associated with the highest wages for workers at different stages of their careers. Existing academic literature suggests that job mobility is associated with positive wage returns for workers early in their careers, but that the effect diminishes as workers gain experience and positive wage returns to job tenure grow stronger. These findings indicate that the relationships between job mobility, tenure, and wages may depend upon experience. Specifically, I hypothesize that high voluntary job mobility is associated with positive wage returns for low experience workers, while high tenure is associated with positive wage gains for high experience workers. To explore these relationships, I run several regression models that control for person and year fixed effects and a variety of time-varying control variables. I find evidence of positive wage returns associated with high voluntary job mobility, which appear to diminish as workers gain experience. I also find that high tenure is positively associated with higher wages for both low and high experience workers, not just for those workers with high work experience. In terms of policy implications, these findings broadly indicate that some work patterns coul d result in higher average wages than others, and that a diverse portfolio of labor policies may, therefore, stand to benefit workers who are just beginning their careers, whereas policies that foster increased tenure may create the greatest opportunity for wage growth among workers later in their careers.
Bibliography Citation
Huffman, Amanda. Does Changing Jobs Pay Off? The Relationship Between Job Mobility and Wages. Master's Thesis, Georgetown University, April 2012.
23. Indika, M.G. Nuwan
Marriage and Wages: An Empirical Analysis for Men
M.A. Thesis, Western Illinois University, December 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Earnings, Husbands; Marital Status; Marriage; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Propensity Scores; Wage Differentials; Wage Growth; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

There is an empirically identified phenomenon that married men have higher wages than unmarried men and a number of explanations are associated with this. A large amount of research literature discusses this estimated wage effect for marriage men. Our meta-analysis of 19 studies and 120 estimates finds that there exists a meaningful impact on wage after control for the publication bias with heterogeneity. Marriage premium accounts as 6.8 percent with the evidence of publication bias after applying descriptive statistics, funnel graph, simple meta-regression analysis (MRA), and multiple MRAs of 120 estimated coefficients. Also this analysis identifies omitted variable bias as another important aspect for explaining this widespread empirical literature. Secondly, this paper provides an empirical study for the marriage wage premium for men in the U.S., using the propensity score matching method for selection on observable attributes and Heckman's conditional difference-in-difference model for selection on unobservable attributes. The data for this analysis of the marriage premium used a shifting panel design for marriages between 1980 and 1992, as well as 1994 through 2008. This analysis examines data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) from 1979 to 2010 and focuses on men one year after marriage as well as two years after marriage. Our results prove the selection hypothesis that men with higher earnings are more likely to get married and the significant marriage premium accounts for 6.4 percent and 7.4 percent of observed factors for two type periods, respectively. Moreover, the wage-related characteristics for men within this study indicate a positive selection for marriage within a 3-year panel window while rejecting the selection hypothesis for the 5-year panel window. Finally, the conditional difference-in-difference model shows the existence of a significant marriage premium. Thus, the research identified that men earn a marriage premium and t he differential wage growth with the existence of time invariant unobserved heterogeneity (and time variant unobserved heterogeneity). This suggests such men are attractive in the labor market and as a spouse in the marriage market. Also, the fixed effect estimation proves the existence of specialization hypothesis.
Bibliography Citation
Indika, M.G. Nuwan. Marriage and Wages: An Empirical Analysis for Men. M.A. Thesis, Western Illinois University, December 2013.
24. Infante, Arynn
The Origins of Life-Course Persistent Offending Revisited: Does Self-Control Mediate the Effect of Neuropsychological Deficits on Early-Onset Offending?
M.S. Thesis, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Arizona State University, 2014
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Delinquency/Gang Activity; Drug Use; Family Decision-making/Conflict; Life Course; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Self-Regulation/Self-Control

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The link between childhood neuropsychological deficits and early-onset offending--the assumed precursor to life-course persistent offending--has been well established, yet the underlying mechanisms facilitating this relationship are less understood. Support is growing for the claim that self-control is a key mechanism that links neuropsychological deficits to early-onset offending. Despite this, findings are mixed with regard to the mediating effect of self-control in the relationship between neuropsychological deficits and antisocial behavior. These studies largely support the notion that self-control exerts a mediating effect on neuropsychological deficits when the offending being studied is less serious. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), the present study seeks to build upon the existing literature by examining whether self-control mediates the relationship between neuropsychological deficits and two types of early-onset offending--low and high risk--as a means of testing core tenets of Gottfredson and Hirschi's (1990) and Moffitt's (1993) criminological theories. Findings show that while self-control and neuropsychological deficits independently predict general early-onset offending, these effects vary as a consequence of early-onset offender type. The results point to the need for future research to explore the possibility that the early-onset offender group that leads to persistent offending could be more precisely defined. Examining early-onset offending as a single construct limits our ability to make inferences about those offenders that are the most persistent in their offending patterns and, arguably, more likely to continue offending over the life-course.
Bibliography Citation
Infante, Arynn. The Origins of Life-Course Persistent Offending Revisited: Does Self-Control Mediate the Effect of Neuropsychological Deficits on Early-Onset Offending? M.S. Thesis, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Arizona State University, 2014.
25. Jayaram, Amshula K.
The Impact of Juvenile Incarceration on Employment Prospects for Young Women
Master's Thesis, Georgetown University, 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Employment; Incarceration/Jail; Labor Force Participation

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper assesses the impact that prior involvement in the Juvenile Justice system has on future employment prospects for young adult females. The literature on "collateral consequences" which refers to the total "costs" of incarceration and other types of punitive responses to an individual and to a society, has largely focused on young black males. This stands to reason, as they are disproportionately impacted at all levels of the justice system, from "stop-and-frisk" practices to death row. However attention is being increasingly being brought to the rising number of girls and women being arrested and detained. While women are largely incarcerated for non-violent drug or property offenses, girls appear to have a slightly different set of circumstances and are being arrested for running away from home or involvement in domestic disputes classified as "simple assault."

Unfortunately, while the number of females in the system rise, policy measures regarding reentry have largely stayed the same. As women exit the system and attempt to re-build, they will have to deal with the consequences of having a criminal record and face barriers to obtaining housing, public benefits and employment. This paper assesses the extent to which young women are penalized in the labor market specifically, both as a stand-alone impact and in comparison to their male peers, a topic which has received a great deal of attention for males but not nearly enough for females. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, a nationwide survey following two cohorts of youth from their teen years into adulthood, I construct logistic regression models to determine whether there is a negative relationship between prior involvement in the justice system and employment status, while controlling for age and race. I observe this relationship within each gender, as well as when males and females are jointly observed. My findings indicate that there is indeed a statistically significant negative relationship between the two, but that the impact for males and females is roughly the same. In other words, females with prior criminal history suffer in the labor market to the same extent as their male peers, but do not suffer additionally as a result of being female.

Bibliography Citation
Jayaram, Amshula K. The Impact of Juvenile Incarceration on Employment Prospects for Young Women. Master's Thesis, Georgetown University, 2012.
26. Jensen, Tim
Sensitivity Analysis on the Relationship Between Alcohol Abuse or Dependence and Wages
Master's Thesis, University of Missouri - Rolla, 2006
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between an indicator of alcohol dependence or abuse of an individual and his or her wage. This relationship is modeled as a cross-sectional observational study using data from the 1994 survey round of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY)
Bibliography Citation
Jensen, Tim. Sensitivity Analysis on the Relationship Between Alcohol Abuse or Dependence and Wages. Master's Thesis, University of Missouri - Rolla, 2006.
27. Kim, Keuntae
Neighborhood Disorders, Migration, Socioeconomic Status, and Self-Rated Health: A Longitudinal Study
M.S. Thesis, Utah State University, 2005. MAI 44/04, Aug 2006.
Also: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1079672151&sid=1&Fmt=2&clientId=3959&RQT=309&VName=PQD
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Demography; Health Factors; Neighborhood Effects; Residence; Socioeconomic Factors

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Most studies suggest that residents in highly disordered neighborhoods suffer from powerlessness, lack of information, poor diet, etc. However, few studies examine the cumulative effects of neighborhood disorders on self-rated health over the longterm. Most studies have been conducted in a cross-sectional framework and limited to a specific area, such as a single city or state. Even when employing longitudinal data, subjects were observed for a short period of time.

The present thesis provides information on the following. First, by tracing individuals' history for 21 years with the National Longitudinal Survey Youth (NLSY79), this study examined the association between duration of residence in neighborhoods with different levels of perceived disorders and self-rated health. Second, this study examined the duration effects of socioeconomic characteristics on health. Finally, this thesis also examined the effects of risk factors for physical health. Findings from descriptive and multivariate analyses confirmed most of the research questions.

Bibliography Citation
Kim, Keuntae. Neighborhood Disorders, Migration, Socioeconomic Status, and Self-Rated Health: A Longitudinal Study. M.S. Thesis, Utah State University, 2005. MAI 44/04, Aug 2006..
28. Kim, Yoshie Hayasaka
Demographic Differences in the Causal Effects of Obesity Status on Child Academic Achievement
M.S. Thesis, Department of Applied Economics, University of North Dakota, 2017
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Children, Academic Development; Ethnic Differences; Gender Differences; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Modeling, OLS; Obesity; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Many studies have found a negative correlation between obesity and academic achievement; however, determining and reaching a consensus about the nature of causality between these two variables have posed a challenge for scholars and researchers. If obesity does indeed have a negative causal effect on academic achievement, it has significant policy implications as it affects human capital investment. In this paper, I use the National Longitudinal Study of Youth-1979, Child and Young Adult data and estimate OLS, FE, traditional IV, and Lewbel IV models for children ages 5-12, stratified by race and gender. Under an individual fixed-effects model, I find that there are statistically significant, negative effects of being overweight for non-Hispanic/non-black boys, and of being obese for Hispanic/black girls on reading test scores. On the other hand, there seems to be a positive effect of being obese for Hispanic/black boys, though not at conventional levels. These results show the importance of stratifying the study population, not only by gender, but by race when studying obesity effects on academic achievement.
Bibliography Citation
Kim, Yoshie Hayasaka. Demographic Differences in the Causal Effects of Obesity Status on Child Academic Achievement. M.S. Thesis, Department of Applied Economics, University of North Dakota, 2017.
29. Koerner, Stefan
Sensitivity Analysis on the Relationship Between Alcohol Abuse or Dependence and Annual Hours Worked
Master's Thesis, University of Missouri- Rolla, 2006
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This thesis focuses on an observational study investigating the relationship between alcohol abuse or dependence and annual hours worked by using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth.
Bibliography Citation
Koerner, Stefan. Sensitivity Analysis on the Relationship Between Alcohol Abuse or Dependence and Annual Hours Worked. Master's Thesis, University of Missouri- Rolla, 2006.
30. Leibbrand, Christine
Parental Nonstandard Work Schedules and Child Behavioral Outcomes
M.A. Thesis, Department of Sociology, University of Washington, 2015
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Fathers, Involvement; Maternal Employment; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Work, Atypical

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Nonstandard work schedules, such as the evening and night shift, are prevalent in the United States, with approximately 17.7 percent of the workforce now employed in a nonstandard schedule. The research thus far indicates that these work arrangements negatively influence children's behavioral development. However, the majority of studies focus on infants and toddlers or on adolescents, with elementary school-age children relatively understudied. Likewise, the role of the father's work schedule and parental involvement has been neglected. To broaden understanding of the effects of nonstandard schedules on children, and how these effects may depend upon the age of the child and the level of parental involvement, I analyze data from the NLSY79 and its Child Supplement from 1994-2006. My findings show that older children whose mothers work rotating or irregular shifts exhibit more behavior problems, while other types of shift schedules do not harm children's behavioral outcomes. While differences in parental involvement and closeness do not explain these relationships, parental closeness has an important influence on behavior problems for all parental employment statuses.
Bibliography Citation
Leibbrand, Christine. Parental Nonstandard Work Schedules and Child Behavioral Outcomes. M.A. Thesis, Department of Sociology, University of Washington, 2015.
31. Leontyeva, Anna
Marijuana Use Patterns and Risk Attitudes in Adolescence and Young Adulthood
M.P.P. Thesis, Department of Public Policy and Policy Management, Georgetown University, 2019
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Drug Use; Risk Perception; Risk-Taking

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Attitudes toward risks guide human decisions in various life domains. In adolescence, risk aversion protects from engaging in risky behavior that can have adverse health outcomes such as unprotected sex or illegal substances use (Reyna & Farley, 2006). In a longer developmental perspective, however, some degree of risk-taking can be useful. The experience of risk in adolescence provides a chance to build knowledge and skills so that a mature person perceives and manages challenges better after. This argument can be made even for moderate marijuana use (Percy, 2008). My thesis examines whether individuals who take a risk in adolescence develop more positive attitudes towards risks in adulthood. I use a longitudinal representative data NLS97 to track history of marijuana use of 4449 individuals and explore its impact on risk aversion in adulthood. I operationalize the experience of risk as a scenario of marijuana use, that started during adolescence but does not continue in adulthood. Regression analysis was used to explore whether the experience of risk in adolescence makes attitudes towards risk more positive in adulthood.
Bibliography Citation
Leontyeva, Anna. Marijuana Use Patterns and Risk Attitudes in Adolescence and Young Adulthood. M.P.P. Thesis, Department of Public Policy and Policy Management, Georgetown University, 2019.
32. Louton, Brooks
Parental Criminality Links to Additional Risk Factors for Juvenile Delinquency
M.S. Thesis, Arizona State University, 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Arrests; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Family Size; Parental Influences; Parenthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Prior research has found links between family environment and criminal outcomes, but research is lacking on why these factors often occur together within families. Parental criminality, family size, and family disruption have been analyzed as risk factors for juvenile delinquency, but their relationships with each other have gone largely unexplored. This thesis explores the relationship between parental criminality, having children, number of children, and patterns of residence with children. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth '97 are used to associate likelihood of having children, likelihood of having any children out of residence, percent of children in residence, and number of children with arrest prevalence and self-reported offending. Results were generally supportive. Moderate effect sizes were found for likelihood of having children, with large effects on likelihood of having any children out of residence. Moderate effects were found for percentage of children in residence, and large effects were found for number of children.
Bibliography Citation
Louton, Brooks. Parental Criminality Links to Additional Risk Factors for Juvenile Delinquency. M.S. Thesis, Arizona State University, 2011.
33. Makki, Nazgol
Role of Neurotic Personality Trait in the Determination of Self Satisfaction and Job Satisfaction
M.A. Thesis, Department of Economics and Statistics, California State University, Los Angeles, 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Happiness (see Positive Affect/Optimism); Job Satisfaction; Life Satisfaction; Personality/Big Five Factor Model or Traits

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The current study examines the role of neurotic personality in the determination of an individual's happiness in the form of self-satisfaction and job satisfaction. Using four samples from two surveys of the national longitudinal survey of youth NLSY79 and using an ordered probit approach, the study demonstrates that other characteristics held constant, an individual with a neurotic personality is likely to be less satisfied with his/her life and workplace. The significance of this variable in both self-satisfaction and job satisfaction regression along with the likelihood test results indicate that personality trait is an important determinant of the individual's overall well-being, and should not therefore be excluded from happiness regressions. As a byproduct, the study identifies several important covariates of job satisfaction and self-satisfaction, and shows how they affect the satisfaction of younger and mature adults differently.
Bibliography Citation
Makki, Nazgol. Role of Neurotic Personality Trait in the Determination of Self Satisfaction and Job Satisfaction. M.A. Thesis, Department of Economics and Statistics, California State University, Los Angeles, 2017.
34. McCabe, Staci E.
Quantity and Frequency of Alcohol Consumption: Race-Gender Differences During Late Adolescence and Early Adulthood
M.A., College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Sociology, Kent State University, 2009.
Also: http://alldissertations.com/full.php?id=3833
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Gender Differences; Life Course; Racial Differences; Substance Use; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Guided by the literature on the life course perspective, this study examines race and gender differences in alcohol consumption among African American, Hispanic, and white young adults aged 18 to 30. Utilizing data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth – Mother and Young Adult samples, I focus on how the apparent racial/ethnic and gender gap in drinking is maintained during the transition to adulthood, when drinking declines for all youth as they are taking on adult roles such as employment, marriage, and parenthood. Results from the longitudinal analysis indicate that African American, Hispanic, and white women drink less frequently than white men and that all groups, except for Hispanic males, consumed fewer drinks than white males. Race-gender status moderates the frequency of drinking on the number of drinks consumed. Frequency of drinking is related to increases for all groups, but less so for African American men and women compared to white men. In other words, even when African American men and women are drinking as frequently as white men, they consume far less alcohol.
Bibliography Citation
McCabe, Staci E. Quantity and Frequency of Alcohol Consumption: Race-Gender Differences During Late Adolescence and Early Adulthood. M.A., College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Sociology, Kent State University, 2009..
35. Merklinghaus, Carter Ashleigh
Drug Use Among Military Men and Women: A Longitudinal Fixed-Effects Approach
Master's Thesis, Department of Sociology, University of Washington, 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Drug Use; Military Personnel; Military Service; Modeling, Fixed Effects

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Very little research has been conducted on the effects of military service on drug use. Of the studies that do exist, few conduct analyses to include comparisons of active duty enlistees, veterans, and civilians. In addition, the effects of combat status and gender are often overlooked. Using data from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth I analyze patterns of drug use across current enlistees in the military, veterans, and civilians, and determine whether differences exist according to gender and combat status. Overall I find that enlisted members of the military are less likely to use drugs than their civilian counterparts, but this pattern does not occur for veterans. Subsequently I find that these relationships do not differ by gender or combat status. I do find, however, that despite there being no decrease in drug use after exiting the service, there is no increase in drug use either, even after controlling for combat status. This is important for helping us better understand the military's effects on the life-course outcomes of our nation's young people, as well as furthering our understanding of the military as a near total institution. Additionally, The results of this study could be useful to policy-makers who seek to better understand the effects of military service in order to more accurately address how to provide help and resources to our nation's veterans.
Bibliography Citation
Merklinghaus, Carter Ashleigh. Drug Use Among Military Men and Women: A Longitudinal Fixed-Effects Approach. Master's Thesis, Department of Sociology, University of Washington, 2015.
36. Middleton, Mark Gerald
Community Social Status Effects on Migration Outcomes
M.A.Thesis, Department of Sociology, West Virginia University, 2009.
Also: http://gradworks.umi.com/14/71/1471540.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Geocoded Data; Labor Force Participation; Life Cycle Research; Migration Patterns; Mobility, Social; Socioeconomic Background; Socioeconomic Factors

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using the geocoded version of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79), this study examines patterns of internal migration in the United States by investigating individual residential mobility between low socioeconomic and high socioeconomic counties. Specifically, through the use of data between the years of 1979 and 2002, this study asks three questions. First, if the sending community is socioeconomically different than the receiving community where the migrant lives during middle age, does this show upward, downward or lateral status movement? Second, do migrants tend to move from less desirable communities to communities with higher socioeconomic standards of living? Third, what is the relationship between education and upward mobility, as the individual education levels increases is there movement to communities with higher socioeconomic standards of living? This analysis examines migration outcomes for individuals who in 1979 were between the ages of 14 and 21 and 23 years later where between the ages of 37 and 45 years of age in 2002, the latter period represents when individuals are entering middle age. Life cycle events, such as education, entry into the labor force and the start of marriage and childbearing tend to be complete at this stage of life cycle and migration is less frequent.
Bibliography Citation
Middleton, Mark Gerald. Community Social Status Effects on Migration Outcomes. M.A.Thesis, Department of Sociology, West Virginia University, 2009..
37. Molbert, Courtney L.
The Influence of Peer Groups, Gangs, and Neighborhoods on Juvenile Delinquent Alcohol and Marijuana Use
Master's Thesis, Department of Criminal Justice, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Drug Use; Neighborhood Effects; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The goal of this study was to determine which factors create the greatest likelihood for adolescent alcohol and marijuana use, and if certain influential relationships, such as gang membership and other peer relationships, mediate the effects of disadvantaged neighborhoods. Additionally, an attempt was made to determine if the immediate surroundings and relationships of adolescents work in a complementary fashion to influence one another. In the study, it was found that a socially disorganized neighborhood contributes, along with parental relations, to the selections an adolescent makes in choosing peers. It was also found that poor peer selection can lead to gang membership which would consequently increase the chances of alcohol and marijuana use. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth of 1997 focusing on gangs and neighborhoods as influences to adolescent alcohol and marijuana use, it was discovered that various gang categories and having peers who use alcohol or marijuana correlated with increased adolescent alcohol and marijuana use. The explanation for these categories having such a significant impact on increased levels of adolescent substance use can be attributed to the impressionability and malleability of this transitioning age group, in an attempt to fit in with the peers they have chosen to associate with and a desire to indulge in new experiences.
Bibliography Citation
Molbert, Courtney L. The Influence of Peer Groups, Gangs, and Neighborhoods on Juvenile Delinquent Alcohol and Marijuana Use. Master's Thesis, Department of Criminal Justice, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, 2018.
38. Murphy, Elizabeth
Does Paid Paternity Leave Taking Impact Mothers' Wages Two Years after the Birth of a Child? Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997
M.P.P. Thesis, Department of Public Policy and Policy Management, Georgetown University, 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Fathers; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Mothers, Income; Propensity Scores

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Paid family leave policies are a popular topic with both policymakers and CEOs and offer a potential solution for decreasing the wage penalty women who become mothers face. Studies have shown that the impact of maternity leave taking on women's earnings is mixed, but less studied is the impact of paid leave policies on paternity leave taking, particularly with regard to how it affects spouses' income. This study uses NLSY97 data to conduct a propensity score matching analysis to determine the relationship between paid paternity leave taking and spouses' income two years after the birth of a child. A statistically significant relationship between paid paternity leave taking and spouses' income is not found. Further study should include information on maternity leave taking—both paid and unpaid—as well as a larger sample of paid paternity leave takers with corresponding data on spouse's leave taking to better estimate the true relationship between paid paternity leave taking and spouses' income.
Bibliography Citation
Murphy, Elizabeth. Does Paid Paternity Leave Taking Impact Mothers' Wages Two Years after the Birth of a Child? Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. M.P.P. Thesis, Department of Public Policy and Policy Management, Georgetown University, 2016.
39. Oh, Sae Hyun
The Effect of Economic Conditions at High School Graduation Year on Short and Long Run Labor Market Outcomes
M.S. Thesis, Department of Economics, Tufts University, 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): College Enrollment; Economic Changes/Recession; High School Completion/Graduates; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A decade after the Great Recession, the major news media often reports continuing America's long economic malaise and the statistics proves that people especially with low-income have not gotten out of the slow recovery of the labor market. This paper studies how economic conditions affect newly graduated high school students and how long would the effect last on their incomes, employment status and educational attainment differently based on family income background. I verify the existence of the persistent effect of economic conditions using two-stage least squares (2SLS) regression analysis using samples from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. I measure the "scarring effect" of economic conditions at the year of high school graduation on hourly wage rates of males who are from low-income households in the long run, and on extensive margin and college enrollment of low-income females within 5 years after high school graduation.
Bibliography Citation
Oh, Sae Hyun. The Effect of Economic Conditions at High School Graduation Year on Short and Long Run Labor Market Outcomes. M.S. Thesis, Department of Economics, Tufts University, 2017.
40. Painter, Matthew A. II
High School Employment and Adult Wealth Accumulation
M.A. Thesis, Ohio State University, 2005
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Educational Costs; Employment, In-School; Human Capital; Labor Force Participation; Labor Supply; Wealth; Well-Being

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Wealth inequality receives substantial scholarly attention, but the processes underlying this financial disparity have only been recently explored. This study examines the relationship between early labor force participation and wealth accumulation. I argue that high school employment develops human capital, improves educational attainment, and ultimately increases adult wealth. Through work experience and business exposure, employed high school students develop practical life skills, knowledge, abilities, and resources that shape educational attainment, career outcomes, and adult financial decision making. These processes then shape investment decisions and overall net worth. I use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) to study these ideas empirically. This study extends the wealth literature by identifying an important adolescent process that has the potential to improve adult net worth and well-being.
Bibliography Citation
Painter, Matthew A. II. High School Employment and Adult Wealth Accumulation. M.A. Thesis, Ohio State University, 2005.
41. Patil, Divya
The Association Between Maternal Work Precarity and Infant Low Birth Weight in a Nationally Representative Cohort of Women in the United States
Master's Thesis, Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, 2018
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Job Characteristics; Maternal Employment; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

As a larger proportion of women enter and remain in the workforce, consideration should be given to how work characteristics can affect pregnancy outcomes. We investigated the association between maternal work precarity and delivery of a low birth weight infant. Data on work characteristics and covariates were collected from 2,871 women enrolled in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and outcome information was obtained from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Children Cohort. Work precarity was characterized as a composite measure of four work characteristics (material rewards [score 0-2], working time arrangements [score 0-2], collective organization [score 0-1], and employability opportunities [score 0-1]) and was categorized into three groups labeled low (0-2), medium (3), and high (4-6) based on the number of characteristics that a participant had. Low birth weight was defined as weight less than 2500 grams at birth.
Bibliography Citation
Patil, Divya. The Association Between Maternal Work Precarity and Infant Low Birth Weight in a Nationally Representative Cohort of Women in the United States. Master's Thesis, Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, 2018.
42. Pollock, Elizabeth Davenport
Relationship Between Mental Health, Physical Health, Physical Appearance and Marital Dissatisfaction
M.S. Thesis, University of Maryland - College Park, December 2006. MAI 44/06, p. 2649, Dec 2006
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Depression (see also CESD); Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Marital Satisfaction/Quality; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines the relationship between mental health, physical health and physical appearance and marital dissatisfaction for women interviewed in the 1992 and 2002 rounds of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. Ordered logistic regression analysis was applied to data from NLSY79's 1992 and 2002 rounds and the change from 1992 to 2002. This study found that health is an important factor in marital dissatisfaction. The results indicated that high levels of depression were related to high marital dissatisfaction, while high body weight and changes in physical health were related to low marital dissatisfaction. Social norms theory was found to be a consistent predictor of the relationship between poor mental health and marital dissatisfaction. Marital exchange theory's predictions were also supported by the data for the physical appearance and the physical health variables.
Bibliography Citation
Pollock, Elizabeth Davenport. Relationship Between Mental Health, Physical Health, Physical Appearance and Marital Dissatisfaction. M.S. Thesis, University of Maryland - College Park, December 2006. MAI 44/06, p. 2649, Dec 2006.
43. Potter, Phoebe M.
Employment and the Desistance Process: The Effect of Employment Status and Wages on Criminal Recidivism among Young Adults
M.A Thesis, Georgetown University, 2011.
Also: http://gradworks.umi.com/14/91/1491609.html
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Crime; Criminal Justice System; Employment; Incarceration/Jail; Income Level; Labor Force Participation; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Every year, thousands of ex-convicts in the United States undergo the challenging process of reentering society. Contact with the criminal justice system can disrupt critical developmental experiences for young adults, often resulting in these individuals continuing a life of crime. The purpose of this study is to determine if employment is an effective way for young adults to re-transition into society after being convicted for a crime, and therefore increases the likelihood of desistance from crime. Using data from the NLSY 1997 cohort, the effects of employment status, weekly employment hours, and income on the length of time before an individual recidivates are estimated with Cox proportional hazard models. The results suggest that employment and income both have statistically significant negative relationships with recidivism. These findings are robust even when controlling for other factors that may be spuriously related to both employment and recidivism.
Bibliography Citation
Potter, Phoebe M. Employment and the Desistance Process: The Effect of Employment Status and Wages on Criminal Recidivism among Young Adults. M.A Thesis, Georgetown University, 2011..
44. Price, Jessica L. Smith
A Longitudinal Examination of the Influences of Family Processes and Demographic Variables on Adolescent Weight
M.S. Thesis, School of Family Life, Brigham Young University, 2008.
Also: http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/ETD/image/etd2364.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Ethnic Differences; Health Care; Modeling, Multilevel; Mothers, Health; Obesity; Racial Differences; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Nationally representative studies estimate that almost one in five adolescents in the United States is overweight. This is a major concern for individuals' physical and psychological health and the overall economy in terms of health care costs and loss of productivity. The approach of this study was to understand adolescent overweight as influenced by family processes including: parent-adolescent relationship, monitoring or parental knowledge, control, family meals, and parenting styles. Race, sex, family structure, income, and mother Body Mass Index (BMI) were also included.

A sub-sample of 4,688 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 was used to address the association between family processes, demographic variables, and adolescent Body Mass Index (BMI) percentile over four years. Due to the inclusion of siblings in the sample, the data are non-independent. Longitudinal multilevel xv modeling was used to adjust for this non-independence. The final model indicated that frequency of family meals, sex, race, father's parenting style, control, and mother's BMI were important predictors of adolescent BMI percentile over time. Mother's BMI was the strongest predictor of adolescent BMI percentile. More frequent family meals led to decreases in BMI percentile over time, while males, African Americans, and Latinos had higher average BMI percentiles than other groups.

These findings suggest the need for intervention that focuses on mother's health and healthy behaviors in the home. At risk groups, including African American and Latino adolescents and males, should be targeted for these interventions. Additionally, the results indicated that using multilevel modeling with the NLSY97 was important due to nesting within families.

Bibliography Citation
Price, Jessica L. Smith. A Longitudinal Examination of the Influences of Family Processes and Demographic Variables on Adolescent Weight. M.S. Thesis, School of Family Life, Brigham Young University, 2008..
45. Primmer, Hiroe H.
Youth Employment Effects During School Years and Analysis of Their Household Characteristics
M.A. Thesis, University of Nevada - Reno, 2007
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Allowance, Pocket Money; Employment, In-School; Employment, Part-Time; Employment, Youth; Household Composition; Household Income; Income; Labor Force Participation; Transfers, Parental

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The most common sources of income for youths are earnings by working in the labor market and allowances from parents, grandparents, and so on. Typically, the jobs that are available for youths are in highly routine service sectors with low pay, no benefits, minimum skill requirements, and little time off. Work is probably the most common out-of-school activity among youths, although the idea that youths obtain income from earnings by working in the labor market is controversial due to the obstacle of their school work or involvement in delinquency. Compared with adult workers, most employed youths live with their parents and are financially dependent on them. Therefore, the household characteristics and resources as a whole highly influence the youth labor force participation and are important factors in understanding youth employment behavior. According to this study by analyzing the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97), it is observed that youths from high income households are more employed than youths from low income households.
Bibliography Citation
Primmer, Hiroe H. Youth Employment Effects During School Years and Analysis of Their Household Characteristics. M.A. Thesis, University of Nevada - Reno, 2007.
46. Roberts, Tracy Elizabeth
Employment and Marriage: Pathways Off of Welfare?
M.A. Thesis, University of Maryland - College Park, 2005. MAI 44/01, p. 192, Feb 2006
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Family Studies; Marital Stability; Marriage; Transition, Job to Job; Transition, Welfare to Work; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Does the way women exit welfare affect their probability of returning to welfare? Using data drawn from the 1979-2000 National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth, I examine the effect of marital and employment transitions on recidivism rates. I find that women who combine employment and marriage after exiting welfare, in that order, have significantly lower risks of recidivism than other women. Women who marry but do not enter employment have higher recidivism rates than women who combine employment and marriage, but they are less likely to return to welfare than women who are only employed. The data suggest that simply encouraging marriage or women's employment may not reduce welfare recidivism. The best policy strategy to reduce welfare dependence and encourage healthy marriages may be to strengthen work support programs and improve the circumstances of employment (and opportunities for strong marriages) for low-income men and women.
Bibliography Citation
Roberts, Tracy Elizabeth. Employment and Marriage: Pathways Off of Welfare? M.A. Thesis, University of Maryland - College Park, 2005. MAI 44/01, p. 192, Feb 2006.
47. Robin, Angela Evelina
Cops in the Making: Substance Use Patterns and Traits of Youth Who Enter the Criminal Justice Field
Master's Thesis, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Arizona State University, 2019
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Criminal Justice System; Drug Use; Occupational Choice; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using waves 1 through 17 of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, the current research examines substance use patterns of criminal justice system employees, assessing how their rate of substance use compares to a nationally representative sample, and how their substance use changes once employed with the criminal justice system, this research surveys the alcohol and illicit drug use of people who went on to work in the criminal justice system and how their substance use compares to the general population. In addition, this research compares police officer substance use to the general population.

When compared to a nationally represented sample, criminal justice system employees consistently use illegal substances at lower rates. However, the prevalence of alcohol use among police officers specifically is higher when compared to the general population and increases once employed with the criminal justice system. Information from this research can be used to help agencies with employee selection procedures and employee assistance programs for current employees.

Bibliography Citation
Robin, Angela Evelina. Cops in the Making: Substance Use Patterns and Traits of Youth Who Enter the Criminal Justice Field. Master's Thesis, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Arizona State University, 2019.
48. Rosenberg, Alexander Joel
The Effects of Parental Advice and Financial Literacy On Asset Accumulation among American Youth
Master's Thesis, Department of Public Policy and Policy Management, Georgetown University, 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Assets; Financial Literacy; Gender Differences; Parental Influences; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Financial literacy is an important body of knowledge and set of skills that consumers need to successfully navigate the 21st century economy. Prior research shows financial literacy bears a significant relationship, along with other factors, to the wealth outcomes of adults. While some of this research has examined how specific behaviors related to self-control affect wealth, few include the effects of parental socialization as measured through advice given from parents to children. This paper estimates an empirical relationship amongst wealth, literacy, and parental advice using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth’s 1997 Cohort (NLSY 97). I find financial literacy and parental advice are strongly related to wealth. I also find that women on average have lower wealth than men, even after controlling for literacy, advice, and other demographics. The source of the parental advice also proves statistically important.
Bibliography Citation
Rosenberg, Alexander Joel. The Effects of Parental Advice and Financial Literacy On Asset Accumulation among American Youth. Master's Thesis, Department of Public Policy and Policy Management, Georgetown University, 2017.
49. Rybinska, Anna
Family Size Preferences in Early Adulthood: Measurement Error and Dimensionality
M.A. Thesis, Department of Sociology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Data Quality/Consistency; Expectations/Intentions; Modeling, Structural Equation

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this study, the link between childbearing desires, intentions, and behavior is revisited using a structural equation modeling (SEM) approach in which I test if childbearing desires and intentions are distinct constructs while accounting for measurement error. Using data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth I estimate latent intentions and desires and then use the results to estimate the odds of having a(nother) child within the next three years. The results indicate that measurement error causes major bias in the relationship between childbearing intentions, desires and behavior. In models that account for measurement error, the effects of childbearing intentions and desires on childbearing behavior are twice as large as in models that assume perfect measurement. In addition, I find that while childbearing intentions and desires are distinct constructs, when used independently they might predict childbearing behavior with similar precision. Combined these results suggest that researchers interested in childbearing behaviors need to account for both measurement error and the distinction between childbearing intentions and desires in their models or risk severe bias in their results.
Bibliography Citation
Rybinska, Anna. Family Size Preferences in Early Adulthood: Measurement Error and Dimensionality. M.A. Thesis, Department of Sociology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2016.
50. Scioneaux, Mary Joynt
Social Resources and Divorced Mothers' Economic Well-being
M.S. Thesis, Department of Sociology, Iowa State University, 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Child Support; Divorce; Educational Attainment; Employment; Fathers; Mothers; Regions; Religion; Welfare; Well-Being

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Although research has studied women's post-divorce financial recovery, this topic needs revisiting as most of these studies are over a decade old and do not reflect the current life situations of divorced women today. This study draws upon a recent cohort of divorced women with children from the 2010 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and investigates how divorced women's various social resources are associated with their economic well-being. Specifically, I examine three categories of resources: individual resources (e.g., education, employment, and socio-emotional well-being), interpersonal resources (e.g., religious attendance, nonresident father involvement), and structural resources (community size, child support, and welfare receipt). This study looks at more variables associated with mothers' personal, interpersonal and structural resources available to her post-divorce, specifically, region of residence and nonresidential father visitation. Overall, the major findings within this study show that education, more precisely, a four year degree has the largest effect on income for single divorce mothers. More specific to single divorced mothers, was the negative effect of dependence on welfare and no visitation from fathers on mothers income. Limitations of this study are first, the sample is limited single, divorced women with children; divorced mothers have the highest incidence of poverty and that many of the variables are generalizable to women or men, barring father visitation.
Bibliography Citation
Scioneaux, Mary Joynt. Social Resources and Divorced Mothers' Economic Well-being. M.S. Thesis, Department of Sociology, Iowa State University, 2014.
51. Seamon, Matthew P.
The "Cleaning up" Effect of Marriage on Health-risk Behaviors: The Role of Marital and Spousal Factors
M.P.P. Thesis, Department of Public Policy and Policy Management, Georgetown University, 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Drug Use; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Marital Satisfaction/Quality; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A large body of literature has established a clear link between marriage and health. Despite this wealth of research, surprisingly few studies have attempted to explore the exact mechanisms behind this marriage-health connection. Previous research has focused solely on changes in marital status while failing to consider factors like the quality of the marriage or the characteristics of the spouse. This paper utilizes longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to isolate the effect of marriage on the health-risk behaviors of binge drinking and marijuana use, and then assess the impact of marital and spousal factors on this "marriage effect." The results also show that marital quality has a significant impact on health behaviors. Higher self-assessed measures of marital quality are generally associated with lower rates of both binge drinking and marijuana use. The effect of spousal characteristics seems less significant. These results should provide a deeper understanding of the mechanisms behind the effects of marriage on health and help policymakers determine the appropriate policy response as the norms surrounding marriage continue to shift and evolve.
Bibliography Citation
Seamon, Matthew P. The "Cleaning up" Effect of Marriage on Health-risk Behaviors: The Role of Marital and Spousal Factors. M.P.P. Thesis, Department of Public Policy and Policy Management, Georgetown University, 2015.
52. Shakya, Rajani
The Causes and Correlates of Childhood Obesity: A Study of Children Between 10 and 14 Years of Age
M.S. Thesis, Clemson University, December 2006
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Asthma; Body Mass Index (BMI); Breastfeeding; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Computer Use; Extracurricular Activities/Sports; Obesity; Television Viewing; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Obesity is an alarming public health problem among people of all age groups in nearly every society. The increasing obesity rates are especially serious in the United States. The main purpose of this thesis is to explore the causes and correlates of obesity among American children between the ages of 10 and 14 using National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Child Data (NLSY79-CA).

This thesis hypothesized three major causal factors for the likelihood of children between the ages of 10 and 14 to be overweight or obese: socio-demographic groups, activities that children prefer to participate in, and the associated health conditions. A binary logistic regression was conducted to examine the likelihood of being overweight or obese of children between the ages of 10 and 14 and each of the above mentioned social factors.

The findings suggest that race and mothers who attained college graduate and higher, were significant predictors of the likelihood of overweight and obesity. However, the maternal education was no longer significant predictor when controlled for sociodemographic variables. Among the children’s preferred activities included in the study, only listening to music and playing outside variables were significant. None of the health condition variables were found significant.

Therefore, the overall finding suggests that the influence of socio-demographic factors is higher for the likelihood of children and adolescents being overweight or obese compared to other social factors. Based on this finding, this thesis suggests that attention should be given more to the strategy directed toward the socio-demographic factors.

Bibliography Citation
Shakya, Rajani. The Causes and Correlates of Childhood Obesity: A Study of Children Between 10 and 14 Years of Age. M.S. Thesis, Clemson University, December 2006.
53. Sias, Tandra Nicole
A Developmental Perspective: Early Childhood Externalizing Behaviors Pathway to Delinquency in Adolescence
M.A. Thesis, West Virginia University, 2014
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Delinquency/Gang Activity; Drug Use; Family Structure; Gender Differences; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Parenting Skills/Styles; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Early childhood externalizing behaviors are a known risk factor for future problem behaviors (e.g., poor achievement, delinquency). The present study seeks to illuminate the pathway of early childhood externalizing behaviors to five adolescent delinquency types (i.e., violent offenses, property offenses, illicit drug use, licit drug use, and minor offenses), in addition to overall delinquency. Study data came from two waves of the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-1979 (CNLSY-79; N = 855, 52.4% male, 24.1% Hispanic, 36.6% Black, and 39.1% white). Boys engaged in higher levels of violent and property crimes, and black youth were less likely to engage in substance use than white teens. Contrary to predictions, externalizing problems at ages 4-5 years were not directly associated with any form of adolescent delinquency. Instead, the combinations of high levels of early externalizing and low levels of spanking led to high illicit substance use, and for European American teens only, high externalizing predicted involvement in property crimes. These findings suggest that risk factors vary by delinquency type.
Bibliography Citation
Sias, Tandra Nicole. A Developmental Perspective: Early Childhood Externalizing Behaviors Pathway to Delinquency in Adolescence. M.A. Thesis, West Virginia University, 2014.
54. Sievertsen, Hans Henrik
The Consumption Value of Higher Education
M.Sc. Dissertation, Economics, University of Warwick, September 19, 2009
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); College Education; Earnings; Educational Costs; Higher Education; Modeling; Occupational Choice; Taxes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

If the choice of higher education is affected by non-pecuniary components, progressive tax systems can be introduced for efficiency reasons. Very few studies have analysed these non-pecuniary components of higher education. With a dataset on American college students we show that controlling for selectivity, actual earnings differ from potential earnings. Counterfactual earnings are predicted by means of a polychotomous choice selection model. It is found that education and nursing and liberal arts graduates sacrifice up to 46 pct. of their potential earnings. Assuming that these students maximised expected utility when choosing education, their choice indicates that their education must have a consumption component, which should not be ignored in policy design.

The aim of this study is to measure whether there is any consumption value of college education. This is done by combining previous approaches and applying them on a detailed dataset of American college students. By means of the theory of compensating values we provide a measurement of the lower bound for the individual valuation of the consumption component of college education.

Bibliography Citation
Sievertsen, Hans Henrik. The Consumption Value of Higher Education. M.Sc. Dissertation, Economics, University of Warwick, September 19, 2009.
55. Sillers, Anna
Understanding How Birth Spacing Influences the Employment Decisions of At-risk, Unmarried Mothers after the Birth of a Second Child
M.P.P. Thesis, Department of Public Policy and Policy Management, Georgetown University, 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Births, Repeat / Spacing; Maternal Employment; Parents, Single; Work History

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Returning to work after giving birth is uniquely important to unmarried mothers, who rely more heavily on their income than married mothers, who have, on average, higher household incomes. One understudied effect in unmarried mothers' employment status is the number of months between the births of the first and second child. To better understand if birth spacing impacts single mother's employment, I used data from the NLSY79 of unmarried mothers who gave birth to their first child before the age of 22 and went on to have a second child between 1980 and 2006. I conducted a survival analysis using Cox proportional hazard regressions to determine the risk of entering or returning to the workforce within a year following the second birth. I found that while spacing children more than 77 months apart is associated with a higher risk of entering the workforce when testing just birth spacing effects, these effects disappear net of controls for previous income, age and work history. This suggests that women who have children farther apart are also more likely to have characteristics associated with returning to work after giving birth. I also found that being employed before the second child is born is highly correlated with returning to or entering the workforce within twelve months of the birth. This suggests that policies that allow women to stay employed while pregnant could be helpful in encouraging single women to return to the workforce after having a second child.
Bibliography Citation
Sillers, Anna. Understanding How Birth Spacing Influences the Employment Decisions of At-risk, Unmarried Mothers after the Birth of a Second Child. M.P.P. Thesis, Department of Public Policy and Policy Management, Georgetown University, 2018.
56. Simpson, Janelle Rottweiler
The Effect of Serving in the Military on Family Size: Evidence from the NLSY97
M.A. Thesis, Department of Sociology, University of Wyoming, 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Family Size; Fertility; Gender Differences; Marital Status; Military Service; Propensity Scores

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Fertility is an important sociological topic because of its impact on population structure and aging, and the associated societal consequences. The United States military is a major institution playing a critical role for the safety and sovereignty of the nation. Although theoretically the military institution is not compatible with family life, membership in the United States military institution has previously been found to be associated with higher rates of marriage and larger family size. This research uses National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 data, analyzed using generalize linear regression and propensity score analysis to measure the effect of the military on family size. The data showed that men in the military had significantly more children than their civilian counterparts. This finding held regardless of the analytical approach used. Further exploration revealed that these fertility patterns likely operate through differences in marital status, with men in the military marrying more frequently and at younger ages than civilian men. Women in the military were also more likely to marry, but they had a comparable or even lower number of offspring than their civilian counterparts. These findings suggest that there is a strong military institutional effect on marriage and family size, but that the effect operates differently for men and women.
Bibliography Citation
Simpson, Janelle Rottweiler. The Effect of Serving in the Military on Family Size: Evidence from the NLSY97. M.A. Thesis, Department of Sociology, University of Wyoming, 2014.
57. Smith, Jennifer Ann
Family Wage Gap in the United States
M.A. Thesis, The University of New Mexico, 2005. MAI 44/01, p. 135, Feb 2006
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Labor Economics; Wage Gap; Wages, Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The paper examines the wage disparities between parents and people without children. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 Cohort, this study determines the family wage gap for the 1979 cohort and compares it to the gap determined by Anderson, Binder and Krause in 2002 and 2003. It is determined that a woman's penalty for childbearing has largely increased as the workforce has changed and their responsibilities in the home have not. It is determined that fathers see a significant premium for their children, and that this may be because fathers have support at home and their partners are taking the bearing the cost of household responsibilities.
Bibliography Citation
Smith, Jennifer Ann. Family Wage Gap in the United States. M.A. Thesis, The University of New Mexico, 2005. MAI 44/01, p. 135, Feb 2006.
58. Studley, Sarah S.
Non-Economic Benefits of Obtaining a GED
M.A. Thesis, Georgetown University, 2010
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Georgetown University
Keyword(s): Benefits; Criminal Justice System; Dropouts; GED/General Educational Diploma/General Equivalency Degree/General Educational Development; Modeling, Fixed Effects

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This thesis evaluates the non-economic benefits associated with obtaining a General Educational Development (GED) credential. I hypothesized that are be statistically significant benefits to earning a GED in an individual's substance use, criminal behavior, and sexual behavior, controlling for factors such as age and income. Using panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), I used a fixed effects model to estimate the effect, if any, of earning a GED while holding factors such as income and age constant. Specifically, number of arrests, daily cigarette consumption, monthly marijuana consumption, yearly instances of hard drug use, number of sexual partners, general sexual activity, and sexual promiscuity were analyzed. Because of the potential correlation between earning a GED and interactions with the criminal justice system, the latter regressions were also analyzed holding number of arrests constant. Additionally, results were analyzed by GED program type in order to discern the true non-economic benefits of earning a GED beyond those caused by coincidental criminal sanctions. Although the magnitude of the effects varied depending on the model employed, the analysis suggests that there are unambiguous benefits associated with earning a GED beyond those associated with improvements in income.
Bibliography Citation
Studley, Sarah S. Non-Economic Benefits of Obtaining a GED. M.A. Thesis, Georgetown University, 2010.
59. Sylwestrzak, Malgorzata T.
Do Subjective Beliefs Affect Obesity?
M.A. Thesis, University of Nevada - Reno, 2007
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Behavior, Antisocial; Body Mass Index (BMI); Gender Differences; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Modeling, Multilevel; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study evaluates whether youths' subjective beliefs in suffering the consequences of their actions influence their weight-related decisions. It uses five years of panel data from the 1997 wave of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97), where youths were asked to estimate the probability of getting arrested if they steal a car. The estimate of the probability of getting arrested is believed to describe youth's belief in suffering the consequences of his/her bad behavior, including maintaining an unhealthy weight. Weighted ordinary least squares, weighted Generalized Estimating Equations, and the fixed-effect technique are used to estimate the impact of the belief variable on youth's body mass index (BMI). Logit models are employed to evaluate the effect of the belief variable on youth's intent to lose weight. Separate models are estimated for both genders and for dependent and independent youths. A statistically significant negative relationship between the belief variable and the BMI is found for independent females in the fixed-effects model. For males and dependent females, the relationship is not statistically significant. Two models for females and one model for males discover a statistically significant positive relationship between the belief variable and the independent youths' intent to lose weight. However, it is also found that as the BMI increases, the influence of the subjective belief on the intent to lose weight diminishes.
Bibliography Citation
Sylwestrzak, Malgorzata T. Do Subjective Beliefs Affect Obesity? M.A. Thesis, University of Nevada - Reno, 2007.
60. Tangsangwornthamma, Chaturon
Association of Injuries in Truck and Bus Drivers with Alcohol and Drug Misuse
M.P.H. Thesis, Department of Public Health, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Drug Use; Injuries; Job Hazards; Occupations; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

BACKGROUND: Truck and bus drivers face the possibility of serious injury and death from highway traffic incidents, particularly caused by alcohol and drug use. Previous studies have not yet demonstrated whether truck and bus drivers who have drinking patterns consistent with heavy drinking, alcohol dependence and prescription or recreational drug use have an increased injury experience.

METHODS: Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79), we performed a retrospective, longitudinal cohort study to quantify risk and patterns of injury in participants with a job that included truck and bus driver during 1992 to 2000. Proportional hazard regression was used to evaluate the risk of injury by alcohol and drug misuse status.

RESULTS: Study included 150 subjects, 18.7% reported an injury as a driver in the study period. Unadjusted Cox proportional regression analysis revealed that heavy drinkers were at slightly increased risk of injury (HR [95%CI] = 1.04 [0.46, 2.36]), but did not reach significance in unadjusted and adjusted analysis. For survival analysis, similar pattern of injuries were found among alcohol, prescribed painkillers and sedatives users compared to non-user subjects. Heroin use was the only variable strongly associated with injury (HR = 3.59 [1.07, 12.03]).

CONCLUSION: Heavy drinking, alcohol dependence, and prescription or recreational drug use were not significantly associated with injury among truck and bus drivers in a U.S. labor force sample, while heroin use appeared to increase the risk. Further research with a larger sample size is needed to support these results.

Bibliography Citation
Tangsangwornthamma, Chaturon. Association of Injuries in Truck and Bus Drivers with Alcohol and Drug Misuse. M.P.H. Thesis, Department of Public Health, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 2017.
61. Tricket, Delia A.
"Man of the House": A Turning Point That Leads to Criminal Behavior?
M.A. Thesis, Eberly College of Arts and Sciences, West Virginia University, 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Birth Order; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Household Structure; Incarceration/Jail; Life Course

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This research study seeks to formally test a relationship between household structure, birth order and juvenile delinquency that was suggested as an onset to criminal behavior by men incarcerated in a maximum security facility. The focus of this study is on first born males due to the retrospective narratives given by the incarcerated men that being a first born male who has either lost a father-or father figure due to death, divorce and/or prison have felt a sense of responsibility as the "man of house" to be able to provide family stability which can include care of other siblings, maintaining the home through housework and in some cases maintaining the family financially. This study tests whether (1) delinquent acts for monetary gain increases if the adolescent is a first born male and (2) delinquency increases if the juvenile first born male is living in a female headed household. I use Sampson and Laub's (1993) life course theory and the NLSY79 to test the hypothesis. Tobit regression models suggests there is no relationship in increased delinquency for monetary gain for first born males and first born males living in a single female headed household.
Bibliography Citation
Tricket, Delia A. "Man of the House": A Turning Point That Leads to Criminal Behavior? M.A. Thesis, Eberly College of Arts and Sciences, West Virginia University, 2015.
62. Tumin, Dmitry
Multiple Marital Dissolutions and Midlife Health
M.A Thesis, The Ohio State University, 2011.
Also: http://etd.ohiolink.edu/send-pdf.cgi/Tumin%20Dmitry.pdf?osu1296507240
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University
Keyword(s): Depression (see also CESD); Divorce; Health Factors; Marital Dissolution; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Marriage is strongly associated with better health. In part, this is due to the harmful effects of marital dissolutions. As remarriage becomes more common, so do multiple marital exits. It is unclear if more marital dissolutions lead to worse health. In this paper, I test whether multiple marital dissolutions – divorces and separations – exert a cumulative effect on health at midlife. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth ‘79, I find that depression and low self-rated health at midlife are less prevalent among the continuously married than among those who have ever experienced a marital dissolution. However, I find no evidence of a cumulative effect on health. Higher-order marital dissolutions appear to have less of an effect on health than first dissolutions. Stress and resource theories suggest people may adapt to a first dissolution in ways that reduce health harm from future dissolutions.
Bibliography Citation
Tumin, Dmitry. Multiple Marital Dissolutions and Midlife Health. M.A Thesis, The Ohio State University, 2011..
63. Tutera, Rose Ann
The Motherhood Wage Penalty: The Role of Occupation and Postponing Pregnancy
M.A. Thesis, Georgetown University, 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Earnings; Industrial Classification; Maternal Employment; Motherhood; Occupational Choice; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Prior studies demonstrate the existence of a wage penalty for mothers versus women who never have children. This study uses data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate whether women who become mothers early in their careers experience a different motherhood wage penalty than women who become mothers late in their careers, as well as whether this relationship varies by occupation. The results of the analysis support the hypothesis that women who become mothers late in their careers suffer less of the motherhood wage penalty than women who become mothers early in their careers. Furthermore, I find that this effect varies by industry. Not only do the study's results support the claim of previous researchers that mothers earn less than their non-mother counterparts, but it also suggests that by postponing pregnancy women will experience less of this effect than their early mother counterparts.
Bibliography Citation
Tutera, Rose Ann. The Motherhood Wage Penalty: The Role of Occupation and Postponing Pregnancy. M.A. Thesis, Georgetown University, 2012.
64. Varriale, Jennifer Anne
Female Gang Members and Desistance: Motherhood as a Possible Exit Strategy? A Quantitative Analysis of Fleisher and Krienert (2004)
M.A. Thesis, University of Maryland - College Park, 2006. MAI 45/02, Apr 2007
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Crime; Motherhood; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study sought to evaluate differential gang processes as they vary by gender through a quantitative analysis of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997. Specifically, this investigation explored the role of motherhood as a potential exit strategy for female gang membership, which had been previously examined in the qualitative work of Fleisher and Krienert (2004). In fact, Fleisher and Krienert (2004) noted that sixty-three percent of their sample had attributed pregnancy or "settling down" as the primary reason for desistance. All in all, this investigation found no support for Fleisher and Krienert's (2004) assertions of the causality of motherhood as a potential desistance mechanism, or for the magnitude of their sixty-three percent finding.
Bibliography Citation
Varriale, Jennifer Anne. Female Gang Members and Desistance: Motherhood as a Possible Exit Strategy? A Quantitative Analysis of Fleisher and Krienert (2004). M.A. Thesis, University of Maryland - College Park, 2006. MAI 45/02, Apr 2007.
65. Watson, S. Michelle
Effects of Parent and Peer Behaviors on Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Are Positive and Negative Peer Behaviors Moderators?
M.A. Thesis, Department of Learning Sciences and Human Development, West Virginia University, 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Adolescent Sexual Activity; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parental Influences; Parenting Skills/Styles; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Risk-Taking

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Adolescents and young adults account for a significantly high proportion of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection cases in the United States. According to Jessor's Problem Behavior Theory, combined protective factors, such as exposure to positive parenting and peer behaviors, create an environment that is supportive of conventional behaviors and discouraging of problem behaviors. There is an extensive amount of literature on parent and peer influences on adolescent sexual behavior but few studies address the interactive influence of both parent and peer behaviors on adolescent sexual risk-taking. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal supportiveness and strictness on adolescent sexual risk-taking, as well as the moderating influence of peer involvement in positive or negative activities. A sample of 14-16 year old adolescents was drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-1997 (NLSY-97; N = 4,008, 50.5% male, 59.4% White, 26.5% Black, and 13.3% other). Higher levels of maternal supportiveness, maternal strictness, and positive peer behaviors were each associated with lower levels of sexual risk-taking two years later. High levels of negative peer behaviors were related to high sexual-risk taking two years later. No interaction terms were significant. Important implications for positive peer relationships were also found. Future research should focus on the comparison of parental warmth and control variables as moderators for the relationship between peer influence and adolescent sexual risk-taking.
Bibliography Citation
Watson, S. Michelle. Effects of Parent and Peer Behaviors on Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Are Positive and Negative Peer Behaviors Moderators? M.A. Thesis, Department of Learning Sciences and Human Development, West Virginia University, 2016.
66. Woodlief, Darren Todd
Substance Use and Risky Sex: A Longitudinal Investigation
M.A. Thesis, Department of Psychology, University of South Carolina, 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Drug Use; Personality/Big Five Factor Model or Traits; Risk-Taking; Sexual Behavior; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The purpose of this study was to prospectively examine the relationship between substance use and risky sex among a nationally representative sample of adolescents longitudinally from the ages of 16 to 29. Using data collected for the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (N=8,984), we found the use of marijuana, alcohol, and cigarettes to be consistently associated, across these ages, with an increased probability of having engaged in sexual intercourse with a stranger. Marijuana was found to have the strongest association with risky sex across the years of the study, followed by cigarettes, then alcohol. The current study improves on previous findings by focusing on the global overlap of these behaviors, using a prospective, longitudinal design, and showing a consistent relationship between the use of alcohol, marijuana, and cigarettes and risky sex behavior from middle adolescence through adulthood. These findings lend support to Zuckerman (1984) and others who believed problem behaviors were strongly associated because of personality traits such as sensation seeking, and they point to the need for the integration of prevention and intervention efforts across problem behaviors.
Bibliography Citation
Woodlief, Darren Todd. Substance Use and Risky Sex: A Longitudinal Investigation. M.A. Thesis, Department of Psychology, University of South Carolina, 2014.