Search Results

Source: Justice Quarterly (JQ)
Resulting in 14 citations.
1. Bellair, Paul E.
McNulty, Thomas L.
Cognitive Skills, Adolescent Violence, and the Moderating Role of Neighborhood Disadvantage
Justice Quarterly 27,4 (August 2010): 538-559.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07418820903130823
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior, Violent; Cognitive Ability; Neighborhood Effects; Social Environment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Numerous studies uncover a link between cognitive skills and adolescent violence. Overlooked is whether the relationship changes at varying levels of neighborhood disadvantage. We examine the issue by contrasting two models that place individual difference in cognitive skill within a social-structural framework. Using five waves of the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and a three-level hierarchical model, results indicate that cognitive skill is inversely associated with violence and that the relationship is strongest in non-disadvantaged neighborhoods. However, the cognitive skills-violence relationship is indistinguishable from zero in the most disadvantaged neighborhoods. The findings are therefore consistent with the hypothesis that social expression of developed ability is muted in disadvantaged contexts. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of JQ: Justice Quarterly is the property of Routledge and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Bibliography Citation
Bellair, Paul E. and Thomas L. McNulty. "Cognitive Skills, Adolescent Violence, and the Moderating Role of Neighborhood Disadvantage." Justice Quarterly 27,4 (August 2010): 538-559.
2. Bellair, Paul E.
McNulty, Thomas L.
Gang Membership, Drug Selling, and Violence in Neighborhood Context
Justice Quarterly 26,4 (December 2009): 644-669.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07418820802593394
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences
Keyword(s): Behavior, Violent; Census of Population; Drug Use; Geocoded Data; Neighborhood Effects

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A prominent perspective in the gang literature suggests that gang member involvement in drug selling does not necessarily increase violent behavior. In addition it is unclear from previous research whether neighborhood disadvantage strengthens that relationship. We address these issues by testing hypotheses regarding the confluence of neighborhood disadvantage, gang membership, drug selling, and violent behavior. A three-level hierarchical model is estimated from the first five waves of the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, matched with block-group characteristics from the 2000 U.S. Census. Results indicate that (1) gang members who sell drugs are significantly more violent than gang members that don't sell drugs and drug sellers that don't belong to gangs; (2) drug sellers that don't belong to gangs and gang members who don't sell drugs engage in comparable levels of violence; and (3) an increase in neighborhood disadvantaged intensifies the effect of gang membership on violence, especially among gang members that sell drugs. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Bellair, Paul E. and Thomas L. McNulty. "Gang Membership, Drug Selling, and Violence in Neighborhood Context." Justice Quarterly 26,4 (December 2009): 644-669.
3. Bersani, Bianca Elizabeth
An Examination of First and Second Generation Immigrant Offending Trajectories
Justice Quarterly 31,2 (2014): 315-343.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07418825.2012.659200
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Immigrants

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The myth of the criminal immigrant has permeated public and political debate for much of this nation’s history and persists despite growing evidence to the contrary. Crime concerns are increasingly aimed at the indirect impact of immigration on crime highlighting the criminal pursuits of the children of immigrants. Adding to extant knowledge on the immigration-crime nexus, this research asks whether immigrants are differentially involved in crime by examining immigrant offending histories (prevalence, frequency, seriousness, persistence, and desistance) from early adolescence to young adulthood. Particular attention is afforded to the influence of various sources of heterogeneity including: generational and nativity status, and crime type. Results suggest that the myth remains; trajectory analyses reveal that immigrants are no more crime-prone than the native-born. Foreign-born individuals exhibit remarkably low levels of involvement in crime across their life course. Moreover, it appears that by the second generation, immigrants have simply caught up to their native-born counterparts in respect to their offending. Implications of the findings for theory and future research are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Bersani, Bianca Elizabeth. "An Examination of First and Second Generation Immigrant Offending Trajectories." Justice Quarterly 31,2 (2014): 315-343.
4. Bersani, Bianca Elizabeth
DiPietro, Stephanie
Examining the Salience of Marriage to Offending for Black and Hispanic Men
Justice Quarterly 33,3 (April 2016): 510-537.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07418825.2014.932000
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Group
Keyword(s): Crime; Ethnic Differences; Marriage; Minorities; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite a considerable body of research demonstrating the beneficial effects of marriage for criminal desistance, data limitations have resulted in much of this work being based on predominantly white, male samples. In light of the rapidly changing demographic landscape of the US—and particularly the tremendous growth in the Hispanic population—the question of whether the benefits of marriage are generalizable to racial and ethnic minorities is an important one. This research extends prior work on the relationship between marriage and offending by assessing whether the benefits of marriage for criminal offending extend to today’s racial and ethnic minority populations. Using a contemporary sample of 3,560 young adult Hispanic, black and white males followed annually for 13 years spanning the transition to adulthood, we find that while marriage is a potent predictor of desistance for all groups, the benefits of marriage vary substantially across both race and ethnicity.
Bibliography Citation
Bersani, Bianca Elizabeth and Stephanie DiPietro. "Examining the Salience of Marriage to Offending for Black and Hispanic Men." Justice Quarterly 33,3 (April 2016): 510-537.
5. Bouffard, Leana Allen
Koeppel, Maria D.H.
Understanding the Potential Long-term Physical and Mental Health Consequences of Early Experiences of Victimization
Justice Quarterly 31,3 (May 2014): 568-587.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07418825.2012.734843#.U1UcAxDD_YY
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences
Keyword(s): Bullying/Victimization; Health Care; Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Victimization in the USA is a substantial concern, despite a trend of decreasing crime rates. Victims of crime face a number of short-term consequences such as physical injury, fear and anxiety, and/or loss of property. Long-term consequences of victimization, however, may often be overlooked. Using the first six waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, the current study examines the relationship between early experiences of victimization and long-term physical and mental health outcomes, including general health, access to and use of health care, and health risk behaviors. Results find that individuals who are victimized before the age of 12, especially those who experienced repeated bullying, are more susceptible to a number of physical and mental health issues such as negative perceptions of physical and mental health, smoking, subsequent victimization experiences, and homelessness. Public health concerns and policy implications of these findings are also discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Bouffard, Leana Allen and Maria D.H. Koeppel. "Understanding the Potential Long-term Physical and Mental Health Consequences of Early Experiences of Victimization." Justice Quarterly 31,3 (May 2014): 568-587.
6. Chapple, Constance L.
Self-Control, Peer Relations, and Delinquency
Justice Quarterly 22,1 (March 2005): 89-106.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/0741882042000333654
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Delinquency/Gang Activity; Deviance; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Self-Regulation/Self-Control

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

According to Gottfredson and Hirschi (Gottfredson, M. R., & Hirschi, T. [1990]. A general theory of crime. Stanford: Stanford University Press), individuals with low self-control are likely to have unstable personal relationships and select into similar peer groups. Although a great deal is known about the effect of peers on delinquency, and research indicates that low self-control is associated with poorer personal bonds in adults, the relationship between self-control, peer relations, and adolescent delinquency is less well known. Developmental research suggests that impulsive children are more likely to be rejected by their peers and may have few conventional peer choices. This research investigates the process through which self-control influences peer relations and delinquency. Significant direct effects of self-control on peer rejection, association with deviant peers and delinquency were found, while self-control remained a significant predictor of delinquency net of association with deviant peers. Implications for the general theory of crime, peer relations, and causes of delinquency are discussed....For the analyses, I used mother and child assessments taken from three waves of data when the youths were aged 10–11 in 1994, 12–13 in 1996, and 14–15 in 1998.3 Self-control was measured in 1994, while age, race, sex, and family's poverty status were measured in 1998. The mediator variables, peer rejection, and association with deviant peers were measured in 1996, and the delinquency was measured in 1998.
Bibliography Citation
Chapple, Constance L. "Self-Control, Peer Relations, and Delinquency." Justice Quarterly 22,1 (March 2005): 89-106.
7. Gottlieb, Aaron
Sugie, Naomi
Marriage, Cohabitation, and Crime: Differentiating Associations by Partnership Stage
Justice Quarterly published online (11 April 2018): DOI: 10.1080/07418825.2018.1445275.
Also: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07418825.2018.1445275
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Crime; Marital Status; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A wealth of scholarship generally finds that marriage protects against crime, but there is less consistent evidence for cohabitation. In this article, we contribute to scholarship on marriage and put forward new evidence about cohabitation by examining marital and cohabiting partnerships as transitions with distinct stages of entry, stability, and dissolution. We use within-person change models with contemporary data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to analyze these stages for the full sample and separately for men and women. The findings show differential protective associations of marriage and cohabitation depending on the stage of the partnership. Both recently formed cohabiting partnerships and stable cohabiting partnerships are associated with reductions in the level of offending, although to a lesser degree than marital relationships. Cohabiting partnerships that are stable, in that they have lasted at least a year, are associated with larger decreases in offending, particularly among women.
Bibliography Citation
Gottlieb, Aaron and Naomi Sugie. "Marriage, Cohabitation, and Crime: Differentiating Associations by Partnership Stage." Justice Quarterly published online (11 April 2018): DOI: 10.1080/07418825.2018.1445275.
8. Huebner, Beth Marie
Racial and Ethnic Differences in the Likelihood of Marriage: The Effect of Incarceration
Justice Quarterly 24,1 (March 2007): 156-183.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07418820701201073
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences
Keyword(s): Ethnic Differences; Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Hispanics; Incarceration/Jail; Marriage; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Researchers have highlighted the importance of marriage when studying variation in deviance over the life course, but few studies have examined the effect that incarceration has on marriage or have considered variation by race and ethnicity. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), this study contrasts the effect of incarceration on the likelihood of marriage for White, Black, and Hispanic males. Incarceration reduced the chances of marriage for all men, but had a significantly stronger effect on the marital outcomes for Whites. Although Whites were most likely to be married overall, incarceration was associated with a 59 percent decline in the odds of marriage for Whites, and the odds of marriage decreased 30 percent for Blacks and 41 percent for Hispanics. The association was maintained even after controlling for time-varying life-course events and static individual-level factors. This research has important implications for the study of the incarceration and the consequences it can have for spouses, families, and communities. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of JQ: Justice Quarterly is the property of Routledge and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts)

Bibliography Citation
Huebner, Beth Marie. "Racial and Ethnic Differences in the Likelihood of Marriage: The Effect of Incarceration." Justice Quarterly 24,1 (March 2007): 156-183.
9. Huebner, Beth Marie
The Effect of Incarceration on Marriage and Work Over the Life Course
Justice Quarterly 22,3 (September 2005): 281-303.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07418820500089141
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences
Keyword(s): Employment; Incarceration/Jail; Life Course; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The current study adopts the life course framework to examine the effect of incarceration on the likelihood of becoming married and attaining full-time employment. It is hypothesized that men who have been incarcerated will be less likely to marry and to gain full-time employment. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth are used to test the hypothesis. Results from the growth-curve models support the life-course theoretical model. Across all models estimated, incarceration is negatively associated with marriage and employment. In addition, positive milestones (e.g., education) are associated with improved chances of employment and marriage. The findings reinforce the importance of considering a multitude of life events when estimating life trajectories. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Huebner, Beth Marie. "The Effect of Incarceration on Marriage and Work Over the Life Course." Justice Quarterly 22,3 (September 2005): 281-303.
10. McGloin, Jean Marie
Pratt, Travis C.
Maahs, Jeff R.
Rethinking the IQ-Delinquency Relationship: A Longitudinal Analysis of Multiple Theoretical Models
Justice Quarterly 21,3 (September 2004): 603-636.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07418820400095921
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; I.Q.; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parenting Skills/Styles; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; School Performance

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A previous version of this paper was presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Chicago, IL, November 2002.

Criminological research has consistently demonstrated a relationship between IQ and delinquency, yet scholars continue to debate the precise mechanisms by which IQ should have an effect on delinquent behavior. Although researchers typically view the IQ-delinquency relationship as a function of "school performance," additional explanations exist that have yet to be formally tested in conjunction with one another within the same analysis. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) we extend existing research by assessing the indirect effect of IQ on delinquency through three intervening processes: school performance, deviant peer pressure, and self-control. The results indicate strong support for the school performance model (especially when linked with self-control), yet considerable evidence exists of an indirect effect of IQ on delinquency through both deviant peer pressure and self-control. The implications for future theoretical development and integration are discussed.

Bibliography Citation
McGloin, Jean Marie, Travis C. Pratt and Jeff R. Maahs. "Rethinking the IQ-Delinquency Relationship: A Longitudinal Analysis of Multiple Theoretical Models." Justice Quarterly 21,3 (September 2004): 603-636.
11. Mitchell, Ojmarrh
Caudy, Michael S.
Examining Racial Disparities in Drug Arrests
Justice Quarterly 32,2 (2015): 288-313.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/07418825.2012.761721#abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences
Keyword(s): Arrests; Crime; Drug Use; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The War on Drugs popularized a set of policies and practices that dramatically increased the number of drug arrests, particularly for low-level drug offenses. The War's tactics have affected Americans of every race; however, minorities have been most dramatically affected. There are several explanations for the observed racial disparity in drug arrests, but relatively little research directly tests these explanations. In this study, we test three common explanations of racial disparities in drug arrest rates. We find that racial disparities in drug arrests cannot be explained by differences in drug offending, nondrug offending, or residing in the kinds of neighborhoods likely to have heavy police emphasis on drug offending. Our findings are most consistent with explanations focusing on racial bias in drug sanctions.
Bibliography Citation
Mitchell, Ojmarrh and Michael S. Caudy. "Examining Racial Disparities in Drug Arrests." Justice Quarterly 32,2 (2015): 288-313.
12. Pyrooz, David Cyrus
LaFree, Gary
Decker, Scott H.
James, Patrick A.
Cut from the Same Cloth? A Comparative Study of Domestic Extremists and Gang Members in the United States
Justice Quarterly 35,1 (2018): 1-32.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/07418825.2017.1311357
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences
Keyword(s): Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite calls for research on the similarities and differences between violent extremist groups and criminal street gangs, there have been few empirical comparisons. We develop a comparative model that emphasizes explicit, spurious, and indirect linkages between the two groups and use national sources of data on domestic extremists and gang members--the Profiles of Individual Radicalization in the United States (PIRUS) and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97)--to compare them across group involvement, demographic, family, religion, and socioeconomic status characteristics. Six percent of domestic extremists in PIRUS have a history of gang ties, which constitutes a minimal proportion of domestic extremists and is likely the rare exception among the population of gang members. Gang extremists more closely resemble non-gang extremists in PIRUS than they do gang members in the NLSY97. While these groups have some similarities, one of the major differences is that gang members are younger than domestic extremists. This likely contributes to many of the other differences between the groups across the life course, including marriage, parenthood, unemployment, and education. Given that the evidence is most consistent with the independence model, further comparative testing is needed before generalizing gang-related policies and programs to domestic extremism.
Bibliography Citation
Pyrooz, David Cyrus, Gary LaFree, Scott H. Decker and Patrick A. James. "Cut from the Same Cloth? A Comparative Study of Domestic Extremists and Gang Members in the United States." Justice Quarterly 35,1 (2018): 1-32.
13. Stevens, Tia
Morash, Merry
Chesney-Lind, Meda
Are Girls Getting Tougher, or Are We Tougher on Girls? Probability of Arrest and Juvenile Court Oversight in 1980 and 2000
Justice Quarterly 28,5 (2011): 719-744.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07418825.2010.532146
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences
Keyword(s): Arrests; Crime; Criminal Justice System; Gender Differences; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Girls suspected or convicted of assaults make up an increasing proportion of juvenile arrests and court caseloads. There is indication that changes in domestic violence arrest policies, school handling of student rules infractions, and practices of charging youth for assaults rather than status offenses account for these trends. To determine whether girls were treated more harshly for assaults after these policies changed, the present study compared the probabilities of conviction and institutionalization, net of the effect of self-reported attacks on persons, for 1980 and 2000. Data were from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth 1979 and 1997 cohorts. Girls experienced a unique increase in the probabilities of justice system involvement that was replicated only for Black males. The increase was magnified for Black girls. Additional research is needed to better connect specific policies to drawing selected subgroups more deeply into the justice system and on the consequences for affected youth.
Bibliography Citation
Stevens, Tia, Merry Morash and Meda Chesney-Lind. "Are Girls Getting Tougher, or Are We Tougher on Girls? Probability of Arrest and Juvenile Court Oversight in 1980 and 2000." Justice Quarterly 28,5 (2011): 719-744.
14. Sweeten, Gary
Who Will Graduate? Disruption of High School Education by Arrest and Court Involvement
Justice Quarterly 23,4 (December 2006): 462-480.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07418820600985313
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences
Keyword(s): Academic Development; Arrests; Behavior, Antisocial; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Deviance; Educational Attainment; High School Dropouts

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Little research has assessed the effects of juvenile justice involvement during high school on educational outcomes. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, this study assesses the effect of first-time arrest and court involvement during high school on educational attainment. In addition, differential effects by structural location are examined. Findings suggest support for the labeling perspective. First-time court appearance during high school increases the chances of dropping out of high school independent of involvement in delinquency. Furthermore, the effect of court appearance is particularly detrimental to less delinquent youths.
Bibliography Citation
Sweeten, Gary. "Who Will Graduate? Disruption of High School Education by Arrest and Court Involvement." Justice Quarterly 23,4 (December 2006): 462-480.