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Source: Journals of Gerontology
Resulting in 11 citations.
1. Cox, Robynn J. A.
Wallace, Robert B.
The Role of Incarceration as a Risk Factor for Cognitive Impairment
Journals of Gerontology: Series B, gbac138 (25 September 2022): DOI: 10.1093/geronb/gbac138.
Also: https://academic.oup.com/psychsocgerontology/advance-article/doi/10.1093/geronb/gbac138/6717457
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Gerontological Society of America
Keyword(s): Cognitive Ability; Incarceration/Jail

Objectives: The objective of this study was to understand disparities in cognitive impairment between middle aged formerly incarcerated (FI) and nonincarcerated (NI) individuals.

Methods: The 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth is a nationally representative longitudinal dataset containing information on incarceration, cognitive functioning, and other health conditions. Using a modified version of the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-m), adapted from the Health and Retirement Study, we analyzed the association between incarceration and cognitive impairment, cognitive impairment-not dementia, and dementia. Multivariable regression models were estimated including prior incarceration status and covariates associated with incarceration and cognitive functioning.

Results: FI individuals had lower unadjusted scores on TICS-m (-2.5, p<.001), and had significantly greater unadjusted odds ratios (OR) for scoring in the cognitive impairment (OR=2.4, p<.001) and dementia (OR=2.7, p<.001) range. Differences were largely explained by a combination of risk factors associated with incarceration and cognition. Education and premorbid cognition (measured by Armed Forces Qualifying Test) separately and completely explained differences in the odds of dementia. Regardless of incarceration status, Blacks and Hispanics had significantly greater odds of cognitive impairment and dementia relative to Whites, holding other factors constant.

Bibliography Citation
Cox, Robynn J. A. and Robert B. Wallace. "The Role of Incarceration as a Risk Factor for Cognitive Impairment." Journals of Gerontology: Series B, gbac138 (25 September 2022): DOI: 10.1093/geronb/gbac138.
2. Crystal, Stephen
Waehrer, Keith
Later-Life Economic Inequality in Longitudinal Perspective
Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 51B,6 (November 1996): S307-S318.
Also: http://psychsocgerontology.oxfordjournals.org/content/51B/6/S307.abstract
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Gerontological Society of America
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Economic Changes/Recession; Economic Well-Being; Mobility; Pensions

Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men were used to estimate economic inequality within three 5-year cohorts as they moved from midlife to later life. The Gini index of inequality increased steadily after age 59, supporting the hypothesis that within-cohort inequality increases in late life. However, a transition analysis found considerable mobility in relative status for individuals over a 15-year period. These results suggest the need to develop a longitudinal perspective on later-life economic status which distinguishes between individual-level and population-level outcomes and identifies the life events and characteristics of individuals that predict changes in economic status. Further research is needed on the processes which lead to later-life inequality, and on the distributional impact of public and private pension policies.
Bibliography Citation
Crystal, Stephen and Keith Waehrer. "Later-Life Economic Inequality in Longitudinal Perspective." Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 51B,6 (November 1996): S307-S318.
3. Daza, Sebastian
Palloni, Alberto
Early Exposure to County Income Mobility and Adult Individual Health in the United States
Journals of Gerontology: Series B published online (1 February 2022): gbab240.
Also: https://academic.oup.com/psychsocgerontology/advance-article/doi/10.1093/geronb/gbab240/6519680
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Gerontological Society of America
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Childhood; Geocoded Data; Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Mobility, Economic; Mobility, Residential; Mortality; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

Studies based on aggregate and cross-sectional individual data show an association between US county income mobility and mortality and individual health. However, inferring individual effects from aggregate data can be problematic. Furthermore, assessing exposure to income mobility using the county where respondents currently live or die might overlook selection processes associated with residential mobility. This paper aims to extend previous research by estimating the consequences of average individual exposure to mobility regimes during childhood and adolescence on adult health. Our contribution is a more precise test of the hypothesis that childhood exposure to income mobility regimes may influence health status through behavior later in life and contribute to longevity gaps.
Bibliography Citation
Daza, Sebastian and Alberto Palloni. "Early Exposure to County Income Mobility and Adult Individual Health in the United States." Journals of Gerontology: Series B published online (1 February 2022): gbab240.
4. Duarte, Catherine
Wannier, S. Rae
Cohen, Alison K.
Glymour, M. Maria
Ream, Robert K.
Yen, Irene H.
Vable, Anusha M.
Lifecourse Educational Trajectories and Hypertension in Midlife: An Application of Sequence Analysis
Journals of Gerontology: Series B 77,2 (February 2022): 383-391.
Also: https://academic.oup.com/biomedgerontology/advance-article/doi/10.1093/gerona/glab249/6359344
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Gerontological Society of America
Keyword(s): Education, Adult; Educational Attainment; GED/General Educational Diploma/General Equivalency Degree/General Educational Development; Health, Chronic Conditions; High School Diploma; Life Course

Background: Higher educational attainment predicts lower hypertension. Yet, associations between non-traditional educational trajectories (e.g., interrupted degree programs) and hypertension are less well understood, particularly among structurally marginalized groups who are more likely to experience these non-traditional trajectories.

Methods: In National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort data (N=6,317), we used sequence and cluster analyses to identify groups of similar educational sequences -- characterized by timing and type of terminal credential -- that participants followed from age 14-48. Using logistic regression, we estimated associations between the resulting 10 educational sequences and hypertension at age 50. We evaluated effect modification by individual-level indicators of structural marginalization (race, gender, race and gender, and childhood socioeconomic status (cSES).

Bibliography Citation
Duarte, Catherine, S. Rae Wannier, Alison K. Cohen, M. Maria Glymour, Robert K. Ream, Irene H. Yen and Anusha M. Vable. "Lifecourse Educational Trajectories and Hypertension in Midlife: An Application of Sequence Analysis." Journals of Gerontology: Series B 77,2 (February 2022): 383-391.
5. Hayward, Mark D.
Friedman, Samantha
Chen, Hsinmu
Career Trajectories and Older Men's Retirement
Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 53B,2 (March 1998): S91-S103.
Also: http://psychsocgerontology.oxfordjournals.org/content/53B/2/S91.abstract
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Gerontological Society of America
Keyword(s): Benefits, Disability; Career Patterns; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Mobility, Labor Market; Occupational Status; Retirement/Retirement Planning

The idea of a long and stable career rewarded by retirement is a fixture of the American social ethos and political economy. The paradox is that many Americans' careers do not fit this image. Here, we examined how the structure of the career, as compared to only those circumstances proximate to retirement, is important for understanding career endings. Based on labor force histories drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men, we observed that the occupational roles held through the mid and late career combine additively to influence retirement and disability experiences, with different conditions of work coming into play depending on the career stage. Occupational roles in the mid career also have long-term, indirect effects, operating through the onset of health problems and the adequacy of pension benefits. Although retirement and disability are not hinged to occupational mobility per se, these career endings are sensitive to major discontinuities in the career and work role in terms of unemployment and labor force mobility. (AUTHOR)
Bibliography Citation
Hayward, Mark D., Samantha Friedman and Hsinmu Chen. "Career Trajectories and Older Men's Retirement." Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 53B,2 (March 1998): S91-S103.
6. Hayward, Mark D.
Friedman, Samantha
Chen, Hsinmu
Race Inequities in Men's Retirement
Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 51B,1 (January 1996): S1-S10.
Also: http://psychsocgerontology.oxfordjournals.org/content/51B/1/S1.abstract
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Gerontological Society of America
Keyword(s): Disability; Labor Force Participation; Life Cycle Research; Male Sample; Mortality; Racial Differences; Retirement/Retirement Planning

Assessed inequities of retirement access for black and white older men. Cohort-based prospective analysis of mid- and late-career labor force behavior was conducted using the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men (NLS). The NLS is a nationally representative sample of 5,020 men, aged 45-59 in 1966, who were followed for 17 years. A multistate life table model was used to identify how labor force experiences and mortality determined the labor force participation rates (LFPRs) and the qualities of the retirement life cycle for blacks and whites. Results showed that black men's lower LFPRs were a function of disability. Despite lower LFPRs than whites, however, blacks spent a greater portion of their lives both working and disabled, reducing the retirement period. Race differences in the retirement life cycle were also highly sensitive to mortality. Although race did not affect the risk of reentry, retirement reversals were more common among whites than blacks due to differential exposure. The combination of higher disability and mortality rates among blacks suggests that health is a key determinant of retirement inequity. It is concluded that reducing black mortality to that of whites would substantially narrow the life cycle difference, although mortality is not generally thought to be policy manipulable. (AR) (AgeLine Database, copyright 1996 AARP, all rights reserved)
Bibliography Citation
Hayward, Mark D., Samantha Friedman and Hsinmu Chen. "Race Inequities in Men's Retirement." Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 51B,1 (January 1996): S1-S10.
7. Pavalko, Eliza K.
Artis, Julie E.
Women's Caregiving and Paid Work: Causal Relationships in Late Midlife
Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 52B,4 (July 1997): S170-S179.
Also: http://psychsocgerontology.oxfordjournals.org/content/52B/4/S170.abstract
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Gerontological Society of America
Keyword(s): Employment; Health Care; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Part-Time Work

Used 1984 and 1987 data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women to examine the causal relationship between employment and caring for an ill or disabled friend or relative over the 3 yr. period, and to study the ways these women balanced their caregiving demands and their employment. A total of 3,147 women participated in both the 1984 and 1987 samples; 1,389 cases contained complete information on all independent variables: demographic data, caregiving, employment characteristics, and employment history. Results showed that employment did not affect whether or not women started caregiving, but that women who did start were more likely to reduce employment hours or to stop work.Thus, the causal relationship between employment and caregiving in late midlife is largely unidirectional, with women reducing work hours to meet caregiving demands. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1998 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved)
Bibliography Citation
Pavalko, Eliza K. and Julie E. Artis. "Women's Caregiving and Paid Work: Causal Relationships in Late Midlife." Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 52B,4 (July 1997): S170-S179.
8. Stetz, Thomas A.
Beehr, Terry A.
Organizations' Environment and Retirement: The Relationship between Women's Retirement, Environmental Munificence, Dynamism, and Local Unemployment Rate
Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 55,4 (July 2000): S213-S221
Also: http://psychsocgerontology.oxfordjournals.org/content/55/4/S213.abstract
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Gerontological Society of America
Keyword(s): Employment; Retirement/Retirement Planning; Unemployment Rate; Working Conditions

Objectives. Low munificence and high dynamism of an industry's environment and high local area unemployment rates were assumed to indicate uncertainty and influence retirement. It was predicted that, while controlling for personal variables, rates of retirement would vary across industries, that munificence would have a negative relationship with retirement, and that dynamism and unemployment rate would have positive relationships with retirement. Methods. The study relies on four waves (from 1986 to 1992) of data from the National Longitudinal Survey's Mature Women Cohort, and logistic regression was used to examine the extent of the proposed relationships. Results. Retirement rate varied across industries and had a positive relationship with munificent environments, but retirement was not related to dynamism or unemployment rates. Conclusions. The results suggest that environmental factors may influence retirement timing. Additional theoretical and empirical work is suggested to help sort out direct environmental effects and possible moderating third variables.
Bibliography Citation
Stetz, Thomas A. and Terry A. Beehr. "Organizations' Environment and Retirement: The Relationship between Women's Retirement, Environmental Munificence, Dynamism, and Local Unemployment Rate." Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 55,4 (July 2000): S213-S221.
9. Vable, Anusha M.
Duarte, Catherine
Wannier, S. Rae
Chan-Golston, Alec M.
Cohen, Alison K.
Glymour, M. Maria
Ream, Robert K.
Yen, Irene H.
Understanding the Benefits of Different Types and Timing of Education for Mental Health: A Sequence Analysis Approach
Journals of Gerontology: Series B published online (13 August 2021): gbab147.
Also: https://academic.oup.com/psychsocgerontology/advance-article/doi/10.1093/geronb/gbab147/6350335
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Gerontological Society of America
Keyword(s): College Education; Education, Adult; Educational Attainment; GED/General Educational Diploma/General Equivalency Degree/General Educational Development; Health, Mental; High School Diploma

Objectives: Individuals increasingly experience delays or interruptions in schooling; we evaluate the association between these non-traditional education trajectories and mental health.

Methods: Using year-by-year education data for 7,501 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 participants, ages 14-48 (262,535 person-years of education data), we applied sequence analysis and a clustering algorithm to identify educational trajectory groups, incorporating both type and timing to credential. Linear regression models, adjusted for early-life confounders, evaluated relationships between educational trajectories and mental health component scores (MCS) from the 12-item short form instrument at age 50. We evaluated effect modification by race, gender, and race by gender.

Bibliography Citation
Vable, Anusha M., Catherine Duarte, S. Rae Wannier, Alec M. Chan-Golston, Alison K. Cohen, M. Maria Glymour, Robert K. Ream and Irene H. Yen. "Understanding the Benefits of Different Types and Timing of Education for Mental Health: A Sequence Analysis Approach." Journals of Gerontology: Series B published online (13 August 2021): gbab147.
10. Walsemann, Katrina Michelle
Ailshire, Jennifer A.
Hartnett, Caroline Sten
The Other Student Debt Crisis: How Borrowing to Pay for a Child's College Education Relates to Parents' Mental Health at Midlife
Journals of Gerontology: Series B published online (7 November 2019): DOI: 10.1093/geronb/gbz146.
Also: https://academic.oup.com/psychsocgerontology/advance-article/doi/10.1093/geronb/gbz146/5614290
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Gerontological Society of America
Keyword(s): College Cost; Debt/Borrowing; Depression (see also CESD); Gender Differences; Parental Investments; Student Loans

Objectives: More parents are borrowing to help their children pay for college. These loans may be a source of financial stress and worry, which could influence parents' mental health. We determine whether child-related educational debt is associated with worse mental health among parents and if fathers are more sensitive to this debt than mothers, given potential gender differences in financial decision-making and relationships with adult children.
Bibliography Citation
Walsemann, Katrina Michelle, Jennifer A. Ailshire and Caroline Sten Hartnett. "The Other Student Debt Crisis: How Borrowing to Pay for a Child's College Education Relates to Parents' Mental Health at Midlife ." Journals of Gerontology: Series B published online (7 November 2019): DOI: 10.1093/geronb/gbz146.
11. Wolfe, Joseph D.
Baker, Elizabeth H.
Uddin, Jalal
Kirkland, Stephanie
Varieties of Financial Stressors and Midlife Health Problems, 1996-2016
Journals of Gerontology: Series B 77,1 (January 2022): 149-159.
Also: https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbab108
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Gerontological Society of America
Keyword(s): Bankruptcy; Debt/Borrowing; Health, Chronic Conditions; Health, Mental; Stress

Objective: Financial stressors such as wealth loss, indebtedness, and bankruptcy have gained the attention of public health scholars since the Great Recession. In this study, we extend this area of research by comparing the mental and physical impact of multiple financial stressors during midlife, a pivotal period in the life course for wealth accumulation and disease onset.

Methods: With data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (www.nlsinfo.org), an ongoing survey of adult men and women in the U.S., we used logistic regression to estimate the associations between financial stressors and the risk of a psychiatric disorder or high blood pressure diagnosis from ages 31-39 in 1996 to ages 50-59 in 2016 (N = 7,143). Financial stressors include multiple types of wealth loss, debt, and bankruptcy.

Results: Even after adjusting for a comprehensive set of confounders, many of the financial stressors we considered had similar associations with the risk of a psychiatric disorder, whereas only debt and bankruptcy were associated with the risk of high blood pressure. The best fitting models for both health outcomes included a simple indicator of indebtedness. Stock losses were not significantly associated with either health outcome.

Bibliography Citation
Wolfe, Joseph D., Elizabeth H. Baker, Jalal Uddin and Stephanie Kirkland. "Varieties of Financial Stressors and Midlife Health Problems, 1996-2016." Journals of Gerontology: Series B 77,1 (January 2022): 149-159.