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Source: Journal of Socio-Economics
Resulting in 16 citations.
1. Debeaumont, Ronald
Occupational Differences in the Wage Penalty for Obese Women
Journal of Socio-Economics 38,2 (March 2009): 344-349.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053535708001819#sec3
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Body weight; Obesity; Occupations; Self-Employed Workers; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty; Wages, Women

Prior research indicates overweight women are penalized with lower wages. The connection between weight and wages is tested for several occupational categories. The results suggest weight significantly reduces pay only for women in sales and service occupations, a finding consistent with customer discrimination. Obese females who are self-employed also receive a significant wage penalty in customer-oriented occupations, suggesting the pay discrepancy is not originating from employer discrimination.
Bibliography Citation
Debeaumont, Ronald. "Occupational Differences in the Wage Penalty for Obese Women." Journal of Socio-Economics 38,2 (March 2009): 344-349.
2. Duncan, Kevin Craig
Prus, Mark J.
Sandy, Jonathan
Marital Status, Children and Women's Labor Market Choices
Journal of Socio-Economics 22,3 (Fall 1993): 277-288.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/105353579390013B
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Human Capital Theory; Labor Force Participation; Marital Status; Modeling, Probit; Occupational Choice

This article provides a test of the human capital prediction that women with more labor force intermittence hold occupations characterized by lower earnings penalties for intermittence. By using marital and family status as proxies of labor market commitment the authors find that, on average, married women with and without children spend more time out of the labor force than never-married, childless women. Results from earnings regressions fail to indicate that the occupations they hold are characterized by significantly lower penalties for time not working. However, results from a probit model indicate that a woman's marital status, the presence of children, and the level of the husband's education significantly affect the probability of working. The results reported here suggest that human capital theory explains a woman's decision to work, but does not necessarily explain her occupational choice.
Bibliography Citation
Duncan, Kevin Craig, Mark J. Prus and Jonathan Sandy. "Marital Status, Children and Women's Labor Market Choices." Journal of Socio-Economics 22,3 (Fall 1993): 277-288.
3. Goldsmith, Arthur H.
Veum, Jonathan R.
Darity, William A. Jr.
The Psychological Impact of Unemployment and Joblessness
Journal of Socio-Economics 25,3 (Fall 1996): 333-358.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053535796900098
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Job Search; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Quits; Retirement; Unemployment

Economists have identified two principal adverse effects of unemployment. One is the output foregone that could have been produced if unemployed workers had been productively employed. The second is the psychological damage suffered by unemployed workers and their families. Psychologists have offered theories to explain how experiences such as Joblessness may lead to a deterioration in mental health. They also have designed and validated survey instruments capable of measuring various aspects of emotional health. Unfortunately, their efforts to document the psychological impact of unemployment have been plagued by data limitations, while economists largely have ignored this task. The purpose of this study is three-fold. First, we discuss why unemployment and Joblessness are likely to influence an individual's perception of personal efficacy, locus of control, and hence psychological well-being. Second, we discuss and critique existing efforts to examine the relationship between labor force experiences and locus of control. Third, we investigate the relationship between Joblessness and its component parts—unemployment and dropping out of the labor force—on personal locus of control, using observations from the NLSY and an alternative methodological framework. The NLSY is a longitudinal data set that contains detailed information on the personal characteristics of individuals in the sample, their labor force experiences and a specific personal locus of control. In discussing the results we also attempt to shed some new light on the debate between Clark and Summers (1979) and Flinn and Heckman (1982, 1983) over the question of whether being out of the labor force and being unemployed should be thought of as distinct states. We add further insight into this issue by examining whether there are psychological differences, as measured by locus of control, between otherwise comparable members of these two groups. Finally, we reconsider the Ellwood and Ruhm exchange over whether joblessness and unemployment lead to “psychological” scarring. We find that labor force experiences fail to influence personal locus of control for male youths. There is evidence, however, that perception of personal efficacy is altered by joblessness among young women. As the duration of a current unemployment spell lengthens, the likelihood of holding beliefs of personal efficacy decline for young women. There is also some evidence of scarring among women. For females who in the past have spent time both unemployed and out of the labor force, the greater the duration of their joblessness the more likely is a reduction in feelings of personal efficacy and more aggravated one's self-perception of helplessness. We also offer psychological evidence on the relative emotional well-being of the unemployed and labor force drop outs that largely supports the position of Clark and Summers that these conditions are largely indistinguishable.
Bibliography Citation
Goldsmith, Arthur H., Jonathan R. Veum and William A. Jr. Darity. "The Psychological Impact of Unemployment and Joblessness." Journal of Socio-Economics 25,3 (Fall 1996): 333-358.
4. Goldsmith, Arthur H.
Veum, Jonathan R.
Darity, William A. Jr.
Unemployment, Joblessness, Psychological Well-being and Self-esteem: Theory and Evidence
Journal of Socio-Economics 26,2 (January 1997): 133-158.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053535799800067
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Labor Force Participation; Self-Esteem; Unemployment; Unemployment Duration; Unemployment, Youth; Well-Being

Social psychologists Erikson (1959), Jahoda (1979, 1981, 1982) and Seligman (1975) believe that exposure to events such as joblessness are capable of impairing an individual's psychological well-being. Psychological well-being is a multidimensional concept. Therefore, the impact of unemployment on mental health is likely to be manifest in many forms, including denigration of self-worth or self-esteem.

The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between joblessness and its component parts, unemployment and dropping out of the labor force, on self-esteem using data drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). The NLSY is well suited for such an investigation since it contains detailed information on the personal characteristics of individuals in the sample, as well as their labor force experiences and measures of self-esteem.

Two additional issues will be addressed. First, we examine the psychological counterpart of Ellwood's (1982) hypothesis that joblessness may scar an individual. Second, we shed new light on the debate between Clark and Summers (1979) and Flinn and Heckman (1982, 1983) over whether being out of the labor force (OLF) and being unemployed should be thought of as distinct states.

We find that joblessness damages self-esteem for female youths; however, the damage is akin to a blemish. Surprisingly, prior labor force experiences generally fail to influence perceptions of self-worth on the part of young men. However, we do find that for both young men and women who in the past spent time out of the labor force, the greater the duration of their exposure to this form of joblessness, the lower their level of self-esteem. We also offer psychological evidence on the relative emotional wellbeing of the unemployed and labor force drop outs that largely supports the position of Clark and Summers that these conditions are essentially indistinguishable.

Bibliography Citation
Goldsmith, Arthur H., Jonathan R. Veum and William A. Jr. Darity. "Unemployment, Joblessness, Psychological Well-being and Self-esteem: Theory and Evidence ." Journal of Socio-Economics 26,2 (January 1997): 133-158.
5. Israel, Mark
Seeborg, Michael C.
The Impact of Youth Characteristics and Experiences on Transitions Out of Poverty
Journal of Socio-Economics 27,6 (1998): 753-776.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053535799800067
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Family Income; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mobility, Social; Parenthood; Poverty; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Substance Use; Teenagers; Weight; Well-Being; Work Experience

Examined the effects of a number of background characteristics such as early welfare dependency, substance abuse, teen parenthood, and parent's educational attainment on the family income levels of young adults who were impoverished as youth. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth database of 14-17 yr olds in poor families in 1979, the total effect of background variables on future well-being was analyzed and the paths through which this impact occurred were considered. This sample was interviewed annually from 1979-1990. Results show that many of these background variables had significant indirect influences on family income through intervening variables, especially the respondent's own educational attainment, welfare dependency, and work experiences. A model of intergenerational income level is presented. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved)
Bibliography Citation
Israel, Mark and Michael C. Seeborg. "The Impact of Youth Characteristics and Experiences on Transitions Out of Poverty." Journal of Socio-Economics 27,6 (1998): 753-776.
6. Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Mott, Frank L.
Cooksey, Elizabeth C.
Jekielek, Susan Marie
Work and Family Patterns: Effects Across Generations
Journal of Socio-Economics 29,6 (2000): 587-590.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053535700001013
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Family Circumstances, Changes in; Family Size; Family Structure; Maternal Employment; Parenting Skills/Styles

Recent research suggests that childhood and adolescent rates of behavior problems have been rising in the US over the past two decades. At the same time, family composition and parental, especially maternal, employment patterns have also been shifting. While research has focused on how maternal work and family patterns affect pre-school and younger children, there is less information about effect in early adolescence, and in particular, how stability and change in parents' work and family circumstances over time may alter their children's risks for behavior problems. In this analysis, one aspect of behavior problems and propensities to oppositional action are focused on, and the trajectories for a national sample of 1,917 children aged 10-11 drawn from the Child-Mother data set of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth is studied.
Bibliography Citation
Menaghan, Elizabeth G., Frank L. Mott, Elizabeth C. Cooksey and Susan Marie Jekielek. "Work and Family Patterns: Effects Across Generations." Journal of Socio-Economics 29,6 (2000): 587-590.
7. Mijares, John C.
Early Drug Use and Quits and Discharges Among Adolescent Males
The Journal of Socio-Economics 26,4 (July-August 1997): 439-458.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053535797900068
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Drug Use; Economics of Gender; Layoffs; Quits; Teenagers

The frequencies of quits and discharges of male workers were examined to determine whether their early usage of alcohol, marijuana and cocaine affects labor market stability and whether it is time-extensive or goods-intensive. Analysis was based on the data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth from 1982-1989. Results showed that early usage of all substances causes job market instability. Moreover, use of alcohol and marijuana was found to be time-intensive.
Bibliography Citation
Mijares, John C. "Early Drug Use and Quits and Discharges Among Adolescent Males." The Journal of Socio-Economics 26,4 (July-August 1997): 439-458.
8. Mitra, Aparna
Cognitive Skills and Black-White Wages in the United States Labor Market
Journal of Socio-Economics 29,4 (2000): 389-401.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053535700000822
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Cognitive Ability; Educational Attainment; Educational Returns; Racial Differences; Unions; Wage Gap; Wages

Data on 2,370 adults, ages 23-30, from the 1998 wave of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth are used to analyze the effects of cognitive skills on the wages of whites and African Americans in white-and blue-collar occupations. The results show that cognitive skills, net of education, are important predictors of wages across all occupations. Mathematics skills, in particular, contribute to significant wage premiums for workers in white- and blue-collar occupations, with the exception of blacks in blue-collar professions, where English skills lead to significant wage premiums. While the incorporation of cognitive skills narrows the black-white wage gap considerably, the effects of skills on the wages of blacks and whites are far from uniform. Despite using detailed controls for the quality of education, an extra year of schooling yields the highest wage premium for whites in all occupations. 4 Tables, 1 Figure, 18 References. Adapted from the source document.
Bibliography Citation
Mitra, Aparna. "Cognitive Skills and Black-White Wages in the United States Labor Market." Journal of Socio-Economics 29,4 (2000): 389-401.
9. Mitra, Aparna
Mathematics Skill and Male/Female Wages
Journal of Socio-Economics 31,5 (2002): 443-456.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053535702001300
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Wage Differentials; Wage Gap

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY; 1993), this paper analyzes the extent of wage differentials between men and women and the impact of mathematics and verbal skills on the wages of men and women across different levels of education and occupations. The results show that mathematics skills lead to significant wage premiums across all groups of workers. Separate analyses by gender show that women with superior mathematics skill experience wage gains that are comparable to or higher than the wage premiums enjoyed by men. Although women earn significantly lower wages than men do across all levels of education and occupational categories, the gender wage gap is not significant among professional men and women with above-average mathematics skills. One way of reducing the gender wage gap would be to encourage girls to invest more in high school mathematics courses in order to improve their quantitative skills. [Copyright 2002 Elsevier.]
Bibliography Citation
Mitra, Aparna. "Mathematics Skill and Male/Female Wages." Journal of Socio-Economics 31,5 (2002): 443-456.
10. Mohanty, Madhu Sudan
Effects of Positive Attitude and Optimism on Employment: Evidence from the US Data
Journal of Socio-Economics 39,2 (April 2010): 258-270.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053535710000041
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Employment; Human Capital; Labor Force Participation; Modeling, Probit; Positive Affect (see Happiness/Optimism); Psychological Effects

Using samples from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and following a bivariate probit approach, the current study estimates the worker's employment probability equations in both cross-sectional and panel data frameworks. The study demonstrates that the employment of the worker, which depends on both the worker's labor market participation decision and the employer's hiring decision, is determined partly by the positive and optimistic attitude of the worker. The effects of these attitude variables on both decisions are even larger than the effects of standard human capital variables. The study further demonstrates that the attitude variables affect employment probabilities of men and women differently because their effects on participation and hiring decisions are different. [Copyright © Elsevier]

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Bibliography Citation
Mohanty, Madhu Sudan. "Effects of Positive Attitude and Optimism on Employment: Evidence from the US Data." Journal of Socio-Economics 39,2 (April 2010): 258-270.
11. Mohanty, Madhu Sudan
Effects of Positive Attitude and Optimism on Wage and Employment: A Double Selection Approach
Journal of Socio-Economics 41,3 (June 2012): 304-316.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053535712000078
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Attitudes; Employment; Labor Force Participation; Positive Affect (see Happiness/Optimism); Wage Rates

Using two samples from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), a longitudinal data set from the United States, and following a double selection approach, the current study estimates the worker's employment and wage equations simultaneously with positive attitude and optimism as additional explanatory variables. Modeling employment as a bivariate decision process, the study examines different factors that influence the worker's labor market participation decision, the employer's hiring decision and the wage rate. The study finds the evidence that the worker's positive attitude and optimism affect the worker's employment probability from different angles: the former through the participation decision and the latter through the hiring decision. Following an alternative approach, this study also provides strong support to the earlier finding that positive attitude affects the worker's wage positively. Interestingly, the effects of attitude variables on the worker's wage are found to be quite comparable in magnitude to the wage effects of the traditional human capital variables.
Bibliography Citation
Mohanty, Madhu Sudan. "Effects of Positive Attitude and Optimism on Wage and Employment: A Double Selection Approach." Journal of Socio-Economics 41,3 (June 2012): 304-316.
12. Mohanty, Madhu Sudan
Ullah, Aman
Direct and Indirect Effects of Happiness on Wage: A Simultaneous Equations Approach
Journal of Socio-Economics 41,2 (April 2012): 143-152.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053535711001569
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Happiness (see Positive Affect/Optimism); Income Level; Schooling; Wage Equations

Using data from the United States National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) and following a two-stage method, the current study estimates wage, schooling and happiness equations simultaneously and demonstrates that happiness affects the worker's wage not only directly, but also indirectly through its direct effect on years of schooling. The simultaneous relation between happiness and schooling demonstrated in this study further suggests that schooling also affects wage both directly and indirectly through happiness. The study supports the argument presented in several earlier studies that higher income does not necessarily guarantee higher levels of happiness.
Bibliography Citation
Mohanty, Madhu Sudan and Aman Ullah. "Direct and Indirect Effects of Happiness on Wage: A Simultaneous Equations Approach." Journal of Socio-Economics 41,2 (April 2012): 143-152.
13. Monk-Turner, Elizabeth A.
Economic Returns to Community and Four-Year College Education
Journal of Socio-Economics 23,4 (Winter 1994): 441-456.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/1053535794900132
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): College Education; Colleges; Earnings; Educational Attainment; Educational Returns; Wages; Work Experience

Using data from the Young Men and Young Women cohorts, differences in earning ability among college entrants are analyzed by type of first college entered, sex, and race for young people ten years after their high school graduation. Type of first college entered is a significant variable in understanding differences in earning ability for college entrants with ability, socioeconomic background and college goal constant. The rate of return for each additional year of education for four-year college entrants is 7.9%; for community college entrants, 5.4%. The author argues that community college education and four-year college education cannot properly be treated as homogeneous and that researchers analyzing economic returns to education need to take into account both kind of first college entered as well as the number of years of education acquired.
Bibliography Citation
Monk-Turner, Elizabeth A. "Economic Returns to Community and Four-Year College Education." Journal of Socio-Economics 23,4 (Winter 1994): 441-456.
14. Seals, Richard Alan
Stern, Liliana V.
Cognitive Ability and the Division of Labor in Urban Ghettos: Evidence from Gang Activity in U.S. Data
Journal of Socio-Economics 44 (June 2013): 140-149.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053535712001151
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Cognitive Ability; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Neighborhood Effects; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN)

Hernstein and Murray (1994) famously argued that the division of labor in modern society is determined by individual differences in cognitive ability. This paper shows differences in cognitive ability can also determine the division of labor in poor urban areas. I estimate the effect of IQ on time-to-first gang participation with data from NLSY97 and Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). Results from the NLSY97, which account for sibling effects and non-cognitive traits, indicate low-IQ is a robust predictor of gang participation. However in the PHDCN, a person's relative IQ, with respect to one's neighborhood peers, determines gang participation. The sorting of individuals with lower intelligence into gangs may also affect beliefs of non-gang members concerning expected returns to human capital investment. Hence, a variety of social pathologies often associated with inner-city ghettos and low IQs of the inhabitants may instead be caused by an absence of the rule of law.
Bibliography Citation
Seals, Richard Alan and Liliana V. Stern. "Cognitive Ability and the Division of Labor in Urban Ghettos: Evidence from Gang Activity in U.S. Data." Journal of Socio-Economics 44 (June 2013): 140-149.
15. Shapiro, Joel D.
Wu, Stephen
Fatalism and Savings
Journal of Socio-Economics 40,5 (October 2011): 645-651.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053535711000643
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Risk-Taking; Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Savings; Well-Being

An individual’s decision about how much to save depends on her perception of how current savings affects future well-being. Fatalistic individuals believe that they have little or no control over future outcomes. We develop a theoretical model linking fatalism to savings and test the predictions using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). The model predicts that fatalism decreases savings for moderately risk averse individuals, but actually increases savings for highly risk averse individuals. Furthermore, fatalism decreases effort in learning about savings and investment options. The empirical results support the theoretical predictions of the model and are robust to the inclusion of a number of additional control variables.
Bibliography Citation
Shapiro, Joel D. and Stephen Wu. "Fatalism and Savings." Journal of Socio-Economics 40,5 (October 2011): 645-651.
16. Zagorsky, Jay L.
Husbands' and Wives' View of the Family Finances
The Journal of Socio-Economics 32,2 (May 2003): 127-146.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S105353570300012X
Cohort(s): Mature Women, NLSY79, Older Men, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Earnings, Husbands; Earnings, Wives; Economic Well-Being; Family Income; Husbands, Income; Income; Wives, Income

Do husbands and wives have the same view of the family's financial situation? This research shows that when couples are asked separately about finances, very different views emerge of income and wealth. Quantifying the gap between husbands' and wives' financial statements shows half of all couples provide family income values that differ by more than 10% and net worth values that differ by more than 30%. The typical husband states the family receives more income each year and holds more gross assets than his wife states. The typical wife reports the family owes more debts than her husband.
Bibliography Citation
Zagorsky, Jay L. "Husbands' and Wives' View of the Family Finances." The Journal of Socio-Economics 32,2 (May 2003): 127-146.